The essay should be 7 pages about the case of happiness , argument essay

Please do not use sources in the introduction and the conclusion The essay should be 7 pages and add to that also referencepage that has 7 sources,one of them has to be a book (I send you the pdf that has the book it called Happiness Book) Using MLA style. In the essay, you need to make two sentences that are paraphrased( please highlight these sentences and let me know where I can find them in the articles because the teacher will ask me about them). Also for the rest of the paper you can make summary for the references you use (I want to know exactly places of sentences that you make summary on them) highlight them and let me know where I can find them in the articles. please do not use big words.
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Research Paper Outline
Problem:
Audience: General people
Purpose: persuade people about other opinions of happiness
Thesis: There are three causes of happiness: family and friends, success and money.
I.
(Please do not use sources in the introduction and the
Introduction:
conclusion)
A. Hook (Anecdote)
B. More Background Information/Transition to Thesis Statement
C. Thesis Statement:
II.
Family and friends (Source)
A. People who care )
B. Spend good time (Jenny Santi) http://time.com/collection/guide-tohappiness/4070299/secret-to-happiness/#
C. Minor Support (Source)
III.
Success (Happiness Book)
A. Good job (Source)
B. Higher education (https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/health-fitness/healthnews/Can-education-make-you-happy/articleshow/15056076.cms)
1. Save time ( )
2. Secondary Minor Support (Source)
IV.
Money ()
A. Buy anything (Source)
1. Secondary Minor Support (Source)
2. Secondary Minor Support (Source)
B. Spending money on family and close friends can build strong relationships ()
V.
Opposing View (talk about people who have different view in one point)
Pleas choose just (money) when you talk about Opposing View
A. Concession/Refutation
B. Refutation
VI.
Conclusion: (Please do not use sources in the introduction and the conclusion)
A. Thesis Statement restated in different words
B. Summary of main points
C. Prediction, comment, advice.
Works Cited
Family and friends :
I Am so Happy ‘Cause My Best Friend Makes Me Feel Unique: Friendship, Personal Sense of
Uniqueness and Happiness
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B-viUhr3XHxITmhoSlkzOWJzbkZnRVQxZmZwb2E0TU5YVmZv/view
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/257589193_I_Am_so_Happy_%27Cause_My_Best_Friend_Ma
kes_Me_Feel_Unique_Friendship_Personal_Sense_of_Uniqueness_and_Happiness?el=1_x_2&enrichId
=rgreq-6358df3c-078c-4db5-9f6fcd5faa3b9e5d&enrichSource=Y292ZXJQYWdlOzI1NzU4OTE5MztBUzoxNjYwOTc3MTgzNTgwMTZAMT
QxNjYxMjE5MDc0Mw%3D%3D
//=========================================================
The Secret t o Happiness Is Helping Others
http://time.com/collection/guide-to-happiness/4070299/secret-to-happiness/#
//=========================================================
……………………………………………………….
Success
book ( chapter three – Optimism and hope) I have attached that as file
//==============================================================
Can education make you happy?
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/health-fitness/health-news/Can-education-make-youhappy/articleshow/15056076.cms
//==========================================================
http://thephatstartup.com/blog/what-are-the-causes-of-happiness/
Yes, you can buy happiness — if you spend it to save time
http://www.chicagotribune.com/lifestyles/ct-can-money-buy-happiness-20170725-story.html
…………………………………………………………….
Find some sources for the money
Please do not use sources in the introduction and the conclusion
The essay should be 7 pages and add to that also reference page that has 7
sources, one of them has to be a book (I send you the pdf that has the book it
called Happiness Book)
Using MLA style.
In the essay, you need to make two sentences that are paraphrased( please
highlight these sentences and let me know where I can find them in the articles
because the teacher will ask me about them).
Also for the rest of the paper you can make summary for the references you use (I
want to know exactly places of sentences that you make summary on them)
highlight them and let me know where I can find them in the articles.
please do not use big words.
The essay should be “Argument essay” and the topic is about causes of happiness (what are
things in the life that make us happy) as the outline:
I will need an introduction
Body 1
family and friends
Body 2
success
body3
money
and also conclusion.
The essay should be 7 pages and add to that also reference page that has 7 sources, one of
them has to be a book (I send you the pdf that has the book it called Happiness Book)
Using MLA style.
In the essay, you need to make two sentences that are paraphrased( please highlight these
sentences and let me know where I can find them in the articles because the teacher will ask
me about them).
Also for the rest of the paper you can make summary for the references you use (I want to
know exactly places of sentences that you make summary on them) highlight them and let me
know where I can find them in the articles.
I also have provided you with the outline that you need to follow. I want you to edit it as so
that it matches with the essay you will write. I will need to submit both the outline and the
essay as well.
I also have some reference you will find them in the outline. Please look at them and see if they
are appropriate or you can add yours. Some you may need to use as the book. I have attached
you the chapter of the book that you will need to use.
If you have any more question please let me know !
Thank you
Chapter Three
Optimism and Hope
© Boniwell, Ilona, Oct 01, 2012, Positive Psychology In A Nutshell : The Science Of Happiness
McGraw-Hill Education, Maidenhead, ISBN: 9780335247219
A story about optimists and pessimists
People can be differentiated to the extent that they have different
expectancies about the achievement of their goals, and other future
events. Optimists have a generalized sense of confidence about the future,
characterized by their broad expectancy that outcomes are likely to be
positive. Pessimists, on the other hand, have a generalized sense of doubt
and hesitancy, characterized by their anticipation of negative outcomes.
So is it better to be an optimist or a pessimist?
Why it is good to be an optimist
Positive psychology research has found many advantages of adopting an
optimistic viewpoint. Here are some of them:
• Optimists experience less distress than pessimists when dealing
with difficulties in their lives. For example, they suffer much less
anxiety and depression.
• Optimists adapt better to negative events (including coronary
artery bypass surgery, breast cancer, abortion, bone marrow transplantation and AIDS).
• Optimism protects new mothers against developing depression
following the birth of their baby.
• Optimism is conducive to problem-focused coping, humour,
making plans, positive reframing (putting the situation in the best
19
Positive Psychology in a Nutshell
20
© Boniwell, Ilona, Oct 01, 2012, Positive Psychology In A Nutshell : The Science Of Happiness
McGraw-Hill Education, Maidenhead, ISBN: 9780335247219
•
•
•
•
possible light) and, when the situation is uncontrollable, accepting
the reality of the situation. Optimists are capable of learning
lessons from negative situations. Thus optimists have a coping
advantage over pessimists.
Perhaps surprisingly, optimists don’t tend to use denial, whereas
pessimists often attempt to distance themselves from the problem.
Optimists are not simply people who stick their heads in the sand
and ignore threats to their well-being. For example, they attend to
health warnings and usually discover potentially serious problems
earlier rather than later.
Optimists exert more continuous effort and tend not to give up,
possibly assuming that the situation can be handled successfully in
one way or another. Pessimists, on the other hand, are far more
likely to anticipate disaster – and, as a result, are more likely to
give up.
Optimists report more health-promoting behaviours (like eating
a healthy diet or having regular medical check-ups) and enjoy
better physical health than pessimists.
Optimists seem to be more productive in the workplace (Robbins
et al., 1991; Carver & Scheier, 2002).
Furthermore, over the past century, 85 per cent of US presidential
elections were won by the more optimistic candidate (Zullow
et al., 1988) – which, however, does not necessarily mean the best
candidate! The conclusions of one insurance sales study contain
a warning for pessimistic salespersons. Apparently, when the salespeople
scoring in the top 10 per cent in an optimism questionnaire were
compared with those scoring in the bottom 10 percent, it transpired
that the former sold 88 per cent more insurance (Seligman &
Schulman, 1986).
Optimism and Hope
21
© Boniwell, Ilona, Oct 01, 2012, Positive Psychology In A Nutshell : The Science Of Happiness
McGraw-Hill Education, Maidenhead, ISBN: 9780335247219
Can optimism be learnt?
Quite simply – yes. Although there may well be a genetically inherited
component to optimism, and early childhood experiences certainly
shape our optimistic–pessimistic viewpoint, we can use several strategies
to counter pessimism.
The first of these is a disputing strategy, introduced by Martin Seligman
(1991) in his bestseller Learned Optimism. We usually employ the skill
of internal disputing when we are falsely accused of something by
another person. We think to ourselves, for example: ‘That’s not right.
It’s him who is not listening, it’s not me. I always listen before reaching
a conclusion.’ However, when we falsely accuse ourselves of something
(e.g. not being capable of dealing with a difficult situation), we don’t
tend to dispute it. The key to success is careful monitoring and recognition of our thoughts. Once a negative thought is detected, we can
consciously dispute that thought and try to look at possible alternative
outcomes.
Changing and monitoring your explanatory style is another useful
strategy. Explanatory style refers to the way in which we explain the
causes and influences of previous positive and negative events.
A pessimistic explanatory style means we use internal, stable and
global explanations for bad events, and external, unstable and specific
explanations for good ones. People who use this style tend to appraise
bad events in terms of personal failure.
An optimistic explanatory style, on the other hand, is characterized
by external (leaving one’s self-esteem intact), unstable and specific
(depending on circumstances) explanations for bad events, and by
the opposite pattern for good ones. Table 3.1 gives some examples of
optimistic and pessimistic explanatory styles.
Needless to say, Seligman recommends monitoring your automatic
thoughts and attitudes and disputing pessimistic explanations.
22
Positive Psychology in a Nutshell
© Boniwell, Ilona, Oct 01, 2012, Positive Psychology In A Nutshell : The Science Of Happiness
McGraw-Hill Education, Maidenhead, ISBN: 9780335247219
TABLE 3.1 OPTIMISTIC AND PESSIMISTIC EXPLANATORY
STYLES
EVENT
OPTIMIST WOULD
SAY:
PESSIMIST WOULD
SAY:
Good event
(e.g. passing an
exam)
Internal: I’ve done a
great job.
Stable: I am talented.
Global: This was a good
start to the exam
season. The other ones
should be easy too.
External: Don’t know
how this happened. It
must’ve been luck.
Unstable: Every dog
has its day.
Specific: So what?
I can still fail the
next one.
Bad event (e.g.
failing an exam)
External: The exam
questions were simply
terrible.
Unstable: No problem, I’ll
pass it next time round.
Specific: Yesterday was
my birthday after all.
Internal: It’s all my fault,
I haven’t prepared well.
Stable: I am never
going to pass this exam.
Global: This is the end
to my dreams; I’ll never
become who I want
to be.
Tips & Tools
When disputing pessimistic explanations . . .
ask yourself what evidence you have for your beliefs. See if you can find
an alternative explanation for failure. Even if an optimistic explanation is
not applicable, what are the implications of this adversity? Is it really
that catastrophic? If you cannot decide which explanation is more valid,
think which one is more useful for your mood (Carr, 2004).
Optimism and Hope
23
© Boniwell, Ilona, Oct 01, 2012, Positive Psychology In A Nutshell : The Science Of Happiness
McGraw-Hill Education, Maidenhead, ISBN: 9780335247219
During lectures on this subject, at the point when I have nearly sold
optimism as well as the positive attribution style to my listeners, I am
usually met with a variation on the following question: ‘Surely you are
not saying that blaming anyone else but yourself when things go wrong
is a good idea?’ This is a very good question. The research that I know of
does not seem to tackle the impact of an optimistic explanatory style on
those close to the optimists, nor does it report on whether optimism is
associated with qualities such as self-centredness.
Why it is good to be a pessimist
There are occasions when pessimism can do more to ensure the safety of
your life. Optimistic thinking is associated with an underestimation of
risks (Peterson & Park, 2003), so optimists are more likely to take part
in high-risk activities such as unprotected sex or reckless driving.
Optimism is also hardly desirable if, for example, a pilot is deciding
whether a plane should take off during an ice-storm.
In the case of serious traumatic events (e.g. death, fire, flood or violent
rape), optimists may not be well prepared and their beautiful, rosy world
may be shattered into pieces (although optimists might be better
equipped to rebuild it than pessimists).
Furthermore, research has found that there is a type of pessimist who
hardly ever benefits from learning how to be optimistic and adopting a
positive mood. This characteristic is called ‘defensive pessimism’. It is a
cognitive strategy to set low expectations for upcoming performance,
despite having performed well previously in similar circumstances.
Defensive pessimists use the expectation that things will turn out badly
as a coping mechanism: they perform better when they’re allowed to
imagine what could go wrong and keep hold of their low expectations.
Defensive pessimism helps anxious people manage their anxiety and,
contrary to what you might think, trying to be optimistic actually makes
their performance worse! Over time, defensive pessimists start feeling
24
Positive Psychology in a Nutshell
better about themselves, become happier, perform better academically
and make more progress on their personal goals than equally anxious
people who do not use defensive pessimism (Norem & Chang, 2002).
© Boniwell, Ilona, Oct 01, 2012, Positive Psychology In A Nutshell : The Science Of Happiness
McGraw-Hill Education, Maidenhead, ISBN: 9780335247219
What about realism?
This is another difficult question to answer, simply because realism does
not seem to be in fashion at the moment. Having carefully analysed the
indexes of five major volumes on positive psychology, I found only one
reference to this term.
If a principal motivation of a realist is to understand themselves and
the world as it is and to maintain a consistent and accurate self-image, it
would be common sense to assume that such a disposition could benefit
from the strengths of both optimism and pessimism, while avoiding the
pitfalls associated with both.
Ed Diener (2003), one of the greatest researchers on happiness,
writes: ‘it might not be desirable for an individual to be too optimistic;
perhaps people are better off if they are a mix of optimism and pessimism’
(p. 117). Barbara Ehrenreich (2010), probably the most prominent critic
of the positive psychology movement, goes much further to suggest that
it is the positive or optimistic thinking that may actually be responsible
for the banking crisis, for making some chronic illnesses worse, and for
the enormous amounts of money spent on ‘improving’ ourselves when
the real impediments to happiness lie far beyond our control.
Perhaps our Western societies need some realists: people who follow
current affairs, feel for the suffering around the world and assume some
responsibility for the causes and implications of this adversity. People who
choose to do something about it, despite their limited chances of success.
But then again, at least some optimism seems necessary to motivate us
to take the very next step forward. Sandra Schneider writes at length
about realistic vs. unrealistic optimism, stressing the difference between
‘fuzzy’ knowledge and ‘fuzzy’ meaning, and the importance of reality
© Boniwell, Ilona, Oct 01, 2012, Positive Psychology In A Nutshell : The Science Of Happiness
McGraw-Hill Education, Maidenhead, ISBN: 9780335247219
Optimism and Hope
25
checks. Fuzzy knowledge is about not knowing the facts, while fuzzy
meaning is about having some latitude in interpretations. Optimism is not
a good way to deal with fuzzy knowledge. If you don’t know your level of
cholesterol, it doesn’t make sense to just assume you are safe from cardiac
disease. However, many situations in life are, in fact, open to interpretation – and this is where optimism can be useful (Schneider, 2001). In fact,
both Schneider’s and Seligman’s approaches advocate the same principle
– that of flexibility of thinking when it comes to interpreting the meaning
of events. It is hardly surprising, therefore, that many resilience programmes
(see Chapter 14) are based on the theories of optimism, teaching students
to question their habitual explanations for misfortunes.
Tips & Tools
Positive realism or realistic optimism?
Blind optimism may result in carelessness and unrealistic expectations,
which is unproductive in the long run. This can be avoided if you don’t
allow wishful thinking to influence your judgements. Being positive is
compatible with being realistic. It does not mean expecting only
positive outcomes, but having confidence that even if things don’t go
your way, you will be able to deal with the situation (or even somehow
benefit from it) (Popovic, 2005).
Goals Scale
Completing this questionnaire may tell you something about yourself. It is explained more fully after the box, but if you decide to fill it
in, don’t look until you have actually done so.
Directions: Read each question carefully. Using the scale shown
below, please select the number that best describes YOU and put
this number in the blank provided.
26
Positive Psychology in a Nutshell
© Boniwell, Ilona, Oct 01, 2012, Positive Psychology In A Nutshell : The Science Of Happiness
McGraw-Hill Education, Maidenhead, ISBN: 9780335247219
1 = Definitely False
2 = Mostly False
3 = Mostly True
4 = Definitely True
___ 1. I can think of many ways to get out of a jam.
___ 2. I energetically pursue my goals.
___ 3. I feel tired most of the time.
___ 4. There are lots of ways around my problem.
___ 5. I am easily downed in an argument.
___ 6. I can think of many ways to get things in life that are most
important to me.
___ 7. I worry about my health.
___ 8. Even when others get discouraged, I know I can find a way
to solve the problem.
___ 9. My past experiences have prepared me well for my
future.
___ 10. I’ve been pretty successful in life.
___ 11. I usually find myself worrying about something.
___ 12. I meet the goals that I set for myself.
Now add together your scores for Questions 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10 and
12, and read on.
You have just filled in the questionnaire on hope (Lopez et al., 2004).
Your score, which will range from 8 to 32, should show how hopeful you
are. Don’t worry about Questions 3, 5, 7 and 11 – they are simply
distracters and should not be counted towards the final result. Read on
to find out how positive psychology views hope and what can be done to
increase it.
Optimism and Hope
27
© Boniwell, Ilona, Oct 01, 2012, Positive Psychology In A Nutshell : The Science Of Happiness
McGraw-Hill Education, Maidenhead, ISBN: 9780335247219
Is there any hope?
Hope is a construct that is closely related to optimism, although the
two are not identical. Rick Snyder, one of the leading specialists in
hope, represents it as an ability to conceptualize goals, find pathways to
these goals despite obstacles and have the motivation to use those pathways (Lopez et al., 2004). To put it more simply, we feel hopeful if we:
(a) know what w …
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