This is to be a 5 to 8 page paper (1200 to 2000 words) Anthrolopogy/Biology Research Paper. (TurnITIn.com) Paper Direction below. A on papers I tip 50+% (LInks)

What is expected of youThis assignment’s purpose is to be able to research a topic further than just googling; to be able to academically reserach. The sources you use need to be academic. What I mean by academic is that they should be peer-reviewed academic journals (see below). Further, your formating should be exactly what I am asking for. First and foremost, you will be heavily graded on whether or not your sources are academic in nature. For each non-academic source I will deduct up to 30% off your grade. Since you need three sources, you stand to fail this assignment rather quickly if you don’t have the correct sources. What are acceptable sources? All fields in science have peer reviewed publications, usually in the form of journals. This is how research and conclusions are presented. Peer reviewed means they have gone through a rigorous process and any conclusions presented have to include what methods were used as well as background and analysis. The supplemental reading I have provided in class has all been from such sources. Here are a few examples in the Anthropology world American Journal of Physical Anthropology https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10968644American Journal of Primatology https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10982345And this http://www.americananthro.org/StayInformed/Content… will give you possible links to all anthropology journals.You are more than welcome to bring in publications from other disciplines. Common misconceptions of acceptable sources: 1. It ends in a .edu. This does not make it an academic source. I suggest you look at who wrote whatever you are reading and see if they have published. 2. The Smithsonian, National Geographic are also not allowed. Again, look at who wrote the article or whose research they are referencing. In-text citation: This is a concept that eludes most people. If you are using an idea that is not common knowledge you need to provide a in-text citation (see style guide and assignment). When you are paraphrasing one of your sources, you need to cite. When you quote, you need to cite. When in doubt, cite. Not citing is called plagiarism. Frequently asked questions about sources:Once I have my academic sources can I use other non-academic ones? – Yes you may, but do not lean too much on them for the content of your paper or your grade will suffer. Can I use our text-book, or lecture notes? – Yes, but same as above, do not make them your primary sources. How about if I find an academic book? – This is a gray area. Some books are acceptable, some are not. You can email me with the book information if you want to double and make sure it’s a valid source. Citing and quoting: Your paper should be in your own words (remember to still cite). You are welcome to use quotes, but do NOT make your paper quote heavy. Your paper should not be a bunch of quotes tied together. Page length:This is to be a 5 to 8 page paper (1200 to 2000 words). If you give me a short paper you will be marked off from anywhere from 20% to 90% of your overall grade. On the other hand, if you turn in too many pages (9+) you will also lose points. This will be a challenge for many of you. It may be difficult to write what you need to in so few pages, keep it pithy and to the point. While this is not a English class I do expect proper collegiate writing. When writing your paper please organize it well. Setup an introductory paragraph to let me know what you are going to be writing about. Break-up all subsequent thoughts into separate paragraphs.While you are welcome to submit your paper anytime before the due date, THIS PAPER WILL BE DUE BY 11:59 pm April 9th, You will be using the Turnit in feature to submit your paper. Your paper will be deducted 15% for everyday it’s late, starting at 12:00am April 10th.
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NAME
1
CLASS
RESEARCH PAPER TOPIC
Your second assignment is a 5-8 page (1200 to 2000 words) research paper on a
topic of your choosing, as long as it pertains to biological/physical anthropology. Font
will be 12pt in Times New Roman (or something very similar), one-inch margins and
double-spaced. I will require a header at the top each page with your name and class, in a
similar fashion to the header at the top of this page. Please include page numbers on a
corner of each page of your paper. Do not include a title page, rather a bolded title at the
top of the first page (similar to this document). Do not over-space the top of the
document. The format of your paper will be in accordance with the American
Anthropology Association (AAA) style guide. I have posted the AAA style guide on
blackboard.
Appropriate topics include, but are not limited to, evolutionary theory,
primatology, paleopathology, human skeletal biology, genetic studies, forensics, etc. This
can be a fun investigation of something you find interesting.
You will be responsible for finding at least 3 journal articles that are related to
your topic of interest and using their content to support your paper. As this is an academic
paper sources must be academic peer-reviewed journals, which means no blogs, no
wikipedia, no newspapers (yes this includes National Geographic and Smithsonian).
Some books may be acceptable, but I would advise against their use, as it may be hard to
ferret out what would work and what will lose you points.
Anything that is not common knowledge requires a citation. You will be using intext citations in accordance to the AAA style guide. A good rule is, when in doubt cite. I
need to know where you are getting your information. Plagiarism will not be tolerated.
If you have a question with regards to proper citation or how to cite, look at the style
guide.
 
NAME
1
CLASS
You will be turning in your paper by uploading it to Turnitin on Blackboard,
which will be found in the Research Paper tab. While Turnitin accepts most formats, you
may have to change your paper into a pdf file to upload. There will be a 15% deduction
for each day your paper is late. Late count starts the minute after the due time/date. Do
not wait until the last minute. Finish early so you don’t have to worry, as I will not allow
any excuses for late work. For example, if your were just about to submit your paper and
your computer freezes, or the internet goes out, and you have to run to the library in the
hail and snow barefoot to get your paper turned in, but it is 12:01am, your paper will be
late.
CITATION EXAMPLES:
Within text:
Preferred resources are those that are disproportionately selected relative to their
abundance in the habitat (Marshall & Wrangham, 2007). If you have more than two
authors list the first author followed by et al. (Marshal et al. 2007).
In Bibliography:
Marshall, A.J. & R.W. Wrangham.
2007 Evolutionary consequences of fallback foods.
International Journal of Primatology 28:1219-1235.
American Anthropological Association
2009 Style Guide
Visual
A A A Continuity
S t y l e G uGuide
ide
2009
American Anthropological Association
2009 Style Guide
Table of Contents
I. General Guidelines…………………………………….. 1
Article Titles and Section Heads ………………… 1
Capitalization ………………………………………….. 1
Non-English Words and Quotations ………….. 2
Italics ………………………………………………………. 2
Numbers …………………………………………………. 3
Punctuation …………………………………………….. 3
Quotations………………………………………………. 4
Running Text …………………………………………… 4
Tables, Figures, and Appendixes ……………….. 5
Text Citations and References Cited ………….. 5
II. Orthography…………………………………………….. 6
III. Reference Examples …………………………………. 7
Single-Author Book …………………………………. 7
Coauthored Book …………………………………….. 7
Author, with Others …………………………………. 7
Multiple References in the Same Year……….. 7
Work Accepted for Publication …………………. 7
Work Submitted for Publication
or Unpublished Work ……………………………… 7
Materials in Archives………………………………… 7
Chapter in Book with Editor(s)………………….. 7
Editor as Author ………………………………………. 7
Article in Journal ……………………………………… 7
Article in Journal, Special or
Theme Issue …………………………………………… 8
Book in Series ………………………………………….. 8
One Volume in Multivolume Work ……………. 8
Review ……………………………………………………. 8
Report …………………………………………………….. 8
Ph.D. Dissertation or M.A. Thesis ………………. 8
Paper ………………………………………………………. 8
Reprint or Translation ………………………………. 8
Subsequent or Revised Edition………………….. 8
Article in Newspaper or
Popular Magazine ………………………………….. 9
Personal Communication …………………………. 9
Court Case ………………………………………………. 9
Electronic/Online Sources …………………………. 9
Non-English Publications with
Title Translation ……………………………………… 9
Audiovisual Recordings and Multimedia ………… 9
Authors of Forewords, Afterwords,
or Introductions ……………………………………… 9
Sources consulted: The Chicago Manual of Style (15th edition, 2003); The Handbook of Nonsexist Writing (New York: Lippincott and Crowell, 1980); Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (11th edition, 2006); MLA Style Manual (2nd edition, 1998);
and United States Government Printing Office.
Copyright ©2009 American Anthropological Association (July)
American Anthropological Association
2009 Style Guide
I. General Guidelines
AAA uses The Chicago Manual of Style (15th edition, 2003) and Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (11th
edition, 2006). This guide is an outline of style rules basic to AAA style. Where no rule is present on this list, follow Chicago. For spelling, follow Webster’s first spelling if there is a choice and use American not British spellings.
This guide does not apply to newsletters, which frequently deviate from these guidelines in the interest of space
and tend to follow many Associated Press style rules.
1. Article Titles and Section Heads
(b) Events (Chicago 8.81–8.84)
t Capitalize historical, quasi-historical, political, economic, and cultural events or
plans: Battle of the Books, Boston Tea Party, Cold War (20th century, USSR vs. USA),
Great Depression, the Holocaust, Industrial Revolution
t Lowercase: California gold rush, civil rights
movement, cold war, depression
(a) Do not put endnote callouts on display type such as
titles, section heads, or epigraphs. Place them after
nearest hard punctuation or at the ends of excerpts.
Never use endnotes inside excerpts or after soft punctuation (i.e., commas, em-dashes, in lines of poetry).
(b) Do not number section heads
(c) Use the following terms for each separate submission:
t paper = conference
t article = journal or newspaper
t chapter = book
t essay = essay in journal, book, etc.
t review = review in journal or newspaper
(c) Figures, Tables, and Appendixes (exception to Chicago)
t Capitalize in text if they refer to items within
the present work, lowercase if they refer to
those in other works:
? In Figure 1
? As you can see in Table 2
? In Johnson’s figure 1
? Evidence in Johnson’s table 1 agrees
with my own (Table 2)
2. Capitalization
Follow Webster’s and Chicago
(a) Ethnic, Socioeconomic, and Other Groups (Chicago 8.41–8.45)
t Capitalize these terms as noted (unless
author objects): African American, AfroAmerican, Alaska Native, American Indian,
Asian American, Canadian American, Euramerican, Euro-American, Euro-Canadian,
European American, European Canadian,
First Nation, Hispanic, Indo-European, Jew,
Latina, Mesoamerican, Native American,
Pacific Islander, Australian and Canadian
Aboriginal and Aborigine
t Lowercase these terms as noted: aboriginal
(where not Australian or Canadian); black;
highlander, but Highlander (where referring
to Scottish); indigenous; mestizo; native (as
adj. except for specific populations, such as
noted above); redneck; white
(d) Historical and Cultural Terms (Chicago 8.77–8.80)
t Where capitalized by tradition or to avoid
ambiguity, per Chicago and Webster’s use:
Middle Ages, Progressive Era, Restoration,
Roaring Twenties, Stone Age
t Lowercase: ancient Greece, nuclear age, romantic period, U.S. colonial period
(e) Names of Organizations (including committees,
associations, conferences; see Chicago 8.66–8.76)
t Capitalize full official names, but lowercase
“the” preceding a name, even where it is part
of the official title: the Baltimore City Council, Bureau of the Census, Census Bureau,
Circuit Court of Cook County
t Lowercase where they become general: the
bureau, city council, congressional, council,
county court, federal
1
American Anthropological Association
2009 Style Guide
3. Non-English Words and Quotations
(f ) Names of Places (Chicago 8.46–8.63)
t Capitalize geographical and popular names
of places: Antarctica, Asia, Atlantic, Back Bay
(Boston), Central America, City of Brotherly Love, Foggy Bottom (D.C.), Ivory Coast,
North Pole, Orient, the States, Third World
(do not hyphenate as adj.), Upper Michigan
t Directions should be capitalized where used
as a name but not where used as a direction:
? Caribbean Islands; Far East; North
India; North Pole; Pacific Islands; the
South; South India; South Pacific;
the Southwest (n.), but southwestern
(adj.); the West; Westernize
? northern Michigan, the south of
France, southeastern, western Samoa,
the Western world
t Lowercase: eastern Europe, western Europe,
central Europe. Exceptions: use Eastern and
Western Europe in the context of the political divisions of the Cold War; use Central
Europe in the context of the political divisions of World War I
(a) Diacritics
t Alert production editor of unusual characters or fonts in advance of submission to
verify access to usable fonts
(b) Quotations
t Put non-English sentences and quotations in
quotation marks (and do not italicize)
(c) Translations
t Include translations of non-English words
in parentheses immediately following (or
vice versa, but keep consistent throughout
the work)
? ellai (borders) and cantippu (crossroads)
t Include translations of foreign-language quotations either in an endnote or in brackets
immediately following the quotation (without italics and without quotation marks)
? “Todas somos amigas de desde chiquitas, casi puras vecinas” [We are all
friends since we were small, and almost all are neighbors].
t For translation of non-English titles in references, see example #24 in the Reference Examples section
(g) Titles and Offices (Chicago 8.21–8.35)
t Capitalize civil, military, religious, and professional titles only where they immediately
precede the name. In formal usage, such as
acknowledgments or lists of contributors,
capitalize the title following the name: B.A.
in anthropology; Judy Jones, Smith Professor
Emeritus at Yale University; Professor Jones,
associate professor of education studies; a
professor emeritus; Henry Trueba, chair of
the Department of Education Studies; the
chairman of the department
t For academic degrees or titles, capitalize
where formal, lowercase where informal:
Louis Spindler, Ph.D.; a Master of Science
degree from University of Virginia; a master’s degree in education
(d) Words
t Italicize non-English words that do not appear in the main section of Webster’s. Italicize them on first use only, unless used as a
term (see 4a below)
4. Italics
(a) Words as Words
t Italicize words used as words (e.g., as terms)
in written context; but where the context is
solely the spoken word, is used for ironic effect, or is a concept, use quotation marks.
? In Smith 1994 the term subaltern
implies
? to keep children on the “right path”
academically
? Bourdieu, who utilized notions of
“cultural capital” and “habitus”
? Bourdieu defines cultural capital and
habitus as
(h) Titles of Works (Chicago 8.164–8.177)
t For titles of works in AAA journals, references cited, and notes: change capitalization only.
Do not change anything else, even spelling or
punctuation (exception to Chicago).
t Capitalize first and last words of titles and
subtitles in English. For other languages, follow Chicago.
t Capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound (exception to Chicago)
t Do not capitalize parenthetical translations
of titles in references cited
(b) Legal Cases (Chicago 8.88):
t Use italics for names of legal cases
2
American Anthropological Association
2009 Style Guide
(c) Publication Names
t Italicize publications used as authors in intext citations, but leave roman in references
cited. See Reference Examples section.
ties (age), mid-1800s (years)
t Use an en-dash (–), rather than hyphen (-),
with an open compound: mid–19th century,
mid–Cold War
(d) Use of “[sic]” (Chicago 11.69)
t Italicize word, not brackets
t Correct obvious typographical errors rather
than use [sic]
t Do not italicize: e.g., i.e., or cf.
(h) Numbered items, such as parts of a book, are not
capitalized
t chapter 5 (in reviews ch. 5 or chs. 5–7), part 2
(i) Ordinals (nd or rd)
t 22nd, rather than 22d; 23rd, rather than 23d
5. Numbers
(j) Quantities (Chicago 9.3–9.4; 9.19)
t Use numerals above ten and spell out measurement: 26 millimeters, five miles, 15 kilometers (not km); but in tables, OK to use 26
mm, 5 gm, 10 mph
t Express round numbers above ten million in
numerals + words: 20 million
t 20 percent, but in tables, OK to use %
t Use commas in four-digit numbers: 1,409;
but not page numbers (p. 1409)
(a) Spell out numbers in the following instances
t One through ten
t Numbers at the beginning of a sentence
t Numbers used in the approximate sense
? The area comprises roughly two hundred viable sites; not 200
? About 15 thousand soldiers were
killed; not 15,000 or fifteen thousand
(b) Age
t 24 years old, 11 months old, a 34-year-old
woman, in her thirties
(k) Series
t Where dealing with more than one series
of quantities, use numerals for one of the
series
? The first shape had 4 sides, the second
had 7 … and the twelfth had 3
t Where small numbers occur in a group with
large numbers, set them all in numerals for
consistency
(c) Currency
t Assume dollar designations are in U.S. currency. Otherwise (e.g., Canada) use:
? US$200 (not U.S.) and CAN$200
t Do not use $ with USD (e.g., $20 USD), as it
is redundant
t Refer to the Government Printing Office for
pre-Euro designations, or flag for the production editor
(l) Statistics (Chicago 9.20–9.21; 13.5)
t Decimal fractions: use initial zero only if
number can equal or exceed 1
? 0.3–1.5
? according to a Chi-square test yielding a value of 4.2, p < .05 ? Kappa = .33, p < .05 t Use N for sample sizes, but use n for subgroups of samples (d) Dates t ninth century, 20th century; 1960–65; 1960s (not 60s); the sixties; October 6, 1966; April 1993 (no comma); C.E. 1200; 1000 B.C.E.; April 18, not April 18th (e) Fractions t Hyphenate as both adjective and noun: a two-thirds majority, two-thirds of those present (m) Time t 2:00 p.m., noon 6. Punctuation (f ) Inclusive numbers t Do not elide numbers in a range: 893–897; 1,023–1,045 t Elide year spans (exception to above): 1989–92 (a) Binary distinctions, dichotomies, or equal relationships: use en-dash, not solidus or hyphen t parent–teacher; us–them; mind–body, not mind-body or mind/body t Previously published phrases are excepted: Foucault’s power/knowledge (g) “Mid-” t Hyphenate numbers or numerals: mid-thir- 3 American Anthropological Association 2009 Style Guide 7. Quotations (g) Spelling and punctuation corrections t Leave all spellings and punctuation alone in quotes; use [sic] only if necessary, and give an explanation in text if absolutely necessary (a) All published quotations must be cited with year and page number(s) t (1992:7–8) (h) Do not use initial or final ellipses (b) Avoid “cited in” where citing quotes within another work. Use the work listed in references cited and adjust the language outside parentheses t As Johnson notes (Webber 1992) t Do not use: (Johnson, cited in Webber 1992) (i) Do not use quotes for yes or no except in direct discourse (Chicago 11.44) 8. Running Text (c) Quotations from interviews or conversations that have not been published or aired should be cited in text and include interviewee name, interviewer name, month, day and year of interview (see Chicago 17.205) (a) Abbreviations t Do not use in narrative text in most cases t Ampersands: replace all “&” with “and” t In scholarly works: ? Only abbreviate in parentheses: (i.e., e.g., etc.) ? Spell out in text: that is, for example, et cetera, and so forth (d) Format for block extracts t If extract takes more than four manuscript lines, make it a block extract t Use brackets for citation at the end of a block; put sentence period before citation t If italics have been added, specify: ? [Smith 1993:22, emphasis added] ? Do not use “emphasis in original” t If multiple paragraphs occur within a continuous block, the first paragraph should have no indent, but subsequent paragraphs should be marked by indents rather than extra leading (b) Articles in titles t Drop or romanize articles in titles (a, the) from text ? In 1998, a New York Times op-ed piece indicated ? The Washington Post article contends (c) Avoid gender-related language t Never use “s/he,” “him/her,” or “his/her.” Use “he or she” or rewrite as plural to avoid. t See Casey Miller and Kate Swift’s The Handbook of Nonsexist Writing (New York: Lippincott and Crowell, 1980) (e) Change the case of the initial letter of a quote to fit the sentence without using brackets (Chicago 11.35) (d) Commas t Use serial commas t Use a comma to separate the clauses of a compound sentence but not a compound subject or a compound predicate unless there are three or more elements t Use commas around parenthetical elements (f ) When a quotation that is run into the text in the typescript is converted to a block quotation, the quotation marks enclosing it are dropped, and interior quotation marks are changed accordingly (from Chicago 11.35): t The narrator then breaks in: “Imagine Bart’s surprise, dear reader, when Emma turned to him and said, contemptuously, ‘What “promise”?’ ” (e) Dialogue t Spell out names on first occurrence and then use initials on subsequent occurrences: Ruth Benedict: Franz Boas: RB: FB: becomes The narrator then breaks in: Imagine Bart’s surprise, dear reader, when Emma turned to him and said, contemptuously, “What ‘promise’?” (f ) Lists t Run lists into text with (1), (2), (3), etc. Do not use (a), (b), (c), etc. 4 American Anthropological Association 2009 Style Guide t Use pairs of parentheses, not singles ? Work: Smith 1990 contains an analysis of the material. (g) Spaces between initials t T. S. Eliot, H. L. Mencken (d) Do not use ibid. for repeated references (h) Spelling t Use the first spelling in Webster’s unless otherwise noted (e) Notes t Where citing a note or notes, use ? (Boulifa 1990:10 n. 12, 24 nn. 12? ... Purchase answer to see full attachment

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