The challenges of integrating emerging technologies within organisations of (E-Learning Programme) in Alizz Islamic bank

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Harvard Referencing Guide
The author-date (or Harvard style) of referencing is the one adopted by College of Banking and
Financial Studies, and is the referencing style that tends to be predominant in most UK higher
education institutions.
The basic idea of the Harvard style is to:
1. Use citations (a partial reference) in the text.
2. List all references in full at the end of an assignment.
1. Use Citations in the Text
In the text of your assignment you give a partial reference (called a citation). This is the last name
of the author, followed by the year of publication. If you don’t have the author’s name, you use
the name of an organisation, newspaper, journal, website or whatever the main source is.
Citing the source as you write involves giving a partial or shortened reference (last name of
author(s), or name of organisation, and year of publication) in the main body of your written
assignment and then giving full details of the source in full at the end of the assignment in a
References? or , Bibliography? section. You can abbreviate lengthy organisational names; see
example below (YHES 1998).
Example: In-text references
Although Handy (1994) has argued that education is the key to economic success for individuals
and nations, a majority of adults in the UK have yet to be convinced by this argument. In 1999
only forty percent of adults had done any formal learning in the previous three years (Tuckett,
1999, p.40). The consequences for people without qualifications who lose their jobs are often
serious. A study of long term unemployed people in Yorkshire in the UK found that sixty-one
percent had no educational qualifications, and a significant number of these had special learning
needs (YHES, 1998). There would appear to be a link too, between lack of qualifications, poor
health and a disengagement from participation in political or civic liofe, and could aggravate the
situation of unemployment for the people concerned (Hagen, 2002).
CBFS/BJM/Ref Guide (Update March 2016)
Page 1
Citations in the Text
Citations in the text can be introduced in a variety of ways; there is no set formula.
For example:
There would appear to have emerged by the end of the twentieth century two broad approaches
to the management of people within organisations (Handy 1996).
This sentence introduces a point of view and the student points to Handy as a major proponent of
this perspective. But this is not the only way of citing the author.
The student could have also cited Handy at the start of the sentence, as follows:
Handy (1996) argues that by the end of the twentieth century two broad approaches to the
management of people within organizations had emerged.
(if wanting to include Handy as an exemplar of this proposition):
Some commentators, for example, Handy (1996), have argued that by the end of the twentieth
century two broad approaches to the management of people within organisations had emerged.
It can be argued, (for example, see Handy 1996), that two approaches to the management of
people within organisations had emerged by the end of the twentieth century.
So there is no one „right? way of citing authors. It depends on your sentence constructions at any
particular point in the assignment. The important point is to give credit to authors who have
influenced your ideas and arguments, and make it obvious to the reader the source of the
evidence presented.
Reference List (at the end of the essay)
Hagen, J. (2002). Basic Skills for Adults. Birmingham: The Guidance Council.
Handy, C. (1994). The Empty Raincoat. London: Hutchinson.
Tuckett, A. (1999) „Who?s Learning What?? The Guardian 18/5/1999, p. 13.
YHES: Yorkshire and Humber Employment Service (1998). Survey of Clients Aged 25+
Unemployed for Two Years or More. London: Department for Education and
If you use an abbreviation in the citation, you would start with this abbreviation in the
reference, then immediately explain it: YHES: Yorkshire and Humber Employment Service.
CBFS/BJM/Ref Guide (Update March 2016)
Page 2
Students often want to include their own view on an assignment topic, but are not sure how to do
this, particularly in essays where their tutors have advised them to write in the third person and
not to use the first person term, „I?. If you have been advised to avoid using the term „I? in
assignments, it is important to be aware of conventions in academic writing on how to
distinguish the ideas of others from your own. Here are some phrases that could be used:
When citing the work of others
? It has been argued… (state by
? whom)
? XYZ has argued/asserted/implied
? XYZ has suggested/stated/claimed
? Recent evidence suggests… (state
who has suggested it).
? It has been shown by (state by
? that…
? Strong evidence was found by
? (state by whom) that…
? A positive correlation was found by
(state by whom) between …
? The relationship between X and Y
has been explored by (state by
When suggesting that the idea is your own
? It may be argued that…
It can be argued that…
The problem with this perspective is,
however, that…
Another perspective on this topic is
It may/might/could be that…
One question that needs to be asked, is…
However, a contradiction to this
argument could/might/may be/is that…
The phrases in the right hand column, if presented unreferenced, would suggest to the tutor that
the ideas and views were your own (albeit based on a wide reading of the topic). These personal
comments could also be linked with evidence from sources that connect with, and reinforce, your
own perspective. So you could start a sentence with your own view, and then use supporting
evidence to support these, e.g. “It can be argued that…” (and later) “The work of…..’
CBFS/BJM/Ref Guide (Update March 2016)
Page 3
1. Referencing printed books with a single author/writer
The title of the book is written in italics or underlined.
In-text reference
(Handy, 1994)
Reference at end
Handy, C. (1994). The Empty Raincoat: Making Sense of the Future. London: Hutchinson.
2 Authors
In-text reference
(Saunders and Lewis, 2003)
Reference at end
Saunders, M. and Lewis, P. (2003). Research Methods for Business Students. Harlow: FT
Prentice Hall.
3 or more Authors
In-text reference
(Peters et al., 2005)
Reference at end
Peters, M. Samson, A. and James, R. (2005). The Good Student. Harmondsworth: Penguin
2. Magazines
With magazines and newspapers, the name of the newspaper of magazine is written in italics
or underlined.
In-text reference
(McLoughlin, 2012)
Reference at end
McLoughlin, P. (2012). ‘The Poor Neighbour’. Y Magazine. October 2012, pp.20-21.
CBFS/BJM/Ref Guide (Update March 2016)
Page 4
No author
In-text reference
(Y Magazine, 2012)
Reference at end
Y Magazine (2012). ‘The Poor Neighbour’. October 2012, p. 20.
3. Journals
In-text reference
(Bosworth and Yang, 2000)
Reference at end
Bosworth, D. and Yang, D. (2000). Intellectual Property Law, Technology Flow and
Licensing Opportunities in China. International Business Review, vol. 9, no. 4, pp.453-477.
CBFS/BJM/Ref Guide (Update March 2016)
Page 5
Referencing Newspapers
In-text reference
(Ironside, 2009)
Reference at end
Ironside, V. (2009). ‘Ten reasons why it’s great to be old’. Times of Oman, 10/11/2009, p.28.
No author
In-text reference
(Times of Oman, 2009)
Reference at end
Times of Oman (2009). ‘Duke of York impressed with KOM’, 10/11/2009, p.2.
5. Tv/Radio/Video/Audio Cassette/Cd Rom Sources
If someone has been interviewed (see television programme example below), and the
interview forms the basis for the citation and reference, the reference should start with the
name of the person interviewed. Referencing Websites
1. Radio Programme
Citation: (BBC Radio 4 2003)
Reference: BBC Radio 4 (2003). Analysis?, broadcast 12/5/2003.
2. Television Programme
Citation: (Porrit, J. 1991)
Reference: Porrit, J. (1991). Interview by Jonathan Dimbleby, Panorama?, BBC 1 Television,
broadcast 18/03/1991.
3. Audio CD
Citation: (Roberts 2000)
Reference: Roberts, R. (2000). Passive Music for Accelerated Learning (audio-CD). Carmathen:
Crown House Publishing.
CBFS/BJM/Ref Guide (Update March 2016)
Page 6
Citation: (Ziegler 1992)
Reference: Zeigler, H. (1992) The Software Toolworks Multimedia Encyclopedia (version 1.5),
Software Toolworks (CD-ROM). Boston: Grolier.
5. Video Tape
Citation: (TV Choice Productions nd)
Reference: TV Choice Productions (nd). The Presentation: a Guide to Effective Speaking (video
tape). Bromley: TV Choice Productions.
6. Website
(Introna and Hayes, 2003)
Reference at end
Introna, L. and Hayes, N. (2003). Cultural attitudes towards plagiarism. [online]. Available at
[Accessed 13/12/2011].
No author, no date: Take the name of the website and the date that you accessed the article
In-text reference
(, 2011)
Reference at end (2011). Cultural attitudes towards plagiarism. [online].
Available at
[Accessed 13/12/2011].
In-text reference
(World Trade Organisation, 2009)
Reference at end
World Trade Organisation (2009). Workshop on Global Trade and
Available at
[Accessed 10/11/2009].
CBFS/BJM/Ref Guide (Update March 2016)
Employment. [online].
Page 7
7. Secondary References
You will use a secondary reference if the author or website you are reading mentions or quotes
something written by someone else and you want to reference this quote or piece of
Example 1
In-text reference
Sherman and Judkins in their book (1995, p.121) refer to the work of Ivan Illich, who invented
the term “shadow work” for the roles that some people play in society.
Ivan Illich (cited in Sherman and Judkins, 1995, p.121) invented the term “shadow work” for
roles people play in society.
Reference at end
Sherman, B. and Judkins, P. (1995). Licensed to Work. London: Cassell.
Example 2
Bennet (2006) has shown that the study of science at school and university is declining even
though its importance in our lives is growing. There are fewer students studying science at
university – there is a decline of about five percent per year. This means there are fewer graduates
who are becoming science teachers and as a result, school students are not being encouraged to
study science.
[Bennet, 2006. Adapted from Philpot, S. (2006). New Headway Academic Skills: Level 2.
Oxford: Oxford University Press]
In-text reference
Bennet ( 2006 cited in Philpot, 2006, p.121)
Reference at end
Philpot, S. (2006). New Headway Academic Skills: Level 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press
‘References and Bibliographies’ University of Bradford, School of Management, UK.
CBFS/BJM/Ref Guide (Update March 2016)
Page 8
Unit 11
Research Project
-Reference (In-text Citation &
End Reference List)
Dr. Binu James Mathew
Handout 2
Literature Review
By the end of the chapter, you will learn:
• What is the literature review?
• Importance of literature review
• Types of literature review
• Surveying of the literature review
• Citation of the literature review
What is Literature Review
• A collection of all the scholarly writings on the
topic including Journals, books, conference
proceedings, and dissertations written by other
• Sekaran (2009) defined a literature survey as
‘the documentation of a comprehensive review
of the published and unpublished work from
secondary sources of data.
• It helps researchers to understand the research topic
and what is going on about it.
• It develops the researcher’s perspectives on the
research problem
• It demonstrates knowledge about the topic and
connects ideas.
• It helps in finetuning the write up of the introduction
Importance (cont.)
Gall et al. (2006) provides the following purposes
• Refine further research question(s) and objectives;
• Highlight research possibilities that have been
overlooked implicitly in research to date;
• Discover explicit recommendations
• Avoid simply repeating work that has been done
• Provide an insight into research approaches,
strategies and techniques that may be appropriate
to your own research question(s) and objectives.
Types of literature Review
• Selective (i.e. course assignment)
• Comprehensive (i.e. thesis or dissertation)
• Stand alone (research exclusively devoted to a
literature review on that topic)
• Part of large work (part of the introduction)
Surveying the literature review
• Collect literature that is relevant to your topic
• Highlight key concepts and papers.
• Describe, summarise, and make connections by
comparing and contrasting the papers Part.
• Keep track of what you read using citation
management softwares (Endnote, Refworks, and
Citation of the literature review
• Citation is the procedure of refereeing in the
research to material written or produced by
• Failure to do so means you are attributing the
work of others to you, it is unethical
• Common citation system are Harvard and APA.
Harvard Citation system
• Known as the ‘Author Date’ method F.
• used by 90% of academic institutions in the UK.
• Acknowledge the family name of the author, the
year of publication, and the page number of the
quoted material.
• Use in-text citation, shortened reference in the text
• List all references in full at the end of the research
in an alphabetical order
Example: In-text citations
Uses of in-text citations
After theories or beliefs or ideas
After definitions
After facts
After statistics – i.e Oil contributes with 90% of
Oman export (NCSI, 2017)
– Do not use them for scientific facts or ideas that are
common knowledge. i.e. ” the earth is round…’’
Reference List (at the end of
the research)
• Han, J.K., Kim, N., & Srivastava, R.K. (1998).
Market orientation and organizational performance:
Is innovation a missing link? Journal of Marketing
Research, 62(4), 30–45.
• Wan, W.P. (2005). Country resource environments,
firm capabilities, and corporate diversification
strategies. Journal of Management Studies, 42(1),
Reference List (at the end of
the research)
For full referencing for books, journals, websites, etc.
refer to:
• Neville, C. (2007) The Complete Guide to
Referencing Maidenhead: O.U.P.] and Updated to
Harvard system.
You are required to fill the following:
Title of the Research (not more than 15 words):
The challenges of integrating emerging technologies within organisations of (E-Learning Programme) in
Alizz Islamic bank
———————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————–1. Introduction or background to the research (what your research is about – general
information) and literature review [secondary sources – references from articles on
previous research done – quotations, paraphrasing & summary with Harvard In-text
citation style eg. According to Handy (2011)…]
———————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————- …
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