hello you have done a great job with the proposal and i want you do to the research paper instructions The final ethics paper is to be an essay analyzing a current legal and/or ethical issue in health administration. Ideally, it should be grounded in your own experience and/or opinion, based on library research (mostly journals) and on actual organizational experience. If you include an interview, please consult your APA 6th edition resources on how to cite personal communication. The final ethics paper must include analysis based on the Four Ethical Principles (as they apply): (1) Autonomy, (2) Non-maleficence, (3) Beneficence and (4) Justice. The required length of the paper is 10 pages (excluding the title and reference pages). It is to have a proper title page, headings/subheadings, and in text citations. If there are no in-text citations, your paper grade will automatically be reduced by one letter grade. It should follow APA 6th edition style. You are to use and cite at least eight 8 credible references.Abstract Paper abstract, research questions and initial discussions. You will write a brief abstract/review of your major findings, along with at least three key research questions youve identified and answered with your research. The purpose of this is to give your peers the benefit of your learning.
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Running head: PATIENTS SAFETY
In the medical environment, patients experience safety issues during the process
of treatment. Lack of proper awareness among patients regarding the use of medications
and procedures is a serious medical safety. Practitioners must ensure that patients’ safety
is guaranteed while administering treatments. Patient safety is broad areas that have been
considered in the past. It includes wide areas relating to issues that affect the wellbeing of
patients in medical facilities. Some of the patient’s safety issues include medication
errors, Healthcare-associated infections, Antibiotic resistance, Personal protective
equipment protocol, Hand hygiene, Health IT issues, Workforce safety, Transitions of
care, and Diagnostic errors among others. These issues have continued to affect the
medical services provided in many medical facilities. The focus of this paper is to discuss
the ethics in safety of patients. The paper will concentrate on medication errors.
Medication error is one of the most famous patients’ safety issues. It is a failure in
the administration of treatment which has a potential to cause harm to patients.
Medication errors occur in contexts like choosing a medicine, which might be the
irrational, inappropriate, and ineffective prescription of medications that can lead to
under or over prescription. Another context likely to cause an error is writing the
prescription where a practitioner or physician miswrites the prescription or illegible. The
patient can misinterpret the dosage if the doctor fails to explain the medicine (Leape et al.
2014). Another context of medication error can occur during manufacturing where the
drugs made contain contaminants, poor strength, misleading labeling, and improper
packaging. The medication can also experience errors while dispensing the formulation
by giving wrong medicines, wrong wording, and improper labels. Finally, medication
errors can be encountered while monitoring therapy where the practitioner fails to change
therapy as required or making errors while changing. Medication failure hints a disregard
for a particular safety standard. Medical practitioners must comply with such standards to
eliminate or reduce medication errors in the medical environment (Leape et al. 2014).
During treatment, physicians should observe measures put forth to ensure that patients
receive services that meet standards.
In the research paper, the anticipated questions concerning patients’ safety include:
What are the effects of medication errors?
What is the implication of medication errors to the general safety of
How can these medication errors and other related safety issues be
The research paper will cover the following major sub-topics.
? Adverse events and adverse drug reactions
? Frequency and outcomes of medication errors
? Types of medication error and prevention
? Latent factors
? Detecting and reporting errors
The Adverse events and adverse drug reactions
Adverse effects are abnormal signs, symptoms, tests, or syndromic combination of the
abnormalities like the deterioration of an illness occurring when an individual is on
medication. The occurrence could be an adverse drug reaction, which is an unpleasant, or
harmful reaction caused by an intervention related to medical products. Sometimes,
medication errors can cause adverse drug reaction (Kaushal, 2015). However, it is not all
medication errors that cause ADR (Alternative dispute resolution). In some occasions,
medication errors can result in an adverse event, which may not necessarily be ADR.
Medication errors can also cause more severe illness like the case a cannula penetrating a
blood vessel resulting in a haematoma. The paper will evaluate both adverse events and
adverse drugs reactions caused by medication errors.
Frequency and outcomes of medication errors
The exact frequency of medication errors is not known just like other errors.
Probably, most of the medication errors go unreported. In most cases, a medical provider,
physician, or a facility notices an error if it causes an ADR (Kaushal, 2015). However,
some medical facilities have reported a higher number of errors. The paper will conduct
surveys to determine the occurrence of these errors.
Types of medication error and prevention
In this section, different types of medication errors will be elaborated to give a
clearer understanding of the medication errors. Classification of medication errors can be
contextual, psychological, or modal. The contextual errors are those based on specific
place, time, people, or medicine. The modal class of errors involves those that occur due
to omission, substitution, or repetition. Finally, the psychological classification is based
on human as opposed to the system as the source of errors (Benjamin, 2013). For
effective prevention measures, clear identification of the types of errors and their
classification will facilitate prevention measures.
These are factors that simplify the occurrence of errors while administering
medications. There are system properties that make prescribers susceptible to errors. For
instance, when a practitioner becomes exhausted due to working longer hours, poor
support, and job insecurity, there is a higher likelihood of making errors. The paper will
elaborate on these factors to present a better understanding.
Detecting and reporting errors
People who make errors and learn their actions do not report them because of fear
of likely disciplinary action. A blame-free and non-punitive medical environment can
help to prevent this scenario (Benjamin, 2013). A medical facility should embrace
reporting of errors to enable actions before advancement of the issues to an ADR.
The paper will address the safety issues that occur in medical facilities. Since the
area is wide for a single paper, medication errors that influence patients’ safety will be
Benjamin, D. M. (2013). Reducing medication errors and increasing patient safety: case
studies in clinical pharmacology. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 43(7),
This source will give the methods that can be used to reduce medication errors and
increase patients safety. It is a case study that has been done in a clinical pharmacology.
Kaushal, R., Bates, D. W., Landrigan, C., McKenna, K. J., Clapp, M. D., Federico, F., &
Goldmann, D. A. (2015). Medication errors and adverse drug events in pediatric
inpatients. Jama, 285(16), 2114-2120.
This source will provide the effects of medication errors. These include the adverse drug
reactions caused by erroneous administration of drugs.
Leape, L. L., Woods, D. D., Hatlie, M. J., Kizer, K. W., Schroeder, S. A., & Lundberg,
G. D. (2014). Promoting patient safety by preventing medical
error. Jama, 280(16), 1444-1447.
This source will provide the methods that can be used to promote safety of patients by
preventing medical errors.
Lesar, T. S., Briceland, L., & Stein, D. S. (1997). Factors related to errors in medication
prescribing. Jama, 277(4), 312-317.
This source will provide the factors that are likely to facilitate medication errors in
prescription. It will be used in analysis of latent factors leading to medication errors.
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