Research Paper: Informed consent in Health care.

First, this paper is for Health Care Ethics class. I did an outline and want help with writing the paper. this is the assignment description. “This is a research paper ( 8 to 10 pages in length including the title page and list of references). A minimum of 8 sources is required. The outline is graded and worth 5 points. The final paper is worth 15 points. The purpose of this paper is to conduct an in-depth analysis of a particular topic area that involves ethics.”The outline is thorough, and each point has its sources. You need to expand the introduction and to write clear thesis. Also, the focus of the paper will be the “Limitations of Informed Consent” and “How to Improve Informed Consent “.support those sections with cases from the field, or what other scholars say would help to improve it. Thanks.

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Outline: Informed Consent in Healthcare
I. Introduction
Informed consent refers to the task in which a healthcare provider reveals material
information to a competent patient to ensure the patient decides to decline or go through
with treatment (Berg et al. 2001). The concept is based on the patient’s ethical and legal
right to decide what can or cannot be done to his or her body. It is also based on the
healthcare provider’s obligation to allow the patient to participate in the healthcare
decision-making. Informed consent is now a critical aspect of contemporary medicine.
However, it means different things in different situations such as law, medicine, and
moral philosophy.
II. Purpose of Informed Consent
A. Legal:
Informed consent has evolved over the years to become the main framework for
safeguarding the legal rights of patients (Hall et al., 2012).
Though the principle has ancient philosophical and legal origins, its modern legal
precedent was established in the case of Schloendorff v. Society of New York Hospital.
Vol. 211 N.Y. 125, 105 N.E. 921914 (Berg et al. 2001).
The legal objective of informed consent is to safeguard patients from battery and assault
through unsolicited medical procedures.
B. Ethical
The ethical aim of consent is ideological in that it is meant to protect patient autonomy by
letting the patient choose what they desire (Del Carmen et al., 2005).
The aim is to relocate the ethical framework for decision-making from the healthcare
provider to the patient.
C. Administrative
Informed consent seeks to ensure compliance by providing a system for confirming that a
consent process has taken place (Orentlicher et al., 2018).
III. Elements of Informed Consent
A. Voluntarism
This element states that the patient must not be induced to consent through coercion,
undue influence or other inducements and persuasions (Hall et al., 2012).
B. Capacity
This principle necessitates that the patient is can make conscious healthcare decisions.
The criteria for evaluating a patient’s capacity include the ability to comprehend material
information, to understand the circumstances and their consequences, to make rational
choices, and to logically process information.
A related concept is that of competence, which refers to the patient’s legal capacity to
make health-related decisions (Berg et al. 2001).
C. Patient Understanding
Understanding dictates that the patient must comprehend the information provided and
understand its pertinence to their case
Research has shown consistently that patients forget most of the information they get
during the consent process due to age, intelligence, and education among other factors
(Joffe & Truog 2010).
D. Patient Autonomy
Though informed consent presumes that clients make use of their autonomy
independently, it has been demonstrated that many patients rely on others for decisionmaking.
Patients also tend not to focus on the importance of autonomy in decision-making but
rather on its importance in building trust with the healthcare provider (Handa & Sharpe,
IV. Limitations of Informed Consent
Informed consent is rooted in the philosophical or ethical concept of respect for
individuals. It plays a vital role in healthcare practice and can result in positive patient-provider
relationships. However, it is easy to overestimate its advantages and overlook its
There are two main limitations to informed consent.
A. Absence of Choice
Informed consent typically fosters autonomy by providing the patient with choices
regarding their care. There is, however, an illusion of choice in certain circumstances.
For example, a patient who has an illness that can be treated using a wide range of
treatment options can be constrained by his or her lack of medical insurance (Asch at al.,
B. Cultural Barriers
Informed consent operates in specific cultural situations. It has originated and developed
in the United States, a country which has had a long tradition of respect for individual
liberty and freedom.
Though this concept fits well within Western contexts such as the U.S., it may not
necessarily be a universal value to other cultures (Hall et al., 2012).
V. How to Improve Informed Consent
A. A Shared Decision-Making Process
There is an increasing emphasis on changing the paradigm of decision-making in the
healthcare context from the physician-centered paradigm to the patient-centered
paradigm (Handa & Sharpe, 2015).
This paradigm shift advocates for a system in which the significance and interest of
the patient’s views are acknowledged while respecting the provider’s contributions
(Spatz et al., 2016).
B. Focusing on the Primary Objectives of Treatment
This approach focuses mainly on the aligning informed consent to those decisions
that entail the goals of patient care.
The patient and the healthcare provider can agree on the scope of the patient’s role in
the decision-making process.
They can agree on the objectives of the treatment, and the physician would then
exercise his or her fiduciary duty to determine the specific methods to be used to
attain these objectives (Joffe & Truog 2010).
VI. Conclusion
Asch, D. A., Ziolek, T. A., & Mehta, S. J. (2017). Misdirections in Informed Consent—
Impediments to Health Care Innovation. New England Journal of Medicine, 377(15),
Berg, J., Appelbaum P, & Lidz C. (2001). Informed consent: legal theory and clinical practice
(2nd ed.). New York (NY): Oxford University Press.
Del Carmen, M. G., & Joffe, S. (2005). Informed consent for medical treatment and research: a
review. The oncologist, 10(8), 636-641.
Joffe S, & Truog R. (2010). Consent to medical care: the importance of fiduciary context. In: F.
Miller (Ed.), The ethics of consent: theory and practice. (pp. 347–73). New York (NY):
Oxford University Press.
Hall, D. E., Prochazka, A. V., & Fink, A. S. (2012). Informed consent for clinical treatment.
Canadian Medical Association Journal, 184(5), 533-540.
Orentlicher, D., Hall, M. A., Bobinski, M. A., Bagley, N., & Cohen, I. G. (2018). Health care
law and ethics. Wolters Kluwer Law & Business.
Handa, M., & Sharpe, M. D. (2015). Shifting Paradigms in Women’s Health Care: From
Informed Consent to Informed Choice. Women’s Health Bulletin, 2(2).
Spatz, E. S., Krumholz, H. M., & Moulton, B. W. (2016). The new era of informed consent:
getting to a reasonable-patient standard through shared decision making. Jama, 315(19),

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