Research Paper

The research paper is centered around the difference in the pay that public and private sector employees receive and the difference in how they are compensated. The basis for the paper is included in the 4 previous papers that have been submitted for this assignment. The hypothesis is included in the week 4 and 5 papers on the top of the attachments. Assignment InstructionsYour final assignment is where you will weave the elements from a few of your early assignments (research question assignment, literature review assignment, and methods section) together and continue to build upon them. In addition to these early sections you will also need to incorporate your research analysis to create a coherent research paper that is 10-15 pages in length. While it is inappropriate (not to mention a violation of university policy) to cut-and-paste from past assignments in old courses into new ones, this research project is evolutionary and builds itself up from a research idea to a completed product. For this reason, in this class it is permissible to paste the information (as appropriate and as it makes sense) from your early assignments in this course into your final assignment.Format: Your research paper should include a title page, body, and reference page. Your paper should have 1-inch borders on all four sides, use times new roman-12 point font, be double spaced, and not have an extra space in-between paragraphs. (You may need to turn this off in MS word by going to “paragraph” and clicking “Don’t add space between paragraphs of the same style”). Please use APA parenthetical citation style with a references page.Your research paper should include the following sections:Introduction:Please start with an abstract of between 150-200 words on a page of its own.The introduction section should be written last and should pull from some of the elements of your week 2 assignment. You will need to clearly provide an overview of the topic you are writing about, a concise synopsis of the issues, state your research question, and discuss why the situation is important to investigate. Writing the introduction last is helpful in ensuring that you’ve incorporated any changes that may have taken place over the course of your research. This section should be 2 pages in length.Literature Review: Your literature review section should be a synthesization of the current state of research on this topic. Here you will need to discuss the information that is important to understanding your research paper. If you are still struggling with this section take a look at this video on how to write a literature review from the NCSU Libraries. This section should be 4-6 pages in length.Methodology: This section will pull from and enhance your qualitative methodology assignment. Methodology sections are another standard element in research papers as they provide the reader with a clear understanding for how the research was carried out. In this section you should discuss your case study methodology and explain the validity of your approach. In your explanation be sure you explain how you chose the case to investigate, your data collection method, your data analysis (i.e. the questions you asked to help guide your research and thus answer your primary research question), and any potential data limitations and biases that pertain to this specific project. In your discussion of the studies limitations you should keep in mind that its always best to end on a positive note, so be sure you discuss your plan to mitigate the limitations and biases, if any. This section should be 1-3 pages in length.Analysis and Findings: This section and the conclusion discussed below are essentially the two newest components of your research project. Your analysis and findings section should provide a narrative of your research and the analytical arguments that you will make as a result of your findings. In this section you will discuss the results of your analysis. Make sure you provide the evidence that proves or disproves your research hypothesis. This section should be 4-5 pages in length.Conclusion: This section will contain the concluding analytical arguments based on what the research has revealed. Here you will discuss your policy recommendations for moving forward with the issue.Like any conclusion, it should provide a synopsis of the project, the strategy, the results, and what the research adds to our body of knowledge. Within your conclusion you should also offer suggestions for avenues of future research for other scholars as all knowledge is evolutionary. This section should be 1-2 pages in length.References: This section will contain all of the references that you have cited within your paper. They should be listed in APA Reference format and arranged alphabetically. Entitle this section as “References”, each source notation should be single spaced with one space between each source in hanging format.At this level your references should fall within the 15-20 sources range and include primarily of peer-reviewed content.As you proof read your assignment I encourage you to work with Belcher, Wendy Laura. (2009). “Editing Your Sentences” In Writing Your Journal Article in 12 Weeks: A Guide to Academic Publishing Success. Sage. This resource has a nice step by step process for enhancing your writing.


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Civilian Employees are the Backbone of the Government
There are many topics for a research paper that would be of interest when it comes to an
issue that is within the realm of public administration. Many people think of issues that would
affect everyone in areas like gun control or the legalization of drugs. For many individuals, these
issues are directly linked the safety of their community and society or can affect if someone’s
constitutional rights are being violated. There is no end to the plethora of topics that available to
explore due to how public administration effects our society overall. Public administration is
guided by the thought that public officials should be listening to the public to gain a better
understanding of how they can serve the people, rather than just guiding them in one direction or
another (Denhardt & Denhardt, 2015). Throughout this process public administrators have
become aware of how crucial it is for every citizen to be a part of this process so that many of the
common issues that plague society can be resolved in a way that is beneficial for all (Denhardt &
Denhardt, 2015). A great topic for discuss that has to do with public administration would be the
difference in salary that government or Department of Defense employees receive for the jobs
that they perform for the public.
Many people within society might not consider how many people, both military and
civilian, that it takes for an installation to run effectively. There are plenty of people within the
military that have the ability to sustain a small military installation without any outside
assistance. When it comes to managing these installations, whether small or large, there are
number of areas of a post that would need to be maintained by civilians. Those civilians are
called to duty to help sustain garrison through difficult times like deployments and the like.
There are also confines of post that will always be handled by civilian and those particular
individuals would be considered mission essential. The government knows that is necessary to
hire a certain number of individuals to oversee the many facets of a military installation so that
they can use their other employees, i.e. soldiers, in areas that those civilians would not be able to
serve. It is amazing to consider how many people it truly takes for any installation to run
smoothly, regardless of the circumstance. While many people may consider non-commissioned
officers the backbone of the military shouldn’t this title be reserved for those left behind that
ensure those families are taken care of?
When discussing this topic about government employees, it is crucial to consider the
salaries that these individual receive for the work that they perform. These employees can work
in an array of areas from the front gate checking identification cards as people come and go on a
post to working in the education centers and commissaries that service every person that
frequents a military installation. One might consider how you would put a value on those
employees’ work. Others might think that those government employees should not make high
salaries because of the community that they work in. It is very often said that military service
members do not always join the military for the pay that they receive so what is to be thought of
the community that services these installations. When you look at the compensation that
government employees receive in relation to their counterparts in the private sector, it is clear
that they do not make as much money as they potentially could; however, it is relevant to
consider the other means that the government uses to ensure they employ ideal candidates
through the use of competitive employee benefits. Many researchers have found that non-profit
and public companies have started to follow suit with for-profit organizations in their treatment
of employees in the incentives that they offer (Chen, Ren, & Knoke, 2014). It is said that
because of the differing objectives between for-profit and nonprofits it is ideal to consider that
public companies care more about their employees well-being as they see them as key
stakeholders within their organizations (Chen, Ren, Knoke, 2014). Employers are showing these
workers through the use of their benefits that they want to be an organization that creates lifelong
workers who really care about their jobs.
Throughout this research it is important to consider the dependent variable in this
situation, which would be the salaries that these employees receive for their jobs. The
independent variable is the employer of these employees, whether they are the government or a
company within the private sector. It is the choice of the employer, an independent variable in
this scenario, how much value they put on the salary and benefits that they afford their
employees. For example, in the private sector organizations might find it imperative to their
success to offer their employees incentives based on their performance through profit-sharing
while public organizations would never be able to do something of this nature (Narcy, 2011).
The prime objectives of service oriented organizations is to strive to improve the product that
their customer receives, which in this case would be the people that live and frequent military
installations (Narcy, 2011). Another thought for consideration when discussing the differences
in private versus public sector employees would be that public sector employees may be far more
driven by higher levels of pro-social motivation and find job satisfaction in knowing that they are
servicing these communities (Narcy, 2011). Many of these employees can be said to have a
servant’s heart when it comes to the dedication that they have for the work that they do.
It is clear that while government and Department of Defense employees may indeed earn
less than their counterparts in the civilian sector; they are very well compensated for their work
through the use of employee benefits like health insurance, life insurance and retirement funds.
Recent studies have confirmed that public organizations pay their employees four to eleven
percent less for their work than employees in their private sector earn especially, when taking in
account for the fact that both parties have similar education, tenure in their positions, and other
like characteristics (McNichol, 2012). Furthermore, it is said that public workers who hold
higher positions are more likely to be victims of this wage deficit (McNichol, 2012). There is
less of an issue within these public organizations and wages if the worker in comparison is in the
middle-wage bracket as there is only about a four percent difference in the pay these employees
receive (McNichol, 2012). The only workers in this realm that seem to make more working for
nonprofit organizations would be low level employees (McNichol, 2012). Two things are clear
from this research and that is that the higher a person goes within the government system the
more responsible they are going to have and they will be paid far less for that time. The other
clear fact is that while government employees do make far less income that they bring home the
benefits that come with these jobs are well worth the pay cut that they take.
In conclusion, government and Department of Defense employees do make less money
with regard to how much income they bring home each year but it is ideal to consider some of
the other benefits that they receive. There are many organizations that struggle to offer what
many people might find to be a terrible benefits package to employees. This is a something that
most government employees will not have to worry about because they are compensated in other
ways for their public service. It is also clear that the government sees the value in the benefits
that they offer and know that employees who are willing to accept these benefits are the ideal for
their organizations because they possess the intrusive values that are in line with the overall
mission of their organization.
Chen, X., Ren, T., & Knoke, D. (2014). Do Nonprofits Treat Their Employees Differently?
Incentive Pay and Health Benefits. Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 24(3), 285306. doi:10.1002/nml.21093
Denhardt, J., & Denhardt, R. (2015). The New Public Service: Serving, Not Steering (4th ed.).
New York, NY: Routledge.
McNichol, E. (2012). Some Basic Facts on State and Local Government Workers.
Center on Budget and Policy Priorities.
Narcy, M. (2011). Would nonprofit workers accept to earn less? Evidence from France. Applied
Economics, 43(3), 313-326. doi:10.1080/00036840802570447
This article is an excellent example of the difference between how employee benefits in
the public sector and the private sector differ. Many people do not consider the importance of
factoring in other areas of compensation as they relate to health care benefits, gain-sharing, profit
sharing, and many other performance-based employee incentives. Those employees that
overlook some of these items might be short changing themselves if they thought about how
much monetary value those things really had with regard to their yearly salaries. The article
explains how employees that are employed by nonprofit organizations seek out organizations of
this nature due to the high levels of intrusive motivation that they possess to do a good job for
the communities that they service (Chen, Ren, & Knoke, 2014). It is also clear that nonprofit
organizations find it valuable to be concerned with the well-being of their employees (Chen,
Ren, & Knoke, 2014).
Some of the strong elements that were included in this article are how different
organizations were affected by the adoption of health care benefits and performance-based
incentives. For example, research confirmed that nonprofit and public organizations were far
more likely to offer health care and hospital insurance (Chen, Ren, & Knoke, 2014). On the
other side of this would be how private organizations approach salary incentives for their
employees. Further examination of this factor showed that for-profit organizations reported high
use of profit sharing and bonuses to compensate their workers (Chen, Ren, & Knoke, 2014).
Another interesting fact would be that many organizations that would be considered public sector
employers were far more likely to offer pay-for-performance incentives than nonprofit
organizations (Chen, Ren, & Knoke, 2014). Many people might not think that there is really a
difference in being considered a “public” sector employer versus being a “nonprofit”. Those
terms seem as though they are used interchangeably when in essence they are two separate things
Some of the less important elements that were included in the article were in relation to
how likely an organization in the private sector would be to offer pay-based incentives due to
their size or the locality of their competitors (Chen, Ren, & Knoke, 2014). In conjunction with
this, another less important part of the article was that some organizations based their pay
incentives on the individual performance level and their organizational level (Chen, Ren, &
Knoke, 2014). This really had no bearing on how pay-based incentives might affect the overall
organization as it spoke to only a certain portion of private sector employees. Also when
discussing performance-based incentives there is no difference in private versus public sector
employees pay that they receive for the specific skills that they possess (Chen, Ren, & Knoke,
2014). One might think that there would be a big difference in these two markets when
considering how an employee is compensated overall.
Overall, the article used for this exercise would be very beneficial to the research. The
article talks to the many points of how employees within the private and public sector are
compensated for the work that they perform. These organizations hone in on employing people
who have high levels of intrusive motivation. This helps them in making sure that they are
meeting the goals set out by their organizations in much easier fashion. On the other side of this
would be private sector organizations who strive for greater market performance and they are
able meet these needs by hiring individuals who thrive in an environment where they are
financially rewarded for their performance. This makes it ideal to for recruiters to locate the
right employees for the job.
Research Question: Do government employees make more or less than their counterparts in the
private sector? How is the form of compensation different between the public/nonprofit sector
and the private sector? What are the driving forces for finding the correct employees for these
career opportunities? What are other methods of compensation that are used to entice these
candidates to take government/nonprofit career opportunities?
Hypothesis: Government, nonprofit or public sector employees receive less pay/compensation
then their counterparts in the private sector but, receive higher compensation in different areas
like health care, life insurance, and retirement savings/pensions.
Many people would not believe or even consider the large pay differential that may exist
between what nonprofit or public sector employees are paid and what their counterparts in the
private might see as normal. There is an array of career opportunities available in the nonprofit
sector, but most of the time it takes a very special individual to want to work in the nonprofit
field due to many of the responsibilities of the job that applicants might not consider when first
applying. Not only do these employees have to be okay with the fact that they may not be
making as much money as they could be if they were to work for a private sector employer, but a
vast majority of the time they have to understand the mission of the organization to ensure that it
is work that they believe in. Most of the time nonprofit employees have no problem with
sacrificing the compensation that they receive because they may feel that a portion of the
compensation that they should be making is contributing to the larger scale mission of the
organization. Furthermore, many of these employers find it critical to offer better fringe benefits
to their employees as they are more concerned with their well-being. This job satisfaction, while
it may not seem ideal for some employees, is the driving factor that many people who work in
the public sector find enjoyment in. These employees know that they are doing things for the
communities that they work in that will contribute to a greater good. This is why it is crucial to
find the right employees for these jobs because they will need to encompass the mission
statement of these organizations.
Literature Review
When considering employment opportunities, many job seekers have an overabundance
of employers available to consider. In 2007, there were more than 1.64 million organizations
that were considered nonprofit organizations working in many sectors that included hospitals,
churches, school or educational institutions, or charitable organizations (Butler, 2009). Many
researchers have considered the differences in working in the public or nonprofit sector and how
it compares to working for for-profit or private sector employers. There are a number of
differences in what these organizations offer as far as compensation is concerned. It is
interesting to consider that someone might not think that there would be a difference between the
two, because both of these employers should be striving to hire the best candidates for their
organizations either way.
Some researchers have come to the conclusion that there are major differences in the
compensation that employees in the public sector receive. It has become such an issue that
government agencies such as the Internal Revenue Service have implemented laws that outline
how executives who work for these public or nonprofit organizations are paid (Yan & Sloan,
2016). The compensation that these executives receive must be considered “reasonable” and
“not inordinate” than the amount that executives in the private sector are paid in the same type of
circumstances (Yan & Sloan, 2016). When organizations do not consider these rules with regard
to their executive staff then they may run into a number of concerns. An organization who falls
under the 501©3 status as a company could potentially lose their nonprofit status and with this
particular concern they could also be responsible for paying federal penalties (Yan & Sloan,
2016). Nonprofit or public sector employers are held to such high standards so that the mission
of these organizations can still be met, which supports that communities that they represent.
This speaks to the donative labor theory, which refers to the satisfaction that an executive
employee receives by being agreeable to lower wages because the portion of the funds they are
not receiving is being donated to the organization they work for in terms of the duties that they
perform (Yan & Sloan, 2016). This is why it is important to keep track of the compensation that
these employees receive so that the mission of these organizations never falls by the wayside.
Another idea to consider is how employees who are thought to be a part of Generation Y
will look at employment in the nonprofit sector. In order for these public employers to locate
and retain these employees, they will have to come up with ideas that will capture the attention
of Generation Y. Some research has presented the fact that these employers will need to
capitalize on non-compensation related characteristics of these employment opportunities in
order to hire this young workforce (McGinnis, 2011). Also, this generation is being defined as
much different workforce than their predecessors, who would have never thought twice about
their compensation in the nonprofit sector. Some of the major concerns with regard to
compensation that are important to Generation Y employees include salaries, fringe benefits and
the opportunities that an organization has for growth (McGinnis, 2011). Many state and local
government employers have reported that they compensate their employees through a mix of
benefits that focus on both compensation and the importance of health and pension benefits
(Keefe, 2012). Other organizations found that offering favorable job characteristics, such as
flexible work schedules, helped them to retain employees (Butler, 2009). While it appears that
nonprofit organizations might be on the lessor side of the scale with regard to salary it might be
significant to consider some of the other areas that are substantial for Generation Y employees
by investing time and funds into improving their organizations in other areas (McGinnis, 2011).
Another thought might be create positions within the organization that give these young,
educated employees a chance to show off some of the many skills that would benefit the
company, which might also lead to career advancement down the line. There are many things
that would work in these areas, but these public companies would need to figure out what would
work best for them based on the jobs and the particular sector that they are a part of.
In conjunction with considering how to employ Generation Y, would be advocating for
employees of nonprofits to think about the unique satisfaction that they receive from working in
these organizations. When employers go through the recruitment phase they may want to
consider looking for potential applications that have values that align with the organization
(Becker, Antuar & Everett, 2011). Throughout the interview process, the employer might pay
close attention to detail when discussing the labor donation theory and how this affects the
organization as a whole. The employer might also consider emphasizing to these applicants how
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