You have been working at the Wayne County probation office for approximately 6 months now. Your supervisor has given you your 6-month employment evaluation, which was excellent. As a result, your supervisor has informed you that he is to choose one of the probation officers on his staff of 45 to be appointed to a committee on alcohol use and abuse. This committee is being put together by the County Board of Supervisors. Your supervisor asks you to be part of this committee, which you excitedly agree to do.At your first committee meeting, the committee chair divides the 30 individuals into smaller subcommittees to explore specific areas of alcohol use and abuse. You are assigned to the prevention and treatment committee along with eight other individuals. The committee is made up professionals from various disciplines, including probation, parole, corrections, addiction, substance/alcohol abuse, social work, psychology, psychiatry, and pharmacology. The board of supervisors has asked that your committee focus solely on prevention issues relating to minors (not adults).Individual Portion:After reading and reviewing the group portion and the contributions from your fellow subcommittee members, your supervisor asks you to prepare a memo to him with your personal position on the following:Which prevention strategy do you personally believe would be most effective, and why?Which prevention strategy do you believe would be the least effective, and why?Which prevention strategy would you recommend for the preteen population (defined as children ages 1012)?Do you believe that the strategy that you identified as the most effective is cost-effective? Support your position with facts.As a subcommittee member, rank the 3 prevention strategies in order of the most valuable to the least valuable, and explain your position.Group portions are posted as files. Those are what you are reviewing, choosing from, and writing the memo on. This is a 2 page minimum.
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There are numerous reasons for D.A.R.E.s success. Its unparalleled delivery system utilizing law
enforcement officers as instructors and the fact that it was the first program of its kind anywhere in
the world have individually and collectively played a critical role in D.A.R.E.s growth and expansion.
However, to remain relevant, effective, and impactful requires much more it requires the critical
review and substantive contributions of highly respected experts in the field of education, science,
and law enforcement. And it also needs the intelligent comments and recommendations of the
programs audience school children. To this end, several years ago D.A.R.E. established key
Advisory Committees, the members of which are actively engaged in the development and
implementation of virtually all aspects of the D.A.R.E. program. In 1984, D.A.R.E. created and
implemented a middle-school curriculum. In 1989, D.A.R.E. introduced a high school curriculum.
Recognizing the strong national demand for the program, D.A.R.E. America is founded in 1989 as a
501(c)(3) non-profit organization to oversee curriculum and other program development, facilitate
program expansion, program quality control and accountability, and serve as a fundraising vehicle
to support its activities. In 2017, D.A.R.E. began development of a supplemental lesson on Opiate
drug abuse prevention that will launch in 2018
Family Matters is a universal, family-based prevention program that targets alcohol and tobacco.
The intervention mails parents four booklets, each of which is followed up by a telephone call from
a health educator. An evaluation with 1,014 families with 12- to 14-year-old children revealed
reductions in tobacco and alcohol use by children in the 12 months following the program. The
program also increased rule setting about tobacco and alcohol use in families ( Ennett et al.,
2001 ; Bauman, Foshee, Ennett, Pemberton, Hicks, King, and Koch, 2001 ).
( PAL ; Police Activities League) is an organization in many American police departments in which
members of the police force coach young people, both boys and girls, in sports , and help
with homework and other school -related activities. The purpose is to build character, help
strengthen police-community relations, and keep children off illegal drugs .
Study of Alcohol Use and Abuse
Unit 4 Group Project
Preventive Strategy: Extracurricular Strategies
Extracurricular strategies are an underage drinking prevention strategy because many
children spend their time outside of school with little to no supervision, and in that time are more
likely than those who are surrounded by peers and adults, to begin consuming alcohol or using
other drugs. (Komro & Toomey, 2002). When a child participates in sports, clubs, mentoring
programs or other after-school activities, they may develop an important relationship with a role
model they may be lacking in their life and they reduce the likelihood of them developing
undesired behaviors. Scales and Leffert (1999) conducted research that showed how youth
programs benefits adolescent development in those children who participate in them. They found
that those children have a better development of life skills, fewer psychological problems,
superior communication skills, decrease involvement in violence, drug use, juvenile delinquency
and other risky behaviors, and they have an increase of academic achievement and are safer than
their counter peers.
Extracurricular programs can be broken down into two different forms: peer programs
and alternative programs. Peer programs are defined as interventions that included social and
life skills training, including refusal skills (Komro & Toomey, 2002), while alternative
programs are defined as interventions that included the provision of positive activities more
appealing than drug use (e.g., sports activities). (Komro & Toomey, 2002). Between the two
programs, the meta-analyses found that the alternative program was not as effective but within
the alternative programs, the ones that spent many hours doing activities and high-risk youth
were the most effective. With any of the extracurricular activities, it has been found that an
important component is that of youth leadership, meaning that those who helped take lead in
creating alcohol-free activities were at a decreased risk of using alcohol themselves. (Komro &
Based on this information, we can infer that this form of preventative strategy can be put
into place almost anywhere that allows or takes care of children such as schools, churches,
daycares or other drop off centers, camps and gyms that offer team sports. Depending on what he
extracurricular activity is, the environment may change. For example, a young kid who joins a
sports team will spend a lot of their time at the gym, field or outside where they may practice.
Afterschool clubs may have the children remain at the school in the gym, cafeteria or outside as
well. The cost of these activities may differ, afterschool activities sometimes may be free or may
cost the parents additional money, although in some cases for after school clubs and sports fees
may be waived depending on the parents income. For sports or clubs outside of the school, there
may be a fee to join or participate, not including additional fees for sports equipment or other
additional things the child may need. Mentoring groups, such as Big Brother Big Sister do not
cost anything for the family to enroll their child to be paired up with a Big Brother or Big Sister
mentor. These sorts of mentors spend time with children from the ages of 6 16 years old, they
may help them with homework, take them to do fun activities or just spend time with them. The
Bigs spend anywhere from eight to twelve hours a month with their Little and are matched
depending on what sort of activities they both enjoy doing and what kind of mentoring the child
may need. (Big Brothers Big Sisters, 2018).
Big Brothers Big Sisters North Coast. (2018). Community-based Mentoring. Retrieved from
Komro, K. A. & Toomey, T.L. (2002). Strategies to Prevent Underage Drinking. Retrieved from
Our youth is the future of our societies. Peer pressure, societal norms, and the
home environment all shape the minds of our children and can be directly responsible for
the future use of drugs or alcohol. As our children spend a significant amount of time in
the school environment, it is imperative that some prevention strategies be integrated at
that level to ensure efficacy.
AAPT (Adolescent Alcohol Prevention Trial) was implemented in the school
environment to prevent the use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana by children (Hansen
and Dusenbury, 2004). This strategy was located in a collection of studies on the
reduction of underage drinking, titled, Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective
Responsibility by the National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine (Hansen
and Dusenbury, 2004). The book contains a number of different strategies from school
based to home based.
This prevention strategy was implemented by trained specialists who deliver the
program at the school level. The specialists from this study were employees of the
University of Southern California (Hansen and Dusenbury, 2004). This particular strategy
was composed of two parts; normative education and resistance skills. It is put into
practice by separating students into two groups and beginning by surveying them on
current drug and alcohol use. Next, the programs would be delivered. Following
completion, the students would again be surveyed to measure efficacy of the prevention
strategy (Hansen and Dusenbury, 2004).
In the normative education group, students are made to believe that substance use
is much less prevalent than they thought in order to discourage the concept of it being
cool to use substances (Hansen and Dusenbury, 2004). This was thought to negate the
footholds of peer pressure, as the belief was that peers did not approve of substance use.
With resistance skills group, the students learned ways to be assertive and role-played
ways to resist peer pressure (Hansen and Dusenbury, 2004).
Speaking about the entire trial, the efficacy was mixed. The normative group was
successful as far as having lower rates of increase of substance use. The resistance skills
group didnt have any lower rates. When surveying eighth graders, those that had been in
a normative education class saw an increase in alcohol use of 0.3 percent (Hansen and
Dusenbury, 2004). Those that had not been in a normative education class increased
substance use by 2.4 percent (Hansen and Dusenbury, 2004).
Cost of the prevention strategy is not readily available through research. In this
trial, it was delivered by employees of the University of Southern California. There was
also no information on how long the programs were taught to the students. This strategy
was delivered to middle school students ranging from fifth grade to eighth grade (Hansen
and Dusenbury, 2004).
Hansen, W., & Dusenbury, L. (2004). Alcohol Use and Misuse: Prevention Strategies
with Minors. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK37581/
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