Think with Socrates

Which of the following deductive arguments are valid and which are invalid? Decide using the intuitive test for validity. If an argument is invalid, specify a counterexample that shows the argument is invalid.2. No cat is a reptile. No reptile is a splurp. So, no cat is a splurp. 3. IfElaineplacesherorderincorrectly,theSoupNaziwon’tserveher.Ifherefuses to serve her, she won’t bring home any mulligatawny soup. Therefore, necessarily, if Elaine places her order incorrectly, she won’t bring home any mulligatawny soup. 4. The United States House of Representatives has more members than there are calendar days in a leap year. Therefore, at least two members of the House must have the same birthday.6. EverymemberoftheProgressiveLaborPartyhasstudiedthewritingsofChairman Mao. Bob studied the writings of Chairman Mao. So, Bob must be a member of the Progressive Labor Party. 7. Listeningtoloudmusicalwaysruinsyourhearing.Joeishardofhearing.Therefore, Joe must have been listening to loud music. 8. TheMontereyPopFestival(1967)featuredsomeofthegreatestbandsofthe1960s. The Beatles did not perform at Monterey. So, the Beatles must not have been among the greatest bands of the 1960s. 9. The Monterey Pop Festival featured some of the greatest bands of the 1960s. Big Brother and the Holding Company performed at Monterey. So, Big Brother and the Holding Company must have been one of the greatest bands of the 1960s.11. Figure A has four equal sides. Therefore, figure A must be a square. 12. All the members of the Ohio Southpaw Club are left-handed. Joe is left-handed. So, Joe must be a member of the Ohio Southpaw Club. 13. EverymemberofTacoma’slegendaryLittleBillandtheBluenoteshasbeenelected to the Northwest Blues Hall of Fame. Dick Curtis is a member of Little Bill’s group. Therefore, Dick Curtis must have been elected to the Northwest Blues Hall of Fame.Use the intuitive test for validity to decide whether the following categorical arguments are valid or invalid. If an argument is invalid, specify a counterexample.2. 1. Some dogs are pets. 2. Some pets are cats. 3. So, some dogs are cats.3. 1. Some birds are caged creatures. 2. All caged creatures are unfree creatures. 3. Thus, some birds are unfree creatures.4. 1. All rats are pests. 2. Some rats are adorable creatures. 3. So, some adorable creatures are pests.6. 1. All cats are mammals. 2. No birds are mammals. 3. So, no birds are cats.7. 1. Some pets are dogs. 2. Some pets are cats. 3. So, some cats are dogs.Identify each argument as an instance of modus ponens, modus tollens, disjunctive syllogism, or hypothetical syllogism. If an argument is an instance of none of the forms, answer “none.”2. 1. Amber jogs today, or Barbara jogs today. 2. It is not the case that Amber jogs today. 3. Therefore, Barbara jogs today. 3. 1. If Amber jogs today, then Barbara jogs today. 2. Amber jogs today. 3. Therefore, Barbara jogs today. 4. 1. If Amber jogs today, then Barbara jogs today. 2. It is not the case that Amber jogs today. 3. Therefore, it is not the case that Barbara jogs today.6. 1. If Amber works today, then Barbara works today. 2. Barbara works today. 3. Therefore, Amber works today.9.1. If Amber jogs today, then Barbara jogs today. 2. If Barbara jogs today, then Ned jogs today. 3. Therefore, if Amber jogs today, then Ned jogs today.#PHIL115#Highline college

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