Reviewing Quantitative Research Studies

In a paper of at least 2,000 words (not including title, abstract, and reference pages), identify four quantitative research studies
that relate to your topic of interest and research focus (two of the
studies may be those you profiled in the first Discussion Forum
assignment this week). In your paper:Describe each research study, identifying the research question(s)
and hypothesis (or hypotheses), the study population for each study, and
the type of statistical analysis the researcher used to analyze and
summarize the data.Analyze similarities and differences in the ways each researcher tackled the research topic.Evaluate the extent to which each study exhibits internal,
construct, and external validity. Is there any evidence of lack of
consistency or bias in any of the studies? If so, describe your
concerns. Discuss any unresolved questions about your topic of interest or
research focus that were raised by the studies. How would further
research on this topic help augment the findings of the studies you
reviewed?Prepare an outline of the information you gathered from the four
sources that could be used if you were to write a paper on your topic.
Organize your outline in a way that would demonstrate to a reader how
you might synthesize the information across the four quantitative
research studies. Make sure to list all four articles and any other sources you accessed to write your paper in the reference list. If needed, use the APA Formatting Templates (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. to ensure the most common reference types are formatted correctly, and use your APA manual for less common reference types. Include title, abstract, and reference pages in your paper. For a tutorial, see the


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Doctoral Study Business Problem:
Savior C Wright
Walden University
August 24, 2017

Doctoral Topic: Corporate Social Responsibility
The topic that I am interested in studying is that of Corporate Social Responsibility
(CRS). The topic itself has gradually developed and continues to evolve every day. An
expanding body of evidence shows that businesses are being forced to treat corporate social
responsibility as an element central to their strategy (Crane, 2008). In fact, corporate social
responsibility has become one of the standard business practices of our time. Corporate social
responsibility is concerned with business’ commitment to contribute to sustainable economic
development by treating all its stakeholders ethically and in a socially responsible manner
(Cavico, 2013). The main aim of corporate social responsibility is businesses to engage
themselves in social responsibilities rather than solely focusing their activities on profit motives.
The need to study the topic emanates from the need to examine and understand some of the
factors that have led to the development of the concept of corporate social responsibility and why
businesses need to develop proper corporate business practices for their emerging markets.
Corporate Responsibility History
Over the last two decades, there has been a significant change in triangular associations
between firms, governments, and societies. These have primarily been influenced by changes in
business environments that have undergone vast changes concerning both competition and the
wave of globalization that continues to sweep across markets (Crane, 2008). Today, companies
are expanding their boundaries from the countries of their origin to evolving markets in
developed and developing countries. Companies have begun to realize that engaging in clearly
defined business practices, public goodwill, and responsible business etiquette is of paramount
importance in a business gaining competitive advantages in the competitive environments and
enjoying continued existence (Cavico, 2013). Previous studies that have focused on this topic of
research have noted that today’s firms are no longer acting as independent entities regardless of
the interest of the general public. In actual sense, the way businesses associate with the state and
societies has been said to have slowly transformed from philanthropic coexistence to one that
entails mutual interest for all the stakeholders (Rothaermel, 2015). Researchers in previous
studies have also noted that businesses are now seeing the need to have policies and procedures
that integrate environmental, social, ethical, human rights, and consumer interests into business
operations, all in close collaboration with stakeholders.
Corporate Impact and Consequences
For companies, the overall intention is to achieve a positive impact on the society while
maximizing shared value for owners of the business, its employees, shareholders, and
stakeholders. Companies that practice corporate social responsibility are rated higher and are
likely to enjoy greater customer retention and customer loyalty, positive brand outlooks,
increased competitiveness, greater financial gains, and cost savings (Rothaermel, 2015).
Studying corporate social responsibility would be relevant in an era when governments, activists,
the media, and the society as a whole have become adept at holding companies accountable for
the social consequences of their activities (Cavico, 2013). Studying the topic would impact a
better understanding of why corporate citizenship has emerged as an inescapable priority for
business leaders all areas of business, all industries, and in every country. My selection of the
topic reflects similarities with what is discussed in the media piece ‘Choosing a Doctoral Topic.’
In its broadest sense, my topic is of growing concern, investigates old ideas, is relevant and
straight to the point, and provides a chance for future research.
Studying the topic would be based on various research questions. The first research
question would be, “Is corporate social responsibility necessary or optional for businesses?” The
second research question would be, “Does corporate social responsibility improve corporate
reputation and thus performance?” Answering these questions would necessitate quantitative
data, which would be collected through different scientific methods. These include but are not
limited to interviews, observations, questionnaires, and focus groups.
Cavico, F. J. (2013). Corporate social responsibility. Carrollton, KY: iLead Academy.
Crane, A. (2008). The Oxford handbook of corporate social responsibility. Oxford, UK: Oxford
University Press.
Rothaermel, F. T. (2015). Strategic management. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
How to Format a Paper in APA Style
Student Name
University of the Rockies
Your professor may require an Abstract, which should appear on the second page with the label
centered and not bolded. The Abstract is a brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of the
article; it allows readers to survey the contents of an article quickly. Most scholarly journals
require an abstract. The Abstract is the only part of an APA document where the first paragraph
is not indented. The Abstract is usually only one paragraph in length and should not exceed 250
words. Ask your instructor if your Abstract is allowed to be longer.
How to Format a Paper in APA Style
Your college papers here at University of the Rockies will all be formatted the same way.
Once you learn the correct format, you will not have to worry about how to prepare your written
assignments. It is important to learn American Psychological Association (APA) writing
guidelines because all University of the Rockies assignments must be formatted in APA style.
While there may be a variety of sources from which you receive advice about APA formatting,
the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition), printed October
2009 or later, is the most accurate source for proper APA formatting. Unfortunately, the first
printing of the sixth edition had many errors, so check the copyright page to make sure it says
“Second printing” or later. This brief sample paper shows you how APA style looks when
applied to a written assignment and can be used as a Microsoft Word template for you to format
your own papers.
General Formatting Information
Set the margins of your document to be one inch on each side—top, bottom, left, and
right. Double space all the lines in your document with no extra space between paragraphs or
before or after headings. Left justify the paragraphs and leave the right side of your text ragged.
Most paragraphs will have the first line indented by .5 inches. Use the Microsoft Word
paragraph formatting tool to set your paragraph spacing. Make sure that Line Spacing is set to
“Double” and that “Spacing” is set to 0 pt for both “Before” and “After.”
There are separate considerations for different parts of your paper: the title page, the
abstract, the first and subsequent pages of text, and the references pages. Directions for
formatting the abstract are written in the abstract for this sample paper (see above). Directions
for formatting the other parts of your paper are written in the following sections.
Title Page
Note the format of page 1, the title page. It includes the title of the paper, your name, and
University of the Rockies. Check with your instructor whether additional information, such as a
date or assignment number, is allowed or desired.
In the header of the first page, the title page, place the words “Running head:” followed
by a shortened version of your title in capital letters. On subsequent pages, put that same
shortened version of your paper’s title in caps, but without the “Running head:” designation.
You will have to use the Microsoft Word Header and Footer tool and check “Different First
Page” to get a unique header on the title page.
Body of Paper
The body of your paper starts on page 3 (or page 2 if an abstract is not included). Please
note that the full title of the paper that appears on the title page is repeated on a centered line just
before beginning the body of the paper and is not bolded and is not repeated on subsequent
pages. The following (sub)sections describe other formatting considerations within the body of
the paper.
Page header. Every page must be numbered in the upper right corner and must include a
page header in the upper left corner that is a shortened title of the paper, in capital letters. The
header is the same for all pages in your paper, including the abstract and reference pages, except
for page 1, the title page.
How to format headings. Note that this paper formats headings as noted in Table 3.1 of
the APA Publication manual (American Psychological Organization, 2010). In general, papers
are divided into sections and subsections. There are five levels of headings whose format is
specified, but it is very unusual to use more than two or three levels of heading. Level 1 heading
is the highest level and should be the first heading used in a paper. In this paper, General
Formatting Information and Crediting Sources are Level 1 headings. The first level of
subheadings is Level 2, such as the headings Body of Paper and Reference Page in this paper.
The third level of heading is used as an example in this section–How to format headings.
Usually a section is not given a heading unless there is more than one heading in that level.
Reference Page
Begin the references on a new page with the label “References” centered at the top, not
bolded. All reference entries are formatted with a “Hanging” indent of .5 inches. Use the
Microsoft Word paragraph formatting tool to set your paragraph spacing by choosing “Hanging”
under “Special.” List references according to APA 6th edition style, see especially chapter 7 for
Crediting Sources
When you use an idea that is not your own, you must give credit to the author of that
idea. The importance of giving credit for outside sources cannot be overstated. Every print
source and everything found on the Internet must be cited in the text of your paper. The two
sentences that follow are examples of how to create in-text citation of an article you found on a
An article on the Ethics Resource Center website (Sears, 2004) presents three scenarios
that demonstrate the types of ethical situations employees might face in their jobs.
Sears’ article (2004) from the Ethics Resource Center website presents three scenarios
that demonstrate the types of ethical situations employees might face in their jobs.
Your in-text citations must also have a complete citation on a reference page. This
reference page citation provides more detailed information for each source. Only include
references on the reference page that you have cited in your paper.
Note that papers generally do not have an “Introduction” section labeled, but often have a
“Conclusion” section with its own heading. The introduction is generally understood as the first
section of text following the title and does not need a header.
This paper has been formatted as a sample paper for use by students. It is not intended to
be a tutorial on APA style, but what is included in the text is correct. Once one learns formatting
basics, writing papers for submission to class or for publication becomes easier. Happy writing!
American Psychological Association (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Sears, B. (2004). Conflicts of interest. Monitor on Psychology, 39, 38-48. doi:10.1037/02786133.24.2.225
OR, if the article does not have an assigned DOI number
Sears, B. (2004). Conflicts of interest. Monitor on Psychology, 39, 38-48.
OR, include the URL homepage of the journal (section 6.32 in APA manual)
Sears, B. (2004). Conflicts of interest. Monitor on Psychology, 39, 38-48. Retrieved from
Do not indicate retrieval from library databases.
Do not include retrieval dates for any source unless the source material may change over

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