Response to a Literature Review Draft

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Response Guidelines
Read the Literature review Draft of the learner and respond. In your response,
explain why you decided to respond to this particular Literature review Draft post.
Provide feedback on the learner’s review of literature. How could it be improved?
What questions do you have?
Your response must be a minimum of 300 words in length. your post must be
supported by citing two peer reviewed an outside source, using APA formatting.
Literature Review Draft
The future of healthcare will depend on the next generation of leaders who have been
adequately trained to carry on excellence within the healthcare delivery process. This capstone
literature review will provide a literary framework which will focus in on the unique managerial
approaches and challenges that must be considered in retaining and mentoring the millennial
cohort within the healthcare work environment. This literature review will also speak to the
examination of attrition management strategies that can be implemented in order to combat
frequent millennial turnover rates. The goal of this literature review is to synthesize the research
sources that have been collected in order to substantiate the capstone project entitled, “The
Millennial Effect: Examining the Retention, Mentoring, and Attrition Management Among
Millennial Employees.”
Evolution of the Workplace Landscape
The landscape of leadership within the health care industry is in a repetitive state of
constant change. The impending retirement of a large cohort of North American employees,
Baby Boomers, has created a crisis in organizations as they strive to recruit and retain the
younger generations, who purportedly hold significantly different values, attitudes, and
expectations from generations of workers who preceded them, (Economist, 2009). Millennials,
also known as Generation Y, can be generally be described as those whose birth years fall
between 1980 and 1999 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2015). As reported by the United States Census
Bureau in 2015, there were an estimated 83.1 million millennials representing more than one
quarter of the nation’s overall population. Of the 83.1 million, 42.9 percent represent a large
portion of the United States workforce (Danziger, Ratner, 2010). These statistics leave executive
healthcare administrators with the task of implementing measures which will ensure that viable
contingencies are implemented which address strategic recruitment, employee development,
retention planning, and attrition management of their respective healthcare organizations. By
2020, nearly half of the U.S. workforce will be comprised of millennials (Society for Human
Resource Management, 2017). With this statistic holding much relevance, the presence of the
millennial work force across all industries should be seen as an ideal opportunity to usher in the
next generation of leaders, particularly in the healthcare industry.
Gap Analysis
The estimation of the U.S. population over the age of 65 will increase by 26%, and that
for every two experienced workers that leave the workforce only one will enter it (Eisner, 2005).
Healthcare is one of the many organizations that will be adversely impacted by the shortage of
qualified workers as the Baby Boomer cohort transitions into retirement. The median amount
that organizations spend to replace an employee is about one-fifth (21.4%) of that worker’s
salary, meaning it would cost about $10,700 to replace a worker earning $50,000 a year
(Boushey, Glynn, 2012).
Transforming Workplace Culture
The millennials are the largest living cohort who represent the most racially and
ethnically diverse group than preceding generations (U.S. Census Bureau, 2015). This trait of
millennials in the workforce presents an opportunity for improvements to be made in diversity
management which can lead to a higher retention rate of millennials within their respective
organizations. By definition diversity is about learning from others who are not the same, about
dignity and respect for all, and about creating workplace environments and practices that
encourage learning from others and capture the advantage of diverse perspectives (Armache,
2012). In highlighting diversity and differences, the intention is not to separate, but to connect
through generational unity (Accius, Yeh, 2017). In order to address the various work ethic and
communication preferences that exist amongst the generational workforce, administrators must
develop a culture of inclusion that promotes a harmonious environment in which generational
differences are capitalized on and celebrated. Due to the sheer number of millennials entering
into the workforce, a change in culture is needed in accommodating the millennial cohort. The
modern workplace needs to reflect this diversity of perspectives and find ways to recruit and
retain this generation. Moreover, research shows how engaging health workers fully in decision
making helps improve health outcomes (NHS, 2016).
Millennials expect to work in an organization in which the corporation’s mission, values,
operations, finances, problems, and conflicts are open and known to all employees (Ferri-Reed,
2014). Therefore, a culture of transparency is both expected and respected by millennials.
Routine feedback on work performance and regular dialogue in order to touch base is also a way
to keep millennials engaged in their work duties. Bridging the generational gap can be
accomplished by pairing millennial employees with a Generation X or Baby Boomer employees.
This is a very effective way of merging cultures and building a sense of team spirit among
workers from different generations (Ferri-Reed, 2014). One should note that millennial workers
hold a very different definition of work than preceding generations. As a result, millennials tend
to view work as a function by which they tend to blend their home and work life. Therefore,
millennials tend to prefer work areas that have a residential and personalized feeling versus a
stark business feel.
Managing the Millennial Attrition Factor
The Deloitte Millennial Survey of 2016 revealed that by the end of 2020, two of every
three millennials hope to have moved on from their current job, while only 16 percent of
millennials see themselves with their current employers a decade from now. This remarkable
absence of loyalty represents a serious challenge to any business employing a large number of
millennials, especially those in markets—like the United States—where millennials now
represent the largest segment of the workforce. Therefore, employing millennials requires an
understanding of millennials’ mindset, work ethic and communication preferences. One way to
ensure millennial success within the modern day work place is the incorporation of the human
relations theory of management. This management theory maintains that organizational success
is dependent on three factors: (1) employee attitudes (2) relationships (3) leadership styles.
(Oxford Reference, 2017). This theory states that employees are not viewed as machine models,
but rather individuals with differing psychological motivations and with distinct and dynamic
group behavior affecting performances (Management Study Guide, 2017). This theory serves as
a great complement to the millennial workplace mindset. Other indicators of work-related
problems which can lead to high attrition rates include overwork, poor job satisfaction,
uncompetitive pay and career opportunities, and a lack of effective supervision (Sofia, GuerraArias, Buchanan, Pozo-Martin, Nove, 2017).
Concluding Remarks
The continuity of an effective health care delivery process relies upon the human
resources of highly-trained and qualified personnel. In order to keep pace with the evolving
workplace dynamics, healthcare administrators will be tasked with creating a work environment
that is comparable and inclusive towards the recruiting, retention, and development of the
younger millennial workforce. Making such efforts to improve career opportunities, mentorship,
and employee satisfaction may increase employee productivity and decrease millennial attrition
rates within healthcare organizations.
Accius, J., Yeh, J. (2017). America must invest in its next generations. Generations, 40(4), 101107. Retrieved from
Armache, J. (2012). Diversity in the workplace: Benefits and challenges. Journal Of
International Diversity, 2012(1), 59-75
Boushey, H., Glynn, S. (2012). There are significant business costs to replacing employees.
Centers for American Progress.
Danziger, S., Ratner, D. (2010). Labor market outcomes and the transition to adulthood, the
future of children, 20(1):133-158. United States Department of Commerce Economics
and Statistics Administration, United States Census Bureau.
Deloitte. (2016). The deloitte millennial survey of 2016. Millennials have one foot out the
door. Retrieved from
Economist. (2009). Public-service careers: A tough search for talent.
Retrieved November 6, 2009 from
Eisner, S. P. (2005). Managing generation Y. SAM Advancement Management Journal, 70, 4-15.
Ferri-Reed, J. (2014). “Millennializing” your work culture. The Journal for Quality and
Participation, 37(1), 21-24. Retrieved from
Management Study Guide (2017). Human relations theory of public administration. Retrieved
NHS Employers. (2016). Staff engagement creates better outcomes. Retrieved from resources/2014/12/staffengagementcreates-better-patient-outcomes.
Oxford Reference. (2017) Human relations theory. Retrieved from
Society for Human Management. (2017). Motivation and the Millennial Mindset.
Sofia, C., Guerra-Arias, M., Buchan, J., Pozo-Martin, F., Nove, A. (2017). A rapid review of the
rate of attrition from the health workforce. Human Resources for Health, 15
United States Census Bureau. (2015). Millennials outnumber baby boomers and are far more
diverse, Census Bureau Reports.

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