Two discussion board questions related to humanitarian and international disaster management

Please read the document I attached below (Coppola – Chapter 11, Special Considerations), then answer the following two questions: 1. Discuss three disaster coordination issues.2. How would you as an Emergency Manager: Choose one of these three questionsa. prevent corruption following a disaster; b. manage compound emergencies; c. ensure equality in assistance and relief distribution.Important notes: 1- Use proper APA format for in-line citation and references 2- It must be more than three paragraphs 3- Kindly add one or more reliable resources .

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International disaster management has become increasingly diverse, encompassing new areas of technical expertise not traditionally considered relevant to the practice. The incidence of disasters is increasing, and populations
face growing risk. These trends continue despite efforts to counter them. Disaster management will remain a
global topic of concern for many decades to come. In order to continue to develop the field of risk management,
the international disaster management community will have to solve several ongoing issues of contention and
sources of uncertainty, including coordination of responders, the role of the media, the development of institutional
emergency management capacities, the political will to make risk reduction happen, the prevalence of compound
emergencies that make management much more complex, the risks associated with donor fatigue, corruption,
uncooperative governments, the importance of ensuring equality in humanitarian assistance and relief distribution,
the effect of climate change on the incidence and severity of disasters, a need for improved early warning, a true
linkage of risk reduction and development practices, and a distinction between development and reconstruction.
Terrorism will continue to play a large role in focusing the agendas of government emergency management agencies. Finally, global disasters, where all countries are affected in one way or another, will only increase in number.
Key Terms: adaptation; climate change; compound emergencies; coordination; corruption; development; donor
fatigue; early warning; equality in humanitarian assistance; global disasters; institutional capacity development;
political will; risk reduction; state sovereignty; terrorism; the media.
International disaster management has become increasingly diverse, encompassing new areas of technical expertise not traditionally considered relevant to the profession. Specialists in many fields, including development, economics, public health, sociology, political science, environmental protection,
climate change, communications, and engineering, just to name a few, are finding that their experience
and knowledge are being called upon as nations continue to address the snowballing issues of global
disaster risk.
Hazard vulnerability, disaster risk, and the management of humanitarian emergencies have risen to
the top of the global policy agenda in recent years and have remained there because of the onslaught of
catastrophic disasters in every region of the world. The disaster events of the twenty-first century have
shattered any presumptions that any nation—wealthy or poor—has solved the disaster risk and vulnerability problems. Through their awesome and destructive fury, recent disasters have proven that all
nations have much to learn about preparing for, mitigating against, responding to, and recovering from
the many forms of disasters that continue to plague us.
Chapter 1 described the increasing incidence of disasters throughout the world and the growing
hazard risk faced by the world’s population. These trends continue despite considerable efforts to
Introduction to International Disaster Management.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
counter them and, without a more concerted effort to incorporate the global disaster risk reduction
recommendations of UNISDR, the World Bank, the International Recovery Platform, and other movements, little will change. In 2013, there were 41 disaster events worldwide that each exceeded
$1 billion in damages, a number that exceeds any previous year. The year 2013 broke all previous
records in terms of the number of billion-dollar disasters that occurred worldwide. There were more
than 250 weather-related disasters that year, a number that is rising and is indicative of what may soon
be considered the norm without greater disaster management efforts by all governments. A recent study
by the journal Nature predicted that, by the year 2050, coastal cities will experience an average of $1
trillion in losses each year due to the effects of climate change—in addition to disasters caused by all
other hazard forms. Exhibit 11.1 lists a sample of these events.
• Avalanches – Nepal, United States
• Commercial airplane accidents with 10 or more fatalities – Laos, Malaysia, Namibia, Nepal, Nigeria, Russian
Federation, United States
• Complex humanitarian emergencies – Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic of Congo (source country), Egypt, Ethiopia,
Iraq, Jordan, Mali (source country), Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, Sudan, South Sudan (source country), Syria (source
country), Turkey, Uganda
• Epidemics and pandemics – Benin (cholera), Cameroon (polio), Costa Rica (dengue), El Salvador (dengue), Equatorial
Guinea (polio), Guatemala (dengue), Guinea (Ebola, measles), Fiji (dengue), Honduras (dengue), Iraq (polio), Laos
(dengue), Liberia (Ebola), Mexico (dengue), Namibia (cholera), Nicaragua (dengue), Nigeria (cholera), Pakistan
(dengue), Panama (dengue), Sierra Leone (Ebola), South Sudan (cholera, measles), Sudan (yellow fever), Syria (polio),
Timor-Leste (dengue), Togo (cholera), Uganda (measles)
• Extreme cold/heat – Bolivia, Occupied Palestinian Territory, Peru, United States
• Famine or malnutrition exceeding 25 percent of the population – Burkina Faso, Botswana, Burundi, Central African
Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Haiti, Iraq, Kenya, Laos, Liberia, Madagascar,
Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, North Korea, Occupied Palestinian Territories, Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Sierra
Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe
• Flooding – Afghanistan, Balkans, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,
Central African Republic, Colombia, Dominica, Georgia, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kiribati, Laos, Mali,
Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, North Korea, Pakistan, Paraguay, Philippines,
Romania, Russian Federation, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent, Seychelles, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Sri
Lanka, Sudan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, The Grenadines, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zimbabwe
• Hurricanes, cyclones, typhoons – Cambodia, China, Comoros, Fiji, India, Laos, Mexico, Micronesia, Palau,
Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Taiwan, Thailand, Tonga, Vanuatu, Viet Nam
• Landslides/mudslides – Afghanistan, Bolivia, Brazil, Burundi, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Philippines,
• Major bus and roadway accidents – Afghanistan, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Egypt, Guatemala, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Romania, South
Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Togo, Turkey, Russian Federation, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States
• Maritime disasters – Democratic Republic of Congo, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Libya, Malaysia, Malta, Panama,
Philippines, Somalia, South Korea, South Sudan, Thailand, Turkey, Yemen
• Rail accidents – Argentina, Canada, China, Democratic Republic of Congo, Denmark, Estonia, France, India,
Indonesia, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, Netherlands, Pakistan, Russian Federation, South Korea, Spain, Ukraine,
United Kingdom, United States
• Severe drought – Bolivia, Ecuador, Pakistan, Paraguay
• Stampedes – India, Ivory Coast
? Coordination
OCCURRED, JUNE 2013 TO JUNE 2014—Cont’d
• Strong earthquakes – Chile, China, Colombia, Falkland Islands, Fiji, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand,
Nicaragua, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Russian Federation, Solomon Islands, United States
• Structural failures (Brazil, Colombia, India, Latvia, Malaysia, South Korea, United States)
• Structure fires – Chile, China, Russian Federation, South Korea, United States, Viet Nam
• Terrorist attacks – Afghanistan, Bahrain, Belgium, Central African Republic, China, Colombia, Egypt, Ethiopia, India,
Indonesia, Iraq, Israel, Kenya, Kosovo, Lebanon, Libya, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan,
Philippines, Russian Federation, Somalia, South Korea, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, United States, Yemen
• Tornadoes – Australia, Belgium, France, Japan, United Kingdom, United States
• Volcanoes – Chile, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Peru, United States, Vanuatu
• Widespread civil unrest – Argentina, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, China, France, Ireland, Jordan, Kenya,
Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Turkey, Ukraine, United States, Viet Nam
• Wildfires – Australia, Canada, Chile, United States
As shown by the efforts taken by governments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multilateral organizations to find solutions to the skyrocketing financial and human losses from disasters,
disaster management will remain a global topic of concern for many decades to come. The Hyogo
Framework for Action (HFA) Monitor shows promising indications that the efforts of the UN Office for
Disaster Risk Reduction, the various regional organizations, and many nations’ governments have done
more in the past decade to reduce disaster threats than has occurred throughout history. And in response
to the outpouring of concern by the world’s population to the recent great loss of life and property
resulting from disasters such as those listed in Exhibit 11.1 and many others discussed in this text,
world leaders have committed to taking serious actions to reduce risk and vulnerability before future
disasters occur.
In coming years, as the international community seeks to control increasing global risk, and as the
international disaster management community begins to assume a more central and organized stance,
several key issues continue to pose a challenge. While many of these problems have long existed without being adequately addressed, others are newly discovered and will require new solutions. In either
case, these issues stand as challenges to the progress of international disaster management. This chapter
presents several of these new and existing problems, which are certain to remain on the forefront of
international disaster management for quite some time.
Disaster response grows in complexity each year as a greater number of organizations and frameworks
expand the realm of international disaster management. Whereas dozens of agencies used to converge
upon the scene of an earthquake or flood, there are now hundreds, and occasionally, thousands. These
organizations address events in a series of waves, some just in the initial hours and days, and others
remaining on site for months or years. In response to the December 2004 tsunami events, for example,
more than 200 organizations addressed the single issue of water quality, while thousands more provided food aid, shelter, medical assistance, and many other victim and rehabilitation needs. Operations
occurred in multiple countries and multiple regions, and lasted for many years.
Studies have found that, despite coordination attempts, many of the responding agencies still tend
to, and in some cases prefer to, work independently and in an uncoordinated manner. This typically
increases the severity of delays and inefficiencies in the distribution and provision of relief. Decreased
participation in coordination mechanisms results in lags, gaps, and inaccuracies in the vital information
on which response and recovery depends.
However, at times, the issue is not a failure of initiative or a resistance to participate. Coordination
mechanisms, even when they exist, are not always all-inclusive or accessible. There are many instances
where very small NGOs and local community organizations involved in response are willing to work
together in a more coordinated manner, but are left out of the coordination planning processes before
and during disaster response simply because the systems are not in place to include them or there is
little awareness of their existence.
Coordination in disaster response has always been difficult, especially in terms of civil–military
cooperation. As the scope of disaster management grows, coordination will only grow in complexity
until a suitable mechanism is agreed on by all actors. Previous shortfalls contributed to the creation of
coordination mechanisms such as the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian
Affairs (OCHA; see chapter 10). OCHA has proven effective as a coordinator in several disaster
responses because of its close relationship to the overall UN system, whose agencies maintain longstanding relationships with developing country governments, where the most catastrophic disasters are
likely to occur. However, OCHA lacks the authority to ensure all participating response and recovery
agencies operate “on the same page.” While such authority is unlikely to be granted to any single
national, international, or non-governmental organization, greater trust in, understanding of, and positive experiences with organizations like OCHA may lead to increased participation in their coordination structures.
Increased coordination has been shown to reduce the period of time between when the disaster
occurs and when relief is provided. It also helps to increase the area covered by assistance efforts,
decrease costs associated with the provision of supplies and assistance, and standardize the quality of
relief, among many other positive results. Effective disaster response coordination is the foundation on
which increased international disaster response capacity will be built. Some countries have taken steps
to develop national-level cluster systems that mirror the UN Cluster System in order to recreate the
organizational planning and operations it facilitates in disasters that do not rise to the international
level. Other countries are exploring expansion of the Emergency Support Function concept to include
non-traditional and non-governmental organizations and resources. There is no one-size-fits-all solution, and every event is unique with regard to coordination needs, so this area of focus will continue to
be a central area of focus as disaster management capacity is addressed at all functional levels.
It is well known that the news media capitalizes on the spectacular nature of crises and disasters, broadcasting vivid images, heartbreaking tragedies, harrowing tales of survival, and public accusations of
blame. This kind of reporting attracts viewers or readers and increases ratings. For centuries, the news
media has exploited death, destruction, and victimization—first in newspapers, and later on radio and
television. Today, thanks to technological advances, the media has found access to once unimaginable
places. Because of nonstop news coverage and the expansion of Internet- and wireless-based news
? The Media
services (such as cellular and handheld computer systems), the world today receives real-time disaster
information, which only a decade ago would have been old news by the time it reached consumers.
Disaster management officials and the news media have traditionally enjoyed a love/hate relationship, with disaster management agencies viewing the media more as an adversary than an ally. The
media, likewise, viewed responders as standoffish, untrusting, and secretive. With the advent of effective media partnerships and increased disaster-specific education for members of the press, however,
the news media is beginning to be recognized for the significant benefits it may offer disaster management. For instance:
• Through media partnership, more effective risk communication is possible. Chapter 5 described
studies that identify the media as the primary source of risk reduction information for many
significant hazards. The media is able to reach individuals and households in ways risk managers
could never do on their own or through alternate sources.
• No system has proved more effective than the news media in alerting emergency management
organizations and citizens alike about the onset of sudden disasters. Early warning messages
broadcast by emergency managers via television, radio, and the Internet have proven highly
effective. The news media has proven capable of transmitting messages about evacuation, medical assistance, and other emergency-related information. Additionally, emergency managers often
learn of impending disasters by watching or listening to media outlets. The news media maintains
some of the most effective methods for recognizing events in progress and transmitting that information rapidly. For instance, it was discovered in the after-action reporting on the response to the
September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in the United States that many, if not most, US government
officials first learned of the attacks from media giant CNN.
• The media is effective at alerting the world to slow-onset disasters that may otherwise go unnoticed until becoming a full-fledged catastrophe. Drought, famine, and many complex humanitarian
emergencies develop over a long period of time, during which intervention is much more effective. Even where knowledge of certain slow-onset emergencies exists, the media provides images
and stories that allow citizens to understand and prioritize the events in relation to other existing
issues. The media can thus mobilize concerned citizens, who pressure governments and multilateral organizations to take proper action. This coverage is also effective in motivating the same
concerned citizens to increase philanthropic giving, on which humanitarian organizations depend.
• The news media is effective at identifying corruption and mismanagement, helping to reduce both.
In their investigative role, news outlets help raise awareness about unethical and inappropriate
forms of response and recovery that often stymie disaster management efforts. The information
they gather proves valuable long beyond the disasters, as it is later used to guide the improvement
and restructuring of future response and recovery efforts.
• The media is able to act as a member of the emergency management team if provided the tools
to do so. The media relies on accurate data and informed officials to provide viewers with usable
information. By providing the media with these resources and helping them to understand the
dynamics of disaster management, disaster managers can increase the likelihood that the public is
well informed.
Of course, many of the grievances emergency managers have against the media are based, in part,
on truth and experience—and many of these problems persist. For instance, the media is not consistently accurate in their emergency assessments and has made some situations appear worse than they
actually are. The media often select “experts” who are likely to provide alarmist viewpoints that reflect
worst-case scenarios and extreme predictions. As a result, resources can be directed away from more
important but less publicized issues.
The media can cause donor fatigue because of the excessive coverage of disaster after disaster. This
blanket coverage can result in lower concern for the plight of disaster victims, which can negatively
impact philanthropic giving. Donors may feel that the world’s problems are so extreme that their individual efforts are meaningless, which leads them to decrease or even cease their giving.
Accuracy of information is also an issue of …
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