Please Respond to these discussions APA format with a referenceDiscussion 1The advantages of using both methods is simple. By using qualitative research, the researcher can explore the reasons for the research; after all, it is primarily used as an exploratory tool for the problem. Qualitative research is a systematic, subjective approach used to describe life experiences and situations and give them meaning (Burns, Gray & Grove, 2015, p.19) For example, a problem such as catheter acquired urinary tract infection can be seen as a problem that happens too often while a patient is hospitalized. In order for the researcher to substantiate the reasons for the problem and attempt to find a solution, the qualitative research can determine what the patients feelings behind the problem are. If the researcher observes similar statements from those polled, then he or she can begin to figure out how to lower the cases of CAUTI. Many patients do not ask questions. They assume that if the doctor says you need it, they must have that procedure, medication or treatment done. If the patient is informed about the use of a catheter, why they need it, how long it should inserted, how to care for it, the chances of acquiring an infection may be reduced. Also, a group of experts in a hospital can also be used for qualitative research. This group can identify the possible sources of the problem and that group can begin to come up with a solution. On the other hand, quantitative research is needed to collect data and measure the outcomes. It is a way to determine if the hypothesis (solution to the problem) is actually working. Qualitative research in conceptualizing, planning, implementing, and communication the findings of a research project (Burns, Gray, & Grove, 2015). By using both methods, readers can find more validity to the study. So one method is used to gather reasons for the problem and the other can be used to measure the results of the outcome or solution to the problem. ReferenceBurns, N., Gray, J., & Grove, S. K. (2015). Understanding nursing research: Building an evidence-based practice (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.Discussion 2The main reason why people get into research is to acquire new knowledge while refining on what they already know (Grove, Gray, & Burns, 2015). It is true that all research studies carried out must rely on evidence. This is particularly useful to the nursing profession where there is need to have evidence-based practices (EBP) which will be used to create better patient handling mechanisms. Both quantitative and qualitative researches are applied depending on the need for the research. The results in these two may not be the same hence there is need to use them together (Grove et al., 2015). The two methods have different approaches thus some people may find it hard to use both of them. There is a notion that using subjective elements in qualitative research may negate the objective findings through quantitative research (Smith, 2015). Another limitation of using both methods is the need for extra collaboration and engagement amongst all participants of the study. This leads to extra work in getting similarities in the data collected. The advantage however is that having both of them gives multiple perspectives and a deeper insight into the research issue (Wienclaw, 2015). By combining the two, it is possible to study not only observable behaviors, but the internal reasons behind such behaviors (Smith). It is also better to engage both methodologies in your study in order to gain a clear view of real-world behavior which is necessary in leading to EBP in the nursing profession (Wienclaw, 2015).ReferencesGrove, K., Gray, R., & Burns, N. (2015). Understanding nursing research (6th ed.) [Vital Source digital version]. St Louis, MO: Elsevier. Smith, T. (2015). Qualitative and quantitative research. Research Starters: Education (Online Edition). Retrieved from https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search…Wienclaw, A. (2015). Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis. Research Starters: Sociology (Online Edition). Retrieved from https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search…Discussion 3The topic of qualitative research dates back to the 1920 and 1930 period that focus was on human groups. (Ailinger, R., 2003). The anthropologists, sociologists used qualitative research methods in a natural setting and from a holistic approach in the beginning. (Ailinger, R., 2003). From that point started the nursing research focused on evidence-based practice. The was the initial started of qualitative research questions. Over the years has lead the nursing community to an evidence-based model. In the next ten years of research directed the focus into an accountability in nursing research, that lead to term of evidence-based practice. This term is still very new and much to be learned and developed. It is not until the accountability, drive of the nurse to guide practice based on this knowledge and passion that evidence-based practice will fulfill itself. (Ailinger, R., 2003).The development of qualitative research had to be formed, so many questions needed to be asked and structure of qualitative research questions began. Research methods developed to study the human and a naturalistic setting with a holistic viewpoint. (Ailinger, R., 2003). The qualitative research was the method of choice, developed into four areas or patterns of knowing. (Fawcett, et al., 2001).Empirical knowing- Scientific data.Ethical knowing-standards of practices, code of ethics, philosophies of nursing.Personal knowing-autobiographical stories.Aesthetic knowing-aesthetic questions and works of art associated together. (Fawcett, et al. 2001).The development of the knowing developed into a form of different ways at look at critiquing and interpreting different kinds of evidence of theory guided and evidence-based holistic nursing practice. (Fawcett, et al., 2003). Evidence-based care has really only come about in the last decade and driven by a new culture of managed care, cost savings and educated consumers. The description of evidence-based practice is, the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. (Sackett, D., 2000).Qualitative research was used to guide the research as to the quality of the treatment. Once a quality standard or assessment is established that leads into the quantitative tools that support evidence-based practice. The leads are used as some measurements in studies and assess implementation of evidence-based practice. Researcher can use qualitative research questions to validate quantitative data. Qualitative can be used to do a study of patient satisfaction scores on care in a unit. The quantitative findings do not always correlate with the quantitative results.Qualitative research is important in high quality evidence-based practice. When evidence-based practice is used together with qualitative and quantitative research, this works best to make today nurse visible and in today cost constrained professional environment, that is a win-win situation. Sound research must be available and the nurse at the bedside, must base care related to this and then nursing research is at its best for all parties.Pros and Cons to Qualitative and quantitative researchProsQualitative-The strengths of this research was a deeper understanding. This greater understanding can be related to the design aspects, administering the research, testing and interpretation methods. The results may be more related to the quality of questions, the participants perception, feelings and expressions. (Shidur, 2016).Quantitative-Larger sample size and shorter data collection time.ConsQualitative-The sample size is small and time-consuming collection time. More labor intensive. (Shidur, 2016).Quantitative-Takes more of a snap shot. Not as in depth. It does not look closely at the participants and what it means to them. (Shidur, 2016).In nursing studies today both qualitative and quantitative studies are important. The numbers in the research can get your attention but the quality is what I respond to. Most times it is related to the type of research study. The qualitative is less valued source of evidence, but in nursing this is a more suitable form of research. (Coates, 2014).ReferencesAilinger, R. L., (2003). Contributions of Qualitative Research to Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing. Rev Latino-am Enfermagem 2003 maio-junho; 11(3):275-9.https://pdfs.semanticscholar.orgCoates, V., (2014). Qualitative Research: A source of Evidence to Inform Nursing Research? Journal of Diabetes Nursing Vol 8 No 9 (2004) p. 329-334.Fawcett, J., Watson, J., Neuman, B., Walker, PH., Fitzpatrick, JJ., On Nursing theories and Evidence. Journal Nursing Scholarsh 2001; 33:115-9.Sackett, DL., Strauss, SE., Richardson, WS., Rosenberg, W., Haynes, RB., Evidence-Based Medicine.: How to Practice and Teach EBM. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2000.Shidur, Rahman., (07/2016). The advantages and Disadvantages of Using Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches and Methods in Language Testing and Assessment Research: A Literature Review. Journal of Education and Learning; vol. 6, No. 2017 ISSN 1927-5250 E-ISSN 1927-5269. Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education.Discussion 4Here is a perfect example of using both qualitative and quantitative ( mixed approach in a nursing research) topic is about chronic pain management of American Indians and a way to assess the cost for providing care for them. A mixed approach is the only way to proceed with this researchMixed Methods in Nursing Research : An Overview and Practical ExamplesMixed methods research methodologies are increasingly applied in nursing research to strengthen the depth and breadth of understanding of nursing phenomena. This article describes the background and benefits of using mixed methods research methodologies, and provides two examples of nursing research that used mixed methods. Mixed methods research produces several benefits. The examples provided demonstrate specific benefits in the creation of a culturally congruent picture of chronic pain management for American Indians, and the determination of a way to assess cost for providing chronic pain care.Using Mixed Methods to Overcome Barriers to ResearchBarriers to effective research into chronic pain management among American Indians include the relatively small number of American Indian patients in any circumscribed area or tribe, the limitations of individual databases, and widespread racial misclassification. A mixed methods research approach is needed to understand the complex experience, epidemiology, and management of chronic pain among American Indians and to address the strengths and weaknesses of quantitative methodologies (large sample size, trends, generalizable) with those of qualitative methodologies (small sample size, details, in-depth).This first example is from an ongoing study that uses triangulation design to provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of chronic pain management among American Indians. The study uses a multilevel model in which quantitative data collected at the national and state levels will be analyzed in parallel with the collection and analysis of the qualitative data at the patient level .This allows the weakness of one approach to be offset by the strengths of the other. The results of the separate level analyses will be compared, contrasted, and blended leading to an overall interpretation of results.Role of quantitative dataPrevious examination of U.S. national databases has reported a higher prevalence of lower back pain in American Indians than in the general population (35% compared to 26% ; Deyo, Mirza, & Martin, 2002). Thus, at level 1, quantitative administrative data sets representing health care received by American Indians, both across the United States and in broad regions, will be used to evaluate macro-level trends in utilization of health care and in basic outcomes, such as opioid-related deaths.At level 2, more detailed quantitative Washington state tribal clinic data will be used to identify American Indian populations, evaluate breakdowns in the delivery of care, and identify processes that lead to unsuccessful outcomes. For example, in a study conducted with community health practitioners in Alaska, participants reported low levels of knowledge and comfort around discussing cancer pain (Cueva, Lanier, Dignan, Kuhnley, & Jenkins, 2005).Role of qualitative dataAt level 3, qualitative research through focus groups and key informant interviews will provide even more refined information about perceptions of recommended and received care. These interviews will provide insight into selected immediate and proximal factors. These factors include patients’ choice and use of services; attitudes, motivations, and perceptions that influence their decisions; interpersonal factors, such as social support; and perceived discrimination. This qualitative data will shed light on potential barriers to care that are not easily recognized in administrative or clinical records, and thereby will provide greater detail about patient views of chronic pain care.Benefits of Triangulation Design: Multilevel ModelIn summary, only a mixed methods study that included quantitative and qualitative methods could provide the data required for a comprehensive multilevel assessment of the chronic pain experience among American Indians. Although this study is ongoing, the plan is for a nationwide analysis of variations in chronic pain outcomes among American Indians to examine the structure of service delivery and organization. Analysis of the state tribal clinic data will address intermediate factors and will examine community-level variation in pain management and local access to pain specialists. Preliminary analysis of the focus group data has already demonstrated that there is insufficient pain management among American Indians, due in part to lack of knowledge about pain management among providers and lack of access to pain specialists.Reference:Doorenbos, Ardith Z. Kango Kenkyu. The Japanese Journal of Nursing Research, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2014, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4287271/.Discussion 5The theoretical foundations of qualitative and quantitative methods are very different, but many researchers believe both methods should be used in the research study to increase validity and reliability. What advantages or disadvantages do you see in using both types of methods in a nursing study? Support your answer with current evidence-based literature.Both qualitative and quanitative research mehods generate valuable knowledge for our practice, however, it is critical to identify which type of evidence provides the best answers referenceMiyata, Hiroaki (2009). Reconsidering Evaluation Criteria for Scientific Adequacy in Health Care Research: An Integrative Framework of Quantitative and Qualitative Criteria. International Journal of Qualitative methods. Retrieved from: http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/eds/…Discussion 6Evidence based practice is another word for common sense. It is common sense to see a problem, see the reasons for the problem, then try to find a solution to the problem. If the solution works time and time again and is proven through research, then it is considered evidence based and can be used in many situations. EBP has evolved medical care in that past two decades. With the emphasis on EBP over the last 2 decades, outcomes have improved for patients, healthcare providers, and healthcare agencies(Burns, Gray & Grove, 2015, p. 415) Although I believe the tracking system and daily assessment for the need of an indwelling catheter could be better, my facility is making an effort to document and track all patients who have an indwelling catheter. This documentation tracks the reason for the Foley and also tracks the Foley care that needs to be done in order to minimize catheter acquired urinary tract infections. The nurse assesses the need for the catheter but management comes around daily and reassesses the need as well. This double check ensures that the indwelling catheter remains in place for the patients wellbeing and not for the nurses convenience. Reference:Burns, N., Gray, J., & Grove, S. K. (2015). Understanding nursing research: Building an evidence-based practice (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
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