My professor evaluate my 5 pages first draft paper, base on the evaluation, 10 pages final paper need to be finish.
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ART480G: Photography and Architecture
Professor Pepper Stetler
Research Paper Assignment (Stage One, Short Version)
Due: Wednesday, 4 April (upload to Canvas before class)
This paper is intended to be the first stage of the larger research paper that you will submit at the end of
the semester. This paper needs to be at least five full pages in length (the final paper due at the end of the
semester needs to be at least ten). You should approach this paper as an opportunity to begin research,
define a research question that is motivating your research and writing, and provide an opportunity to
experiment with how you will answer that question. You should approach this paper as an opportunity to
try out questions, topics, and begin to work out how you will make connections between those questions
Although it is expected that your paper might change significantly as your revise and expand it for the
final research paper, this shorter paper needs to do the following:
1) Communicate an understanding of other scholarly approaches to your topic and how your
approach relates. The sources you consult should be from books or journals. Few websites will
provide enough of an argument to be helpful. But there are exceptions. For example, it seems
likely some of you might consult websites of contemporary architects. Also, journals that are
archived on online databases are perfectly fine. When in doubt ask Professor Stetler. Your paper
should include a bibliography of sources you have consulted and footnotes.
2) Develop a clear research question that is driving your project.
3) Explain basic information about the subject.
4) Develop an analysis of the topic that suggests possible answers to your research question.
Finding a Research Topic:
Your research topic should be motivated by what you find most interesting about the relationship between
photography and architecture. It should allow you to explore a theme about the way in which this
relationship is conceived. Finding a topic might take some time, and I strongly encourage you to make
an appointment with me to talk about your ideas. Possible topics include:
The style or approach of a specific photographer of the Mission Heliographique; Edouard Balduss photos
of the Paris Opera or his photos of train tracks/train stations
The digital renderings used by a contemporary architect
The Alinari Archive (a photographic archive of art and architecture founded in the 1860s in Florence that
will exists today)
A case study of travel photography: Maxime du Camps Egypte, Nubie, Palestine, et Syrie
A film that features a city or an architectural subject
A photographic book of architecture (Erich Mendelsohns Amerika or the books of Ed Ruscha for
Bernd and Hilla Becher
An original investigation of any of the photographs, architects, photographic projects we looked at in
Research Topic: The digital renderings used by a contemporary artist.
Most of references should come from books or journals, at least 1/3 of reference should be from
textbook content below:
The most helpful one will be
Also need to refer to this link http://www.jstor.org/stable/42621985?seq=15#page_scan_tab_contents
Research question: How digital rendering technology like Blender,3DMAX,sketchup influence
photography and architecture.
04st April 2018
Digital rendering can also be referred as digital art. It is described as the process by
which digital art is created and presented as 2D, 3D, and even 4D. Rendering is a very
important process when referring to computer graphics development. Contemporary artists
have accepted this type of art when designing digital art because it has ability to represent
contemporary art. Digital rendering is becoming the best representation of todays world
which makes it the main reason that it has gained so many followers and specifically from
contemporary artists (Mario, 2010).
Digital rendering is not only being used by artists, this type of art creation has
appealed to a lot of other professional purposes such as architectural designs, simulators,
video games, animated movies, design visualization as well as for some TV special effects.
Rendering involves different techniques and specialties that all delivered by the means of
application programs. There are several reasons why people choose digital rendering. Some
of these reasons are the fact that it is modern, and it’s far more efficient and easier to use, and
also reduces the cost of money and time of an artistic creation (Lin, 2011).
Evaluating the art of digital rendering and understanding the nature of contemporary
artists this digital art thing seems to be in a same line. With the well developed over digital
art, we have seen the gradual changes that art is made and presented in traditional way.
Therefore, the question of whether contemporary artists should be consider that holding on
the traditional form of creating art or try some new styles of creating and presenting art.
There are many critics still view digital artists as un-true artists. This research aims at giving
a clarification through exploring different aspects of digital rendering (Forsyth, 2002).
In digital production, rendering is a pretty complex aspect that can be hard to
describe. To clearly understand rendering we can explain that images and features being
created using rendering by mathematical representation. These representations can either be a
mathematical representation of surfaces and points which involves vertices and polygons or
3D space. When a rendering software makes calculations of these mathematical
representations, they change mathematical approximations into real 2D images. The creation
of color in these digital forms of art come out when features such as texture, spatial and
lighting information are combined in order to produce a color value (Munshi, 2007).
Rendering occurs in two different ways namely real-time rendering and pre-rendering
with another name called offline rendering. The main difference between the two types of
rendering is the speed of computation and finalization. Real-time rendering is mainly used by
creators of video games and interactive graphics. This is because images used here need
computation from a 3d form of information at a super fast pace, for example, if the shadow of
character is changing when moving, it is real-time-rendering. During this process, there are
also a number of key components in real time rendering which includes interactivity, speed
matters, and methods.
The requirement for interactivity in gaming requires that images be rendered in real
time as the scenes and actions unfold on their own. For speed matters, it is important for
motions in gaming to appear prefect and fluid. This, therefore, warrants that one uses a
minimum of 18 to 20 frames per second for rendering in order to avoid choppy actions. As
for the methods, the dedicated graphics hardware GPUs has been reported to highly improve
real-time rendering. This is because the software ensures that a pre-compilation of as much as
possible information is done, GPU is devoted only to calculate image, which is no technical
content but need to repeat many times, just like a labor. (Georgopoulos, 2004).
The less need for speed characterizes pre-rendering allows for rendering calculations
to be done by multi-core CPUs without graphics hardware. The components of offline
rendering, therefore, are predictability and photorealism. When discussing predictability, we
can see that offline rendering is used for animation and effect works that apply photorealism
and visual complexity on a higher level. This is mainly because these works do not present
unpredictability in terms of what will appear in each frame. This characteristic has seen
individual frames be dedicated 90 hours of render time. In the fact, the component of
photorealism applies that offline rendering operates open-ended time frames. This makes it
become very easy to achieve the highest quality of photorealism (Georgopoulos, 2004).
The type of techniques used in rendering can be classified into three computation
techniques. The three techniques are scanline, raytracing, and radiosity. The Scanline
technique is mainly used when there is a need for speed. This, therefore, makes it
considerable for real-time rendering and interactive graphics. This technique operates by
computation on a polygon by a polygon as opposed to the common rendering of an image
pixel by pixel. When combined in use with pre-computed lighting, this technique can reach as
far as 60 frames per second or higher (Meckel, 2013).
Raytracing operates on the method that for every pixel a ray or rays of light have to be
traced from the camera to the closest object in 3D. This then progressed to the light being
made ti bounce a couple of times to either bring about reflection or refraction depending on
the material of the 3D objects. The pixel color is developed from the ray to object interaction.
This technique has been seen to produce better photorealism as compared to scanline. The
disadvantage, however, is that it is far slower than scanline (Meckel, 2013).
Radiosity as a technique is unique for its calculations do not depend on the camera but
rather calculated on the surface. This means that it does not use the pixel by pixel model. This
technique aims at a producing more accurate surface color by the use of indirect illumination.
The main characteristics of this technique are that it results in soft color bleeding and
graduated shadows. Practical operations have seen that radiosity and raytracing work well
when used together hence most people consider using both when hoping to acquire
impressive photorealism (Meckel, 2013).
Some of the advantages of digital rendering helps create art easily and without much
effort. This is because it relies on technology involving software and applications to do most
of the work. In comparison to the traditional way of creating art, this is far easier and faster
hence more effective.
It is also very easy to make a correction when rendering since one can always undo
what they did or do something to cover it up and still achieve perfection. The traditional way
of creating art does not allow for the undoing of an error.
Digital art is better at achieving the best color ranges as the pixels involved can bring
about the best color scheme in comparison to traditional paint. Digital art is really hard to
destroy as compared to traditional art that can be subjected to wear and tear (Georgopoulos,
Some of the disadvantages of digital art as compared to traditional art is that digital
art is dependent on technology and software hence cannot be created away from these.
Traditional art, on the other hand, can be done anywhere.
The tools for rendering are quite expensive as they require purchasing software and
application. Traditional tools, on the other hand, are quite cheap and easy to come by. The
colors seen through rendering can differ in quality in regards to the type of electronic or PC
Digital art is so easy to copy hence hard to protect through copyrights. It is also very
easy to lose this type of art since it was generated from a computer. In the event that the
computer loses all the files and there was no backup installed it would mean the loss of
everything (Munshi, 2007).
In conclusion, some of the reasons why digital or contemporary artists are not
considered real artists is because digital art seems very easy to make with the right
knowledge. This form of art does not necessarily need one to be a talented artist, but just a
visionary. However, it takes practice and knowledge to be able to create a digital art. The
type of style to use for rendering can be chosen after considering several factors. Personal
idea, As a painter, I have painted apple for countless times to understand the relationship
between color and contrast. When I touched with 3D modeling software, I found out all I
have learned from traditional practicing are in optional tools as well. When those 3D
modeling software cant meet my need of creation, I go back to painting because I cant
produce a new function like a programmer. Said ultimately, digital rendering is a tool
but absolutely worth to learn.
Kevin: 13/15 This is a promising start. Here are my suggestions for the final paper:
You provide some excellent and important information about the process of
digital design. But it isnt clear what that information is arguing for. You
need to have a more assertively stated thesis at the beginning of your paper.
I think this will help you with the organization of your paper as well, so that
it doesnt read like a list of facts about the digital design process.
Are there some examples of architects working with digital design or
visionaries that you could include to help explain your argument? This
will help make your argument more concrete and help explain the
significance of some of your points.
Forsyth, D. A., & Ponce, J. (2002). Computer vision: a modern approach. Prentice Hall
Professional Technical Reference.atent and Trademark Office.
Georgopoulos, A. (2004). 3D reconstruction and rendering for a virtual visit.
Lin, Y. H., & Wu, J. L. (2011). A digital blind watermarking for depth-image-based
rendering 3D images. IEEE transactions on Broadcasting, 57(2), 602-611.
Mario, C. (2010). The Photograph and the Blueprint. Das Auge der Architektur: Zur Frage
der Bildlichkeiten der Baukunst, ed.
Meckel, T. A. (2013). Digital rendering of sedimentary-relief peels: implications for clastic
facies characterization and fluid flow. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 83(6), 495501.
Munshi, A. A., & Bleiweiss, A. I. (2007). U.S. Patent No. 7,266,616. Washington, DC: U.S.
Understanding Alfred Stieglitz’ Platinum and Palladium Prints: Examination by X-ray
Fluorescence Spectrometry on JSTOR, Jstor.org (2018),
http://www.jstor.org/stable/42621985?seq=15#page_scan_tab_contents (last visited
Mar 31, 2018).
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