Research Proposal

Students will write and present a Research Project Proposal on a research topic of interest and with approval of the instructor. The Proposal will include a literature review of pertinent material with abstract, discussion of methodologies that would be utilized in the gathering of data (were time to permit), discussion of expected outcomes and conclusions based upon findings and future directions of the research. The paper should be between 7 – 10 pages in length. Check syllabus schedule for due date. Typical Sections of a Research Proposal 1. Abstract – Offers a brief description of the study and its main findings. It is limited to one page and tells the reader what he is going to read. 2. Introduction Context of the study or the statement of the problemPurpose of the study – Provides the specific goal or goals of the study or problem area. These can be expressed as a statement of purpose – overall intention of the study. It should provide a specific and accurate synopsis of the overall goal of the study.Questions, objectives and hypothesis – Provide a specific restatement and clarification of the purpose statement. Usually presented as either a comparison between two or more groups in terms of a dependent variable or as a relationship of two or more independent or dependent variables. Four main criteria for evaluating hypothesis: Provides a brief explanation of the researcher’s problem area – The variables and their relationship to each other should be made explicit. – Hypotheses, questions and objectives should be grounded in previous research. – Hypotheses should be stated briefly and clearly. – Hypotheses, questions, and objectives in qualitative research would emerge as data collection and analysis. Theoretical perspective (optional depending on the research problem) Includes a description of the main theory being used, the central propositions of the theory, information about who has used the theory and its applicability and the adaptation of the theory to variables in the study.Significance of the study – Provides a clear rationale for the importance of the study for select audiences. It includes three or four reasons why the study adds to scholarly research, about how the study improves practice and policyOther subsections – delimitations – addresses how the study will be narrowed in scope, limitations – identifies potential weaknesses of the study, and definitions of terms so that readers can understand the context in which words 3. Review of the literature – It shares with the reader of the proposal the results of other studies that are closely related to the proposed study and it relates the body of relevant knowledge and its importance to the present study. It also provides a framework for establishing the importance of the study, as well as a benchmark for comparing the results of a study with other findings. 4. Methods – This section describes the nature of the research design, the population and sample, instrumentation and data collection procedures, and data analysis. Research design – provides the purpose and rational for the selection of a given design. Population and sample – this section specifies the characteristics of the population and sampling procedures to be used to obtain a representative sample. Describes the size of the population and how it can be identified. It further delineates the sampling size as single stage or multistage, how individuals will be selected (random sample) and indicates the number of people in the sample and how they were determined. Instrumentation – Provides information about instrument to be used in data collection such as observation forms, standardized tests, etc. Identifies the instrument(s) to be used and indicates major content sections of the instruments and the discussion of any pilot tests as may be appropriate. Data collection techniques and procedures – contains a detailed description of how the researchers will conduct their study. Describes how the data will be collected: what, when, where, how, who. 5. Work Plan – provides a concise outline of the schedule of tasks to be conducted and the time table for accomplishment. You can use charts, bar graphs and/or narratives clearly describing the plan. 6. References – an alphabetical listing of all books, articles, journals and other reference materials cited in the text of the proposal utilizing proper APA formatting. Only use pertinent references cited in the body of the proposal. 7. Appendices – contains examples of materials used or tables that are very long or that contain statistical results not essential to the study or locally developed research materials such as the consent form.


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Research Proposal Outline
Mohammed Bohliqa
Thomas Jefferson University (East Falls Campus)
Background of the study
The study would be conducted to provide the health service practitioners with the
information on the training for them to be competent. The common problem the people who
suffer from the hearing impairments are some of the reasons as to why this study conducted.
Therefore, a sample population of the health practitioners from Maintutuor health facility is
taken to facilitate the introduction of the area. The target population of 25 health facilitators was
to be trained with the latest means of helping the patients. The area has recently faced the
challenge of improper availability of hearing aid tools to help the people, there is lack of enough
training to the health officers on the industry and that there is little concern in trying to improve
the services. The rise in the numbers of the people with the issue of the hearing problem has
raised concerns about the handling of the challenge at the early stages of the development.
Those who are not able to hear naturally are the ones that should be taught how to use the
sign languages which is not usually the case here (Engelman et al., 2013). The patients have to
bear with the challenges because of lack of awareness. They have been forced to live a life that is
miserable because the people responsible in the areas of health treat the situation as a minor
problem. The research question that this paper will analyze is about the training programs that
the health practitioners must have to serve the people who suffer from the hearing impairment
cases. What is the required equipment that facilitates proper treatment or aid of the patients?
What populations of the people affected get help from the health institutions?
Purpose of the study
The purpose of this study to evaluate the training programs for health providers who deal
with Hearing Impaired community, if it matches their particular demands during an emergency
event. Concentrating on programs that focus on communication needs while a catastrophic
Significance of the study
The study is significant since it is expected to provide insights on how to deal with the
issue of handling people with hearing impairment. In the current societal setting, the health
provides charged with the responsibility of people with hearing impairment; do not have full
knowledge and fundamental understanding on how to handle the people with hearing impairment
(Engelman et al., 2013). Essentially, the advancement in the field of technology poses concerns
on how to handle and deal with people with hearing impairment.
Objectives of the study
The study could narrow down to the following objectives
To determine the influence of training of the health service providers to
the life of persons with hearing impairment.
To understand the relationship between training trained health personnel
and those without training in combating issues related to hearing impairment.
Limitations and delimitations
The limitations could be the lack of access to the health facilities where the nurses and
the doctors attended the patients who had the hearing impairment. The challenge came as a result
of the situation that was worsening with time. (Engelman et al., 2013). Delimitation
One of the delimitations in the project could be, the proposal would not examine the
different groups of the people with hearing impairments in categories such as elite and the
illiterate but as a whole. Additionally, the project could not dig deeper into the effects of the
training to the
In this paper, this proposes the remote framework to send data on disasters to people with
handicaps (particularly deaf people) and to recognize their area at the shelter when they cleared.
The framework comprises of phone, web server and electronics show, which are linked by Short
Message Service (SMS) and Bluetooth. By utilizing these gadgets and open system benefits, the
framework gives a capacity to send proper data to people with incapacities quickly.
List of expected appendices
Graph of the effectiveness of health providers before and after training
Aldrich, N., & Benson, W. F. (2007). Disaster preparedness and the chronic
disease needs of vulnerable older adults.
Engelman, A., Ivey, S. L., Tseng, W., Dahrouge, D., Brune, J., &
Neuhauser, L. (2013). Responding to the deaf in disasters: establishing the need for
systematic training for state-level emergency management agencies and community
organizations. BMC health services research, 13(1), 84.
Fujii, M., Mandana, A. K., Takakai, T., Watanabe, Y., Kamata, K., Ito, A.,
… & Kakuda, Y. (2007, June). A study on deaf people supporting systems using cellular
phone with Bluetooth in disasters. In World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks,
2007. WoWMoM 2007. IEEE International Symposium on a (pp. 1-6). IEEE
Hemingway, L., & Priestley, M. (2014). Natural hazards, human
vulnerability and disabling societies: a disaster for disabled people?. Review of Disability
Studies: An International Journal, 2(3).
Ito, A., Murakami, H., Watanabe, Y., Fujii, M., Yabe, T., Haraguchi, Y., …
& Hiramatsu, Y. (2008, November). Universal use of information delivery and display
system using ad hoc network for deaf people in times of disaster. In Broadband
Communications, Information Technology & Biomedical Applications, 2008 Third
International Conference on (pp. 486-491). IEEE.
Ito, A., Murakami, H., Watanabe, Y., Fujii, M., Yabe, T., Haraguchi, Y., …
& Hiramatsu, Y. (2007). An information delivery and display system for deaf people in
times of disaster. Proc. Telhealth.
Neuhauser, L., Ivey, S. L., Huang, D., Engelman, A., Tseng, W., Dahrouge,
D., … & Kealey, M. (2013). Availability and readability of emergency preparedness
materials for deaf and hard-of-hearing and older adult populations: Issues and
assessments. PloS one, 8(2), e55614.
Rowland, J. L., White, G. W., Fox, M. H., & Rooney, C. (2007). Emergency
response training practices for people with disabilities: Analysis of some current practices
and recommendations for future training programs. Journal of Disability Policy
Studies, 17(4), 216-222.
Tannenbaum-Baruchi, C., Feder-Bubis, P., Adini, B., & Aharonson-Daniel,
L. (2014). Emergency situations and deaf people in Israel: communication obstacles and
recommendations. Disaster health, 2(2), 106-111.
White, B. (2014). Disaster relief for deaf persons: Lessons from Hurricanes
Katrina and Rita. Review of Disability Studies: An International Journal, 2(3).
Deaf People with Disaster
Literature Review
Mohammed Bohliqa
Thomas Jefferson University (East Falls Campus)
DMM 651
Deaf People with Disaster
White (2004) examined that the emergency has produced gatherings, meetings, and calls
for diary articles to address crisis readiness and reaction with the deaf and in need of a hearing aide
populace. The objective of an end-all strategy to help deaf people who are casualties of disasters
is a dream, one which can be refined with the determined endeavors of government, group
organizations, and the deaf group cooperating. The reaction to deaf disaster casualties of Hurricane
Katrina is a case of how the Federal government fizzled this populace, especially the group of Deaf
African Americans who lived in New Orleans’ Lower Ninth Ward. The creator, a deaf social
laborer, burned through two weeks in the Gulf area helping deaf evacuees who fled both Hurricane
Katrina and Hurricane Rita amid the now scandalous storms of 2005. Rowland et al., (2007) offers
essential lessons and open doors for including particular arrangements and preparing practices to
crisis administrations divisions that could enable them to help people with versatility weaknesses
amid crises. Note that all crisis executives met for the investigation reliably communicated
vulnerability at how they may address particular requirements for people with portability
weaknesses. Crisis readiness includes “moves made preceding disasters to enhance reaction and
recuperation endeavors” and incorporates crisis reaction arranging, crisis staff preparing, and
supply accessibility. Every year a huge number of people are conceivably influenced by the kind
of crisis readiness and reaction designs honed in their groups. Every year a huge number of people
are possibly influenced by the sorts of crisis readiness and reaction preparing plans rehearsed in
their groups. Crisis readiness for all people, incorporating people with incapacities, may include
cataclysmic events that are the well on the way to happen. Disasters with setbacks underscore the
critical requirement for crisis laborers to get specific preparing to help people with inabilities amid
crises. As a structure for examining some present crisis preparing rehearses, the investigate the
extent of crisis workforce preparing practices to help people with versatility hindrances in 3
Deaf People with Disaster
provincial and 3 urban areas in Northeast Kansas. Among the investigations, the consider
boundaries and facilitators to specific preparing as recognized by crisis administrations managers
and firefighters inside these zones. This additionally talks about more extensive suggestions
whereupon to base future preparing programs.
As indicated by Tannenbaum-Baruchi et al., (2014), getting from the meetings brought
about the transmission of data should utilize different channels to be open to a bigger extent of the
deaf populace. The interpretation of communication via gestures on TV and Internet communicates
ought to be extended, be introduced in moderate and straightforward dialect, and be available on
all transmissions amid crisis circumstances. Government workers and people who have coordinate
contact with deaf people in crisis circumstances ought to be comfortable with the fundamental
parts of deaf culture, and methods for correspondence with deaf people. The nonattendance of the
capacity to hear sounds in deaf people is an obstruction to ideal correspondence in a prevalently
hearing world. Crisis circumstances harbor adequate test for the hearing individual and stance
considerably more prominent boundaries for the deaf and in need of a hearing aid. Amid disasters
and crisis circumstances, deaf people have incredible trouble in getting and sharing data,
expanding their reliance on others. This article centers on the experience of deaf people amid a
time of security danger, when rockets from the Gaza strip were gone for the non-military personnel
populace in Southern Israel, in 2009. A subjective report including 15 heterogeneous-foundation
Deaf members met by a specialist that has a place with the deaf group utilizing a various technique
encouraged survey. Primary classes that emerged from information investigation were
correspondence issues amid crises, the pager as a faulty cautioning gadget about crises, and the
ramifications of the area of deaf people at the time of crisis. Different channels for passing on data
ought to be analyzed and made so as to expand the heterogeneous deaf group’s capacity to get
Deaf People with Disaster
essential data amid a crisis. Being a socio-etymological minority, it is prescribed to guarantee these
innovations will be open to the entire deaf group. Engelman et al., (2013) demonstrated the
requirement for expanded availability and contribution of the Deaf/HH in preparing and activities
with direction from state work force, required social fitness preparing for specialists on call with
the goal for them to better comprehend the decent variety inside this populace (Deaf/deaf-dazzle/in
need of a hearing aide/late deafened) and enhanced crisis responder correspondence approaches;
institutionalized rules for Community-Based Organizations (CBOs) to partake in nearby crisis and
readiness arranging and activities as completely as could be allowed, and improvement and spread
of national rules about use and access needs particular to the Deaf/HH populace to crisis readiness
and reaction coaches the country over. The tremendous assorted variety inside the Deaf/HH
populace, creating, executing, and assessing crisis readiness preparing can’t be accomplished
without framing collusions between organizations accused of crisis reaction and the Deaf/HH
people group, including getting the contribution from specialists in the crisis readiness field who
are Deaf/HH. This paper will evaluate Deaf/HH related crisis readiness preparing requirements for
state crisis administration offices and deaf-serving CBOs. Crisis readiness training particular to
reacting to or advancing readiness of the Deaf/HH is uncommon, notwithstanding for state
organization workforce, and every now and again need institutionalization, assessment, or
regulation in crisis administration foundation. Essentially, CBOs are not enough prepared to serve
the requirements of their constituents.
Neuhauser et al., (2013) examined that effectively planning for and reacting to disasters
requires the nearby investment of differing and helpless populace. This investigation adds to the
exceptionally constrained writing accessible about the accessibility and clarity of crisis readiness
materials from associations that serve Deaf/HH and more seasoned grown-up customers in an
Deaf People with Disaster
expansive geological territory, and from an example of materials drawn from nearby and national
sites. The discoveries recognized an imperative hole between the assessed wellbeing education
capacities of these two populaces and the sort of crisis readiness materials they can right now
access from neighborhood CBOs and wellbeing offices. Indeed, even materials from national sites
that had a noteworthy accentuation on crisis readiness were not adjusted to the proficiency levels
of these central populaces. In the view, an ”invitation to take action” is expected to enhance
rehearses in making crisis readiness materials that are adjusted to the requirements of these, and
other helpless populace. People who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (Deaf/HH) and more established
grown-ups are especially helpless amid wellbeing crises and require interchanges that are open
and justifiable. Despite the fact that wellbeing proficiency examines show that the clarity of
wellbeing correspondence materials frequently surpasses people’s education levels, this could
discover no exploration about the comprehensibility of Emergency Preparedness Materials (EPM)
planned for Deaf/HH and more established grown-up populaces. In two California regions, this
talked with staff at 14 CBOs serving Deaf/HH customers and 20 CBOs serving more established
grown-ups chose from a stratified, irregular example of 227 CBOs. This gathered 40 EPM from
10 CBOs and 2 general wellbeing offices and 40 EPM from 14 nearby and national sites with EPM
for people in general. All EPM expected for customers of Deaf/HH-serving CBOs tried over the
prescribed fourth grade perusing level, and 91% of the materials proposed for customers of more
seasoned grown-up serving CBOs scored over the suggested sixth-grade level. EPM for these
populaces ought to be generally accessible through CBOs and general wellbeing offices, stick to
wellbeing education standards and be open to elective arrangements including American Sign
Language. According to Hemingway (2014), disaster administration builds incapacitated people
as an especially “defenseless gathering.” This investigation consolidates ideas from disaster
Deaf People with Disaster
hypothesis and inability hypothesis to inspect this suspicion fundamentally. Drawing on essential,
optional and tertiary sources, this survey the weakness of crippled people in two comprehensively
noteworthy disasters: Hurricane Katrina in August 2005 and the Asian torrent of December 2004.
In the two cases, incapacitated people were antagonistically influenced as far as their physical
security and access to prompt guide, asylum, departure, and help. The paper reasons that
“characteristic risks” are acknowledged lopsidedly as “human disasters” for crippled people, and
most eminently for incapacitated people in poor groups. Social model methodologies and solid
debilitated people’s associations are critical to building more noteworthy versatility to disaster
among “defenseless” groups in both high-wage and low-salary nations.
Murakami et al., (2008) discussed that there are around 90 million superior cell phones
utilized as a part of Japan. This presently wanting to grow new uses of the cell phone to help
youngsters, senior and crippled people who are out of extent of the real cell phone. The duty to
expand the application field of the cell phone as the main nation of Ubiquitous Life. This paper
talks about a data conveyance and shows the framework for deaf people in time of disaster
application in light of their necessities by applying versatile impromptu systems utilizing
Bluetooth capacities prepared on a cell phone. Progressive versatile specially appointed systems
utilizing Bluetooth in a cell phone are produced as a test stage. This thought about after six issues
as prerequisites for a data conveyance and show framework; precise data quickly, fitting data as
indicated by singular circumstance, powerful hardware to show data certainly, material for the
utilization in day by day life, no confounded task, work when power outage. This depict the outline
of the consequence of an exhibition of the framework for around 20 deaf people in January 2007
in light of poll.
Deaf People with Disaster
Ito et al., (2008) created “Data Delivery and Display framework for Deaf people in time of
disaster (IDDD)” utilizing both versatile system and specially appointed system of Bluetooth. In
IDDD, a cell phone gets disaster data by SMS, at that point the got data is consequently exchanged
and shown on a widescreen with glimmering light to educate crisis. So that, deaf people, debilitated
people and senior people can comprehend crisis circumstance even in midnight. This have
demonstrated that this framework is valuable for deaf people through a few exhibitions. Utilizing
SMS, it is conceivable to wake up IDDD application on the cell phone to interface with a major
show through Bluetooth with no activity by the client. This paper depicts framework of IDDD and
outline of assessment by incapacitated or senior people. The aftereffect of general assessment
showed that all participation addressed that this framework is valuable for supporting both senior
and deaf people in the disaster. Fujii et al., (2007) talked about that the media communications are
effective devices to diminish death toll and property harm amid disasters. Particularly, for the
people with inabilities, data gave through their own media transmission gadgets is fundamental to
move to a position of asylum securely and quickly. In this paper, this propose the remote
framework to send data on disasters to people with handicaps (particularly deaf people) and to
recognize their area at the shelter when they are cleared. The framework comprises of phone, web
server and electronics show, which are linked by Short Message Service (SMS) and Bluetooth. By
utilizing these gadgets and open system benefits, the framework gives a capacity to send proper
data to people with incapacities quickly. The framework gives the system stage to impart data
about their whereabouts to related people. At long last, this condense comes about because of the
exhibition of the framework to the deaf people experienced expansive tremor. According to
Aldrich and Benson (2007), around 80% of more seasoned grown-ups have no less than one
Deaf People with Disaster
ceaseless condition that makes them more po …
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