Title IV: Student Assistance (Higher Education Act 1965)

Each student will submit a research paper 7 pages answering these questions: In your opinion (and supported by substantial research), what policy (or policies) has had the greatest impact on American higher education? Why? How can such policy (or policies) be improved upon? The policy I choose is Title IV: Student Assistance
Title IV of the HEA contains nine parts that authorize a broad array of programs and provisions to
assist students and their families in gaining access to and financing a postsecondary education.Do not count title page or resource page in count. APA style
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The Higher Education Act (HEA): A Primer
Alexandra Hegji
Analyst in Social Policy
January 2, 2014
Congressional Research Service
7-5700
www.crs.gov
R43351
The Higher Education Act (HEA): A Primer
Summary
The Higher Education Act of 1965 (HEA; P.L. 89-329) authorizes numerous federal aid programs
that provide support to both individuals pursuing a postsecondary education and institutions of
higher education (IHEs). Title IV of the HEA authorizes the federal government’s major student
aid programs, which are the primary source of direct federal support to students pursuing
postsecondary education. Titles II, III, and V of the HEA provide institutional aid and support.
Additionally, the HEA authorizes services and support for less-advantaged students (select Title
IV programs), students pursing international education (Title VI), and students pursuing and
institutions offering certain graduate and professional degrees (Title VII). Finally, the most
recently added title (Title VIII) authorizes several other programs that support higher education.
The HEA was last comprehensively reauthorized in 2008 by the Higher Education Opportunity
Act of 2008 (HEOA; P.L. 110-315), which authorized most HEA programs through FY2014.
Following the enactment of the HEAO, the HEA has been amended by numerous other laws,
most notably the SAFRA Act, part of the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010
(P.L. 111-152), which terminated the authority to make federal student loans through the Federal
Family Education Loan (FFEL) program.
This report provides a brief overview of the major provisions of the HEA.
Congressional Research Service
The Higher Education Act (HEA): A Primer
Contents
Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
Title I: General Provisions ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2
Part A: Definitions ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2
Part B: Additional General Provisions…………………………………………………………………………… 2
Part C: Cost of Higher Education …………………………………………………………………………………. 3
Part D: Administrative Provisions for Delivery of Student Financial Assistance ………………… 4
Part E: Lender Institution Requirements Relating to Education Loans ………………………………. 4
Title II: Teacher Quality Enhancement ……………………………………………………………………………….. 4
Part A: Teacher Quality Partnership Grants……………………………………………………………………. 5
Part B: Enhancing Teacher Education …………………………………………………………………………… 5
Title III: Institutional Aid ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5
Part A: Strengthening Institutions…………………………………………………………………………………. 6
American Indian Tribally Controlled Colleges and Universities …………………………………. 6
Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian-Serving Institutions …………………………………………… 6
Predominantly Black Institutions ……………………………………………………………………………. 6
Native American-Serving, Nontribal Institutions ………………………………………………………. 7
Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving Institutions…………………. 7
Part B: Strengthening Historically Black Colleges and Universities …………………………………. 7
Historically Black Graduate and Professional Institutions………………………………………….. 8
Part C: Endowment Challenge Grants …………………………………………………………………………… 8
Part D: Historically Black College and University Capital Financing ……………………………….. 8
Part E: Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program ……………………………………. 8
Part F: Strengthening Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Other
Minority-Serving Institutions ……………………………………………………………………………………. 9
Hispanic Serving-Institutions Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math and
Articulation Program………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
Part G: General Provisions ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
Title IV: Student Assistance ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9
Part A: Grants to Students in Attendance at Institutions of Higher Education …………………… 10
Subpart 1: Federal Pell Grants ……………………………………………………………………………… 10
Subpart 2: TRIO and GEAR UP …………………………………………………………………………… 11
Subpart 3: Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants (FSEOG) ……………… 12
Subpart 4: LEAP and GAP …………………………………………………………………………………… 13
Subpart 5: Special Programs for Students Whose Families Are Engaged in
Migrant and Seasonal Farmwork ……………………………………………………………………….. 13
Subpart 6: Robert C. Byrd Honors Scholarship Program (Byrd) ……………………………….. 13
Subpart 7: Child Care Access Means Parents in School (CCAMPIS) ………………………… 14
Subpart 9: TEACH Grants …………………………………………………………………………………… 14
Subpart 10: Scholarships for Veteran’s Dependents…………………………………………………. 14
Part B: Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program………………………………………………. 14
Part C: Federal Work-Study Programs ………………………………………………………………………… 15
Part D: William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan (Direct Loan) Program ……………………………… 16
Direct Subsidized Loans………………………………………………………………………………………. 17
Direct Unsubsidized Loans ………………………………………………………………………………….. 17
Direct PLUS Loans …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17
Consolidation Loans……………………………………………………………………………………………. 18
Congressional Research Service
The Higher Education Act (HEA): A Primer
Part E: Federal Perkins Loans ……………………………………………………………………………………. 18
Part F: Need Analysis ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 19
Part G: General Provisions Relating to Student Assistance Programs ……………………………… 19
Part H: Program Integrity ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 20
Subpart 1: State Role …………………………………………………………………………………………… 20
Subpart 2: Accrediting Agency Recognition …………………………………………………………… 21
Subpart 3: Eligibility and Certification Procedures………………………………………………….. 21
Part I: Competitive Loan Auction Pilot Program ………………………………………………………….. 21
Title V: Developing Institutions ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 21
Part A: Hispanic-Serving Institutions ………………………………………………………………………….. 21
Part B: Promoting Postbaccalaureate Opportunities for Hispanic Americans……………………. 21
Part C: General Provisions ………………………………………………………………………………………… 22
Title VI: International Education Programs ……………………………………………………………………….. 22
Part A: International and Foreign Language Studies ……………………………………………………… 22
Part B: Business and International Education Programs ………………………………………………… 23
Part C: Institute for International Public Policy ……………………………………………………………. 23
Part D: General Provisions ………………………………………………………………………………………… 23
Title VII: Graduate and Postsecondary Improvement Programs …………………………………………… 23
Part A: Graduate Education Programs …………………………………………………………………………. 23
Part B: Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE) …………………………. 24
Part D: Programs to Provide Students with Disabilities with a Quality Higher
Education ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24
Part E: College Access Challenge Grant Program (CACG) ……………………………………………. 25
Title VIII: Additional Programs ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 25
Tables
Table A-1. Funding for HEA-authorized programs, FY2009-2013 ……………………………………….. 28
Table C-1. Comprehensive Reauthorizations of the Higher Education Act of 1965 ………………… 45
Appendixes
Appendix A. History of Funding for HEA Programs: FY2009-FY2013. ……………………………….. 27
Appendix B. General Education Provisions Act …………………………………………………………………. 43
Appendix C. Previous HEA Reauthorizations ……………………………………………………………………. 45
Contacts
Author Contact Information…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 46
Key Policy Staff …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 46
Congressional Research Service
The Higher Education Act (HEA): A Primer
Introduction
The Higher Education Act of 1965 (HEA; P.L. 89-329), as amended, authorizes a broad array of
federal student aid programs that assist students and their families with financing the cost of a
postsecondary education, as well as programs that provide federal support to postsecondary
institutions of higher education (IHEs). Programs authorized by the HEA provide support for
higher education in several ways, including providing support to students in financing a
postsecondary education, with additional support and services given to less-advantaged students;
providing support to students pursing international education and certain graduate and
professional degrees; and providing support to IHEs in improving their capacity and ability to
offer postsecondary education programs.
The Department of Education (ED) administers the programs authorized by the HEA. The most
prominent programs under the HEA are the Title IV programs that provide financial assistance to
students and their families. In FY2013, approximately $137.6 billion in financial assistance was
made available to 15 million students under these programs.1 In the same year, ED provided
approximately $2.3 billion in federal support to institutions of higher education under the HEA.2
The HEA was first enacted in 1965 and has since been amended and extended numerous times,
and it has been comprehensively reauthorized eight times. The most recent comprehensive
reauthorization of the HEA occurred in 2008 under the Higher Education Opportunity Act
(HEOA; P.L. 110-315), which authorized most HEA programs through FY2014. Following the
passage of the HEAO, the SAFRA Act, as part of the Health Care and Education Reconciliation
Act of 2010 (P.L. 111-152), made several notable changes to the HEA. Current HEA
authorization is set to expire at the end of FY2014. However, the General Education Provisions
Act (GEPA) authorizes the appropriation of funds for HEA programs for an additional year—
through FY2015.
The HEA is organized into eight titles:
•
Title I, General Provisions;
•
Title II, Teacher Quality Enhancement;
•
Title III, Strengthening Institutions;
•
Title IV, Student Assistance;
•
Title V, Developing Institutions;
•
Title VI, International Education Programs;
•
Title VII, Graduate and Postsecondary Improvement Programs; and
•
Title VIII, Additional Programs.
This report provides a brief overview of the major provisions of the HEA, organized by title and
part. Appendix A of this report provides detailed appropriations figures for HEA-authorized
1
U.S. Department of Education, Office of Federal Student Aid, Annual Report 2013, December 11, 2013, p. iii.
Office of Management and Budget, The Appendix, Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2014, 2014,
p. 338.
2
Congressional Research Service
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The Higher Education Act (HEA): A Primer
programs, from FY2009 through FY2013. Appendix B gives a brief overview of the General
Education Provisions Act, which applies to the majority of federal education programs
administered by ED, including those programs authorized by the HEA. Finally, Appendix C
provides information related to the eight comprehensive reauthorizations that the HEA has
undergone. Other CRS reports provide more detailed discussions and analyses of the major HEA
provisions.
Title I: General Provisions
Title I of the HEA is divided into four parts and lays out definitions and provisions that generally
apply to most of the programs authorized by the HEA.
Part A: Definitions
Title I, Part A of the HEA includes two definitions of an institution of higher education (IHE).
The definition of IHE in Section 101 applies to institutional participation in HEA programs, other
than federal student aid (FSA) programs under Title IV. The definition of an IHE provided in
Section 102 applies to institutional participation in Title IV FSA programs and includes all
institutions that meet the Section 101 IHE definition and proprietary institutions (or for-profit
institutions), postsecondary vocational institutions, and foreign institutions (i.e., those located
outside of the United States). Section 102 also specifies additional conditions institutions must
meet to participate in Title IV programs, including provisions related to the types of courses and
educational programs offered, student enrollment, and institutional management.3
Section 103 contains additional definitions relevant to the HEA, such as “distance education” and
“diploma mill.”
Part B: Additional General Provisions
Part B of Title I lists additional general provisions pertaining to the HEA. It includes provisions
related to antidiscrimination based on race, religion, sex, or national origin at IHEs receiving
federal financial assistance and a Sense of Congress regarding the protection of student speech
and association rights.
Title I-B requires that IHEs adopt alcohol and drug abuse prevention programs to participate in
Title IV programs and authorizes the Secretary of Education (Secretary) to award competitive
grants to IHEs or consortia of IHEs to implement drug and alcohol prevention programs;
however, these grants have not been funded in several years.
Title I-B also grants the Secretary the authority to waive program eligibility criteria in any case in
which the criteria do not take into account any unique circumstances of the outlying areas.4
3
For additional information on institutional eligibility to participate in Title IV programs, see CRS Report R43159,
Institutional Eligibility for Participation in Title IV Student Financial Aid Programs, by Alexandra Hegji and Shannon
M. Mahan.
4
The “outlying areas” are Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern
Mariana Islands, and the Freely Associated States (the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of
(continued…)
Congressional Research Service
2
The Higher Education Act (HEA): A Primer
Other Part B provisions require that information be made available to students and their families
to help them make informed college decisions, such as requiring the Secretary to develop a
website with information about federal aid available from other federal departments and agencies
and requiring the Secretary, working with other federal agencies, to publish information to help
students, parents, and employers to identify and avoid diploma mills.5
Part B also establishes the National Advisory Committee on Institutional Quality and Integrity
(NACIQI), which is a committee tasked with assessing the process of accreditation in higher
education and the institutional eligibility and certification of IHEs to participate in Title IV
programs. Specific requirements for NACIQI, such as membership criteria and meeting
procedures, also are delineated.
Part B prohibits the development, implementation, or maintenance of a federal database
containing the personally identifiable information of students. However, this prohibition does not
apply to systems necessary for the operation of programs authorized under Titles II (Teacher
Quality Enhancement), IV (Student Assistance), or VII (Graduate and Postsecondary
Improvement Programs) and that were in use the day before the enactment of the HEOA (August
13, 2008).
Finally, Part B authorizes necessary appropriations to pay obligations incurred related to
previously funded programs supporting the construction of college housing and academic
facilities.
Part C: Cost of Higher Education
Title I, Part C includes many provisions that focus on collecting data on college costs and prices
and student characteristics. It directs the Secretary to collect and make available online, among
other information, individual IHEs’ tuition and fees; cost of attendance; acceptance rate of
undergraduate students who apply; number of first-time, full-time, and part-time students
enrolled; number of students receiving financial aid; and average amount of financial assistance
received by students.6
Other provisions require publishers that sell college textbooks and supplemental materials to
“unbundle” materials, make textbooks and each supplement to a textbook available as separate
items, and require IHEs to publish online pre-course registration and registration materials
delineating information about all required texts that will be used in the class and the retail price of
course materials.
(…continued)
Micronesia, and the Republic of Palau).
5
Diploma mills are unaccredited entities that offer degrees, diplomas, or certificates to individuals for a fee and that
require the individual to complete little or no educational coursework.
6
For instance, Part C directs the Secretary to maintain a website, the “College Navigator” website, which provides
information such as cost of attendance and net price of various IHEs to prospective students, and the Net Price
Calculator, which help …
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