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Article Dissection
Author: David Yamane
Title: The Sociology of US Gun Culture
Journal Citation: Yamane, D. (n.d). The sociology of U.S. gun culture. Sociology Compass,
1. Quantitative or Qualitative
David Yamane’s article is a qualitative analysis of the US gun culture in the context of society.
The article is essentially a corrective breakdown of what up to this point, in the author’s opinion,
was a topic predominantly approached from a criminological perspective. Instead, he looks at the
legal ownership of guns, its motivations over the decades and how that culture has evolved.
2. Research Question
Yamane’s research question is therefore whether there is in fact sociology of the US gun culture.
3. Qualitative
The article focuses on the evolution of the country’s use of guns; from wartime necessity to
recreational purposes and finally what he terms as “gun culture 2.0.” Yamane asserts that the
development and spread of guns was an inevitable function of industrial development. He
emphasizes the centrality of the frontier to putting guns in the hands of Americans. In the
succeeding period, guns took on a recreational purpose; so much so that shooting competitions
became a widely recognized and applauded event, hence the founding of the National Rifle
Association (NRA). Hunting also took on a forefront position with regards to gun leisure. And
because guns were originally owned for socially safe sport purposes, the author argues that the
topic more accurately falls within the purview of sociology as opposed to the overly popularized
criminology perspectives. In order to give readers a sense of just how ingrained the culture was,
Yamane breaks down the leisure purposes of guns into casual and serious leisure, the latter
involving an acute level of commitment and training. Hunting, for example, has become a
specialized sport, with some people hunting for leisure while others hunt for game and still
others hunt for what the author terms as participation in nature. Yamane states that however, a
misdirected stigma has been placed on gun ownership, even for leisure because of the perceived
pain inflicted on the subjects its use. The author then discuses “gun culture 2.0” which he asserts
is a construct of modernity and a necessity in a world of sporadically growing populations.
Today, one in every 4 Americans has a concealed carry permit. The final section of the article is
an advocacy for sociologists to take up the reigns and further an understanding of the US gun
culture that is different from the less attractive criminological perspective. Focus, as the author
states, should be put on social practices, the wider social world and marginalized populations in
order to further an intellectual discourse on the US gun culture.
The author’s findings indicate that there is a wealth of information on the US gun culture that
should be incorporated into sociological studies. He also asserts that the study of the country’s
gun culture has been approached from the wrong perspective and should be reconstructed.
4. Author’s conclusion:
The author concludes by asserting that understanding gun culture in its various dimensions will
go a long way in reconciling criminological and public health reasons for gun control with the
social desire for ownership.
Article Dissection
Authors: Rajan
Title: Funding for Gun Violence Research Is Key to the Health and Safety of the Nation
Journal citation: Rajan, S., Branas, C. C., Hargarten, S., & Allegrante, J. P. (2018). Funding for
Gun Violence Research Is Key to the Health and Safety of the Nation. American Journal Of
Public Health, 108(2), 194-195. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2017.304235
1. Quantitative or Qualitative:
The article is a qualitative type of research that analyses the federal funding for research on gun
violence, its virtual inexistence and the centrality of such funding in the fight against gun
violence. It underscores the important role of research to prevention of gun violence in America.
2. Research Question
The research question that proceeds is whether funding for research on gun violence prevention
will have a decisive impact on the health and safety of Americans.
3. Qualitative
The purpose of the article is to lobby, as it were, for more federal funding towards gun violence
prevention research.
The main issue of focus in this article is the serious impact that gun violence has had and
continues to have on the American population and the need for extensive research into the root
causes of gun violence.
4. Quantitative: Measurement of variables
The article begins by stating 500,000 as the number of Americans who have died as a direct
result of gun violence. According to the authors, Congress has been sleeping on the issue of
public health and safety research, not only as regards gun violence but also other areas of public
health. Citing the Dickey Amendment, the author categorically points to congressional inaction
as an impediment to research and solutions on gun violence; its motivations, determinants and
the required action. Instead of funding research to find ways of preventing gun violence from
occurring in the first place, the authors state that congress has continually waited to react once
these incidents occur. Citing some of the achievements of gun violence prevention research, the
author avers that Congress needs to take a positive step forward, first by abolishing the
misguided Dickey Amendment, and subsequently allocating sufficient funding for research into
gun violence.
5. Research design
The author uses the achievements of research so far to legitimize the potential of extensive
research into gun violence. As it stands, gun violence prevention research is underfunded and
understudied. The authors state that without funding, federal agencies become incapable of using
their human resource capacities to mount and sustain the population surveillance required to
understand the causes and potential solutions for what has now become a national crisis in the
6. Author’s conclusion
The authors’ findings indicate that a reactive culture in the federal government when it comes to
gun violence is a major impediment to gun violence. These findings also indicate that increased
funding for gun violence prevention research would bolster the knowledge that exists on the
driving forces behind gun violence, thereby opening up a roadmap to solutions.
The authors conclude by advocating for a complete abolition of the Dickey Amendments, which
substantially cut down funding for public health and safety research. They also restate the life
support function funding plays for research and the vitality of that research in understanding gun
violence from a social perspective. All this boils down to finding a logic-based scientific solution
to the problem of gun violence in America.
Article Dissection
Author: Jane D. Hickey
Title: Gun Prohibitions for People with Mental Illness – What Should the Policy Be?
Journal Citation: Hickey, J. D. (2013). Gun Prohibitions For People With Mental Illness—What
Should the Policy Be?. DEV. MENTAL HEALTH L., 32, 1-2.
Quantitative or Qualitative
This is a quantitative type of research since the author uses data from Connecticut to show the
level of increase or decrease of firearm violence among the mentally ill following the
introduction of the state reporting NICS. The author also uses data from Bureau of Justice
Statistics, from the United States Department of Justice to show how the majority of firearm
crimes are still caused by the handgun.
Research Question
What is the effectiveness of the current gun prohibition framework on the mentally ill persons in
different states?
This study was aimed at establishing whether the gun prohibitions for the mentally unstable
persons or drug abusers help to reduce the rate of mentally related firearm violence among such
Quantitative: hypothesis:
Hypothesis 1- That mentally ill persons require a special type of gun policy due to their inability
to make mentally sound decisions.
Quantitative: Measurement of variables
Independent variables
Drug abusers, mentally ill persons
Dependent variables
The research only paid regard to the mentally ill who wanted to acquire firearms and not to those
who already had the firearms.
Research design-
The survey was conducted and the resulting data utilized to project the final outcomes.
An analysis of the data was conducted and samples used from the total health records of the over
24,000 people that took part in the exercise to measure the state reporting to NICS had to
reducing the impact of firearm violence among the mentally ill.
Data collection
The data for the study was collected between January 2002 – December 2009 for 23292
schizophrenic adults or with bipolar disorder, or any other major depressive condition.
8. Data analysis
The author in this research compared the data from the non-criminally sub-sample with the total
percentage of the sample population that possessed any disqualifying mental health adjudication.
The author also uses a sample of the data from the post- NICS period to show how the persons
with mental health disqualifiers increased for instance mentioning an increase from 3.4% to 5%
for the violent crimes.
Author’s conclusion
The author in this article concludes t
Article Dissection
Author: Wu, Stephen
Title: The Effects of Cueing and Framing on Youth Attitudes towards Gun Control and Gun
Journal Citation: Wu, S., (2018). The Effects of Cueing and Framing on Youth Attitudes towards
Gun Control and Gun rights. Social Sciences, 72(2), 29. Published 15th, February, 2018.
Quantitative or Qualitative
This study is qualitative in nature since the author uses information from different journal articles
and academic papers to analyze the various attitudes towards gun control among High school
students in America. The author dissects the analysis between democrats, independents and
students with republican political and policy affiliations.
Research Question
The research question in this study is whether cueing and framing impacts on youth attitudes
towards gun control and gun rights
The purpose of this study is to show how the perceptions of American youth, particularly those
in High Schools towards gun control and gun rights are shaped by factors such as previous
shootings or low numbers of gun shootings in areas with less stringent gun rights.
Quantitative: The hypothesis in this study the High School students would respond differently to
the study based on their political affiliations- identifying either as democrats, Independents or
The primary focus on the article is on gun control, gun ownership laws and gun-related violence
and how the youth perceive these concepts based on their political affiliations.
Quantitative: Measurement of Variables:
Independent Variable(s)
Gender, Race, Income Categories
Dependent Variable(s)
Outcome variable 1: Whether students agree that arming citizens is the solution to mass
Outcome variable 2: Whether students agree that training and arming non-teaching staff would
make schools safer to gun violence
Quantitative Only: Research Design:
The respondents were required to give responses as to the degree of their agreement to the
assertion that stricter gun laws reduce the numbers of gun violence and vice versa.
Quantitative Only: Sampling:
The author used data from Louisiana and Missouri which have lesser strict gun control laws but
with corresponding high gun violence as well as Utah and South Dakota which have loose gun
control laws but with low numbers of gun related violence.
Data Collection:
The data was collected from students of different gender, race and income cartegories. The
author also utilized data from states with loose gun control laws but with low rates of crime as
well as those with loose gun control laws but with high crime rates. Finally, data was also
collected based on the different party affiliations of the various students who took part in the
Qualitative: Summary of the findings:
Quantitative: Data Analysis:
The author analyzed the data dependent on the various variables for instance the youth
from high income families and with Republican affiliations 17 percent more likely to agree that
the Second Amendment that protects the right to bear arms should be safeguarded. Also, an
analysis showed that Democrats and Independents were more likely to agree gun control laws are
too stringent when given the cue that there are certain states with loose gun control laws but with
low levels of crime.
Author’s Conclusions:
The author concludes from the study that female high school students are not convinced that
training and arming school staff would protect schools from gun violence. Students with
Republican affiliations however believe that arming school staff would protect the schools while
the vice versa is true for students with affiliations to the Democrats or Independent Parties.
Article Dissection
Author: Taxman, Jefferey
Title: Gun Violence in America- A Tri-Vector Model
Journal Citation: Taxman, J., (2016). Gun Violence in America- A Tri-Vector Model. J. Appl.
Psychoanal. Studies 2016, 13: 113-123.
1. Quantitative or Qualitative
This study is qualitative since the author uses information from other journal articles to
qualify and analyze the different types of shooters that are responsible for gun violence in
2. Research Question
The research question in this case is whether the tri-vector model explains the rising cases of
gun violence in America and whether it offers a potential solution to the same.
3. Qualitative:
The purpose of this study is to understand, through the tri-vector model used by the author,
the causes of mass shootings and how they can be prevented given the various reasons that
motivate or drive these shooters.
4. Qualitative:
The main variables of interests in the article are the vector 1: developmental, vector 2:
cultural and vector 3: social.
Quantitative: Measurement of Variables:
a. Independent Variable(s)
Developmental, cultural, social
b. Dependent Variable(s)
Active shooter, inter-developmental vector, internalized trans-generational vector,
external vector
5. Qualitative: Summary of the findings:
Most of the information or data informing this model is based on the traditional
psychoanalytic theory as its foundation. The author looks at factors such as school
violence and bullying and how these factors shape an individual into being a future active
6. Author’s Conclusions:
The author is generally satisfied that the tri-vector model of gun violence will serve to
decrease the cases of gun violence. The reason for this conclusion is the fact that the trivector model allows one to understand the complexities surrounding the mental and
psychological conditions of the active shooters in America. Part of the author’s
recommendations include the development of programs that increase empathy, emotional
attachment and the mental happiness and satisfaction of individuals which may in turn
decrease the numbers of future violent actors.
Article Dissection
Author: Robert J. Spitzer
Title: New York State and The New York Safe Act: A Case Study In Strict Gun Laws
Journal Citation: Spitzer, R. J. (2014). New York State and the New York SAFE Act: a case study
in strict gun laws. Alb. L. Rev., 78, 749.
1. Quantitative or Qualitative
2. Research Question
Are strict gun laws compatible with gun rights?
3. What is the purpose of this study?
The purpose of this study is to show that strict gun laws, contrary to what most gun rights
activists believe, are compatible with liberal gun ownership in the US. It demonstrates that the
public safety and health policy goals envisioned in the context of gun laws can be achieved even
with a strict policy on gun ownership.
What are ain variables of interest or what are the primary issues they focus on? What are
the main sections of the article? What core concepts do they study and how do they define
The Main variables of interest in this study are the Secure Ammunition and Firearms
Enforcement Act, The National Rifle Association and the mental health community.
The article is organized into six sections. The article first introduces the general issue of gun
laws in the US to give readers a background of the general feeling towards gun laws. It then
focuses on the SAFE Act, setting out the policy’s requirements and its implications for gun
ownership, followed by the political reaction in New York towards the Act. The article then
looks at the nature of the political landscape in New York and the inevitable criticism of the
SAFE Act based on the said landscape. The article concludes with the author’s own application
for a gun permit in New York, which illuminates on the peculiarities of applying for a gun
permit, and a concluding paragraph. The focus of the article is to demonstrate that strict gun
laws, and the SAFE Act in particular, have become a necessity which cannot be politically put
off much longer.
5. Data Collection
The author uses primary and data collection; data is collected from the SAFE Act, gun dealers
and published documents.
6. Summary of the findings:
The author’s findings indicate that resentment and confusion are inevitable in the face of new
legislation that affects the status quo. The author however finds that stricter gun laws are
feasible to implement
7. Author’s Conclusions
The author concludes that a policy framework on strict gun laws is a situation-specific issue
and should be approached cautiously, noting that the system does indeed work, for New York
at least.
Article Dissection
Author: Milja Zgonjanin
Title: When Victims Become Responsible: Deputizing School Personnel and Destruction of
Qualified Immunity
Journal Citation: Zgonjanin, M. (2014). When Victims become Responsible: Deputizing School
Personnel and Destruction of Qualified Immunity [notes]. Journal Of Law & Education, (3), 455.
1. Quantitative or Qualitative
2. Research Question
Does the deputizing school personnel destroy qualified immunity?
3. Qualitative: What is the purpose of this study?
The purpose of this study is to appraise the feasibility of the NRA’s proposed action to arm
school personnel in order to counter school shooting incidences
4. Qualitative: Main variables of interest or what are the primary issues they focus on? What
are the main sections of the article? What core concepts do they study and how do they
define them?
The main variables of interest in this study are local gun legislation and qualified immunity in
schools. Gun legislation that permits arming of personnel within schools affects the security of
students and may consequently affect qualified immunity of such personnel. The main sections
of the article include an introduction, state legislation following rampant gun violence, an
appraisal of the doctrine of qualified immunity and a concluding section. The core concept in this
study is the eroding effect that legislation which seeks to arm school personnel may have on the
doctrine of qualified immunity. As it stands, schools have a strict duty of care towards students,
both in statute and in tort. While personnel generally have qualified immunity as regards civilian
damage done in the course of duty, arming personnel to counter gun violence could complicate
this relationship because of the myriad of possibilities that exist. It will also expose personnel to
liability for the actions of third parties despite the fact that security is generally beyond the scope
of their official duties.
a. Independent Variable(s)
Gun legislation
b. Dependent Variable(s)
Qualified immunity
5. Data Collect …
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