two page history article analysis

Two readings are attached as primary sources, textbook is also available via google drive link. Past history paper is attached for reference.You must use endnotes when documenting sources.Okay bro so on this one here is what she said to do. its due electronically at 5 pm. Monday.So I had to pick two articles from the time period of the war on poverty and find a way to relate them to the chapter in the book on the war on poverty from the last paper. She said it did not have to be completely different, but she wants to see me research articles from that time and make sense of the sources along with showing that I understand them and how they relate to the chapter. So some of the same stuff can be in this one, but it has to use these two sources instead of the last ones that we used. It just has to be 2 pages. She also said to have endnotes for my sources within the paper. I found some pretty short articles that relate so it wouldn’t be too hard to do. The book chapter is: Chapter 5 in the A Life in The Struggle book by Ivory Perry, titled The war on poverty:The emergence of an organic intellectual.…^book for download.


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Herndon 1
Tre Herndon
Professor Williams
Hist 2690
April 2, 2018
The War on Poverty and the Black Liberation
In January 2014, House Speaker Paul Ryan stated that the War on Poverty had failed.
Ryan was speaking at a dinner that was held to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of date
President Lyndon Johnson coined the term “War on Poverty,” which was his State of the
Union Address of 1964. Ryan did not have to justify his claims because it is fairly known that
all conservatives hold this view. Up to now, liberals and conservatives are fighting over
whether the war on poverty has failed over the years since Johnson launched it. The war on
Poverty is an event that has affected millions of people in the United States, especially in the
first decade after it was launched. It is an event that had some implications for the black
power movement and the affairs of the African American community. The program later
stopped and had been criticized for not achieving the goals it set out to achieve. Though the
War on Poverty had provided some positive change for poor black people such as jobs and
housing opportunities, it later failed due to lack of coordinated efforts and poor funding.
The War on Poverty
The War on Poverty refers to the street name for the statute that was introduced by
U.S. President Lyndon Johnson in his January 1964 State of the Union Address to the nation.
The statute was developed by the Johnson administration as a means of eliminating or
addressing the high rates of poverty at the time. According to Lipsitz (1995) in his A Life in
the Struggle, the U.S. Congress, following the speech, passed the Economic Opportunity Act
Herndon 2
(EOA) (Lipsitz 135). The EOA put in place the Office of the Economic Opportunity (OEO),
an institution tasked with facilitating the local use of federal money intended for the
elimination of poverty.
Johnson had the vision to increase the federal government’s functions in health care
and education as the two ways through which the issue of poverty could be best addressed.
The OEO was a continuation of, or in line with, the New Deal engineered by Franklin D.
Roosevelt and which had continued from 1933 to 1937 (Congress 14). President Johnson
articulated that his goal was not only to reduce poverty, but also to treat it and prevent it. The
OEO was tasked with helping to improve the lives of 40 million people in the United States.
Its responsibilities were, therefore, enormous and the stakes were high.
However, despite these huge responsibilities, the American public was highly divided
on whether the OEO would achieve its grand vision. According to Lipsitz, the poll firm
Gallup found in March 1964 that a shocking eighty-three percent of Americans believed that
poverty was could never be kicked out the United States (136). A further thirty-three percent
felt that underprivileged people were themselves to blame due to their laziness or lack of
effort. Twenty-nine percent attributed poverty to forces or factors beyond their control while
the rest blamed the problem on laziness and extrinsic circumstances. A significant part of the
American people held the view that those who could not become rich in such a rich country
had some internal flaws that affected their economic growth.
Structural issues were making it difficult for poor people, especially poor black
Americans, from attaining economic prosperity. During the post-war era, a period when the
unemployment rate for white people was between three and six percent, the figure for
African-American unemployment was more than ten percent (Lipsitz 136). In some places,
Herndon 3
black unemployment rates reach up to forty percent. Black workers arrived at the urban areas
when machines had reduced production jobs and unions controlled by other racial groups had
wielded political influence.
The promise of the War on Poverty had, to a degree, provided some positive change
for poor black people. Initiatives such as Head Start of the federal government were
restructured to help local anti-poverty organizations (Congress 123). In industrial cities such
as New York, Los Angeles, and Baltimore, African-Americans were motivated and energized
by the black power and civil rights crusade to establish black-run local organizations during
the 1960s and 1970s. These community organizations helped secure jobs, cultural initiatives,
housing programs, and credit facilities, a significant number of which operate until today.
But the program would soon present challenges for black civil rights leaders such as
Ivory Perry who had tried to empower their communities. Activists and organizers were
attracted to the black power movement to cause a change. They did not relax after getting
anti-poverty grants and programs. Instead, they move ahead to confront the federal and state
governments who had by now resorted to political tactics such as “maximum feasible
participation” to delegate anti-poverty programs to local committees to reduce cost (Lipsitz
139). This model attracted poor blacks to the federally funded but locally run anti-poverty
networks but without giving them control of anti-poverty institutions and mechanisms such as
welfare systems, school boards, housing committees, and police committees.
Further, the War on Poverty was seen as ineffective within the African-American
community. It was criticized for having “local” representatives from the various sectors were
included in OEO boards to give the board the semblance of localism and reduce any radical
behavior by poor blacks (Lipsitz 139). Dr. Martin Luther King dismissed the War on Poverty
because it was too thin to eliminate poverty. For King, the programs coordinated under the
Herndon 4
scheme such as housing and credit unions were unfair to the black community because they
were not carried out in an organized way. He further blamed American efforts in the Vietnam
War as having brought the War on Poverty to a halt. In this regard, the financial investments
of the government in the war meant that focussing on the plight of poor Americans was not a
The War on Poverty’s bubble burst in the 1970s due to the increased criticism of the
welfare state and a philosophical change to minimizing aid to poor people during the 1980s
and early 1990s. It ended officially with the President Bill Clinton’s Personal Responsibility
and Work Opportunity Act, which Clinton stated to have ended effectively welfare, as
America had known it.
President Lyndon Johnson invented the term “War on Poverty,” during his State of
the Union Address of 1964. The War on Poverty, an issue that divides conservatives and
liberals up to date, was an event that had some implications for the black power movement
and the affairs of the African American community. It was a landmark developed by the
Johnson administration as a means of eliminating or addressing the high rates of poverty at
the time. The Office of the Economic Opportunity, which was set up under the Economic
Opportunity Act. Though the War on Poverty had provided some positive change for poor
black people such as jobs and housing opportunities, it later failed due to lack of coordinated
efforts and inadequate funding.
Herndon 5
Works Cited
Lipsitz, George. A life in the Struggle: Ivory Perry and the Culture of Opposition. Temple
Press, 1995.
United States Congress. Examination of the War on Poverty: Hearings Before the
Subcommittee on
Employment, Manpower, and Poverty of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare,
United States Senate, Ninetieth Congress, First Session on Examining the War on Poverty.
Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1967. Print.
Shriver Promises To Speed Up Poverty War
Cassels, Louis
Chicago Daily Defender (Daily Edition) (1960-1973); Dec 30, 1964;
ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Chicago Defender
pg. 6
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
President maps war on poverty
Afro-American (1893-1988); Mar 28, 1964; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The Baltimore Afro-American
pg. 14
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

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