Two responses for two discussion board posts related to humanitarian disaster management

The discussion board is about recovery phase in disasters. Please read the attached two discussion board posts below, then respond to these two posts (in about 80 words) in the same documents. Each response must be with a reference. Important notes: 1- Each response must be informative, without asking any questions. 2- Use APA format for citation and references 3- Each reference must be reliable and scholar resource. 4- Kindly, write your response in the same documents named as response for post 1 and response for post 2.
post_1.docx

post_2.docx

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Post 1:
1. What role does community and economic development play in recovery?
Following a major disaster, many organizations rush in to provide
immediate humanitarian assistance for a short duration in the response or
relief phase. Sometimes the recovery phase can last years, and it can take
even longer for the region’s economic viability to renew (Coppola, 2015).
When a major disaster has affected an entire community, there are typically
long-term projects in the recovery phase including infrastructure,
permanent housing, and the reconstruction of the social construct of the
region (Amin & Goldstein, 2008). The overall objective of this phase postdisaster is to allow a community to get back to a level of normalcy.
Depending on the size and effects of the disaster, the population may not
be able to return to the way things used to be, but most people should be
able to resume their roles in society in some form. Once employers have
rebuilt worksites and people are back in their homes, children can resume
their schooling, and working adults can return to their jobs. Feeling useful
and serving a purpose in their community helps individuals recover from a
disaster, and a sense of belonging increases personal and community
resilience.
Community and economic recovery is typically financed and executed by
government entities, as well as non-governmental organizations (NGOs).
Communities need to have input in the plans of development organizations,
prioritizing the needs of the people versus what the NGO considers to be
most important. Humanitarian agencies should engage the local community
to ensure their needs are met in a culturally sensitive way, and agree on
benchmarking to determine when the recovery phase has ended. Once the
population has arrived to a level of sustainable livelihood, humanitarian
agencies should withdraw their involvement (Régnier, Neri, Scuteri, &
Miniati, 2008).
References:
Amin, S., Goldstein, M (2008). Data against Natural Disasters, Establishing
Effective Systems for Relief, Recovery, and Reconstruction, The
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World
Bank. Pgs 31-32.
Coppola, D. P., & Coppola, D. P. (2015). Recovery. Introduction to
International Disaster Management (pp. 405–460).
Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-801477-6.00007-1
Régnier, P., Neri, B., Scuteri, S., & Miniati, S. (2008). From emergency
relief to livelihood recovery: Lessons learned from post-tsunami
experiences in Indonesia and India. Disaster Prevention and Management.
410-430. Retrieved
from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/237332427_From_emergency_relief_to_livelihoo
d_recovery_Lessons_learned_from_post-tsunami_experiences_in_Indonesia_and_India
2. Recovery is an essential part of disaster management. However, it is
not well supported. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Provide
your thoughts on this topic and substantiate your opinion.
Funding for the recovery stage could come from a multitude of sources:
government-based emergency relief funds, donations, loans, catastrophe
bonds and weather derivatives, private development funding, incentives,
and tax increases, as well as insurance reimbursements (Coppola, 2015)
(Amin & Goldstein, 2008). Financial and in-kind contributions come from
other governments, non-governmental organizations, charity organizations,
the private sector, and private citizens, including remittances (Coppola,
2015). Grants and loans are frequently difficult to find, and often come with
stipulations, so leaders need to be sure that the funding meets the goals
and needs of their community. In order to achieve recovery goals, the
World Bank , as well as other regional banks, can offer their expertise
nations related to planning, budgeting, lending, market analysis, project
management and coordination, technical assistance and support
(Govindaraj, Herbst, and Clark, 2018).
Amin, S., Goldstein, M (2008). Data against Natural Disasters, Establishing
Effective Systems for Relief, Recovery, and Reconstruction, The
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World
Bank. Pgs 31-32.
Coppola, D. P., & Coppola, D. P. (2015). Recovery. Introduction to
International Disaster Management (pp. 405–460).
Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-801477-6.00007-1
Govindaraj, R., Herbst C.H., Clark J.P. (Eds). (2018). Strengthening postEbola health systems: From response to resilience in Guinea, Liberia, and
Sierra Leone. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The
World Bank.
Post 2:
What role does community and economic development play in recovery?
Economic development can be defined as efforts that are carried out to improve the
economic well being a community by and their quality if life by creating more job
opportunities, increasing literacy rates, supporting and growing income etc., all to
improve the resiliency and sustainability. For the this to be successful, active
participation by the community is vital. Therefore, the community plays a very important
role by actively participating. They should be allowed to define their own standards and
goals, control more resources and redirect redevelopment activities following a disaster,
with an ambition of long term social and economic development, thereby contributing to
recovery.
The community should also be involved in the part of recovery that contributes to
hazard mitigation. This gives them the chance to alter their physical structures and
develop them in such a way to mitigate a future hazard vulnerability. These kinds of
activities are typically the strongest immediately following a disaster, and hence the
community should be encouraged to take more responsibilities rather than treating them
as helpless victims. It has been pointed out that by developing appropriate construction
policies, standards and repairs, and letting a community rebuild on their own with these
standards can result in low-risk disaster structures, compared to pre-disaster conditions,
as long-standing community problems are resolved through this reconstruction. This
significantly contributes to economic and social development.
Communities also need to collectively work amongst each other, especially soon after
the impact. This would help facilitate timely and equitable distribution of aid during the
initial recovery stages. Having prior recovery and redevelopment plans contribute
enormously to development and reconstruction post disaster. Planning can also aid in
identifying the capacity and skills of every individual in the community which can be
utilized in the vent od disaster reconstruction. A good example is, a community in Aceh,
Indonesia who were approached after the Tsunami and taught how to build their
communities with earthquake resistant materials, methods and techniques. Though it
took a while, the community rebuild their village in the most sustainable and resilient
way, which also promoted self-resiliency.
Recovery is an essential part of disaster management. However, it is not well
supported. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Provide your thoughts on this
topic and substantiate your opinion.
Considering the recent situation around the world, I do not agree with this statement.
International organizations such as the UNHCR for example, have been diligently
focusing on long-term recovery and development currently. After the initial short-term
recovery by providing food, water, and other essentials, primary focus has been on long
term development such as education, employment and mental health recovery and
resiliency. Many initiatives such as a UN women initiative to train Syrian Refugee
women in income generating activities such as sewing, and handcrafting have helped
women get employment and provide for their families. Recovery is indeed a very
essential part of disaster management, as recovery, redevelopment and reconstruction
are a part of mitigation, for any future disasters. UNHCR and UNICEF, for instance have
acknowledged the fact that, children are the future, and have heavily invested in their
recovery by providing mental health services, education and other essential services.
the same goes for women too, as investing in women have proven to improve a nations
socio-economic development drastically. More women have been involved in decision
making, which is a step towards recovery on its own. Hence as stated before, several
organizations and governments currently have invested in such efforts and activities to
improve resiliency worldwide.
The world has increasingly realized that disasters and humanitarian crises are
unpredictable, and hence there are dedicated organizations, foundations and
governments with goals and objectives that support any and every recovery effort and
activity exclusively. This allows a community, city or nation that have previously been
affected by a disaster or crisis, to rebuild sustainably and more resilient to thereby,
mitigate, prepare and respond better to any future disaster or humanitarian crisis that it
faces.
Berke, P. R., Kartez, J., & Wenger, D. (1993). Recovery after disaster: achieving sustainable
development, mitigation and equity. Disasters, 17(2), 93-109.
Strömberg, D. (2007). Natural disasters, economic development, and humanitarian aid. Journal of
Economic perspectives, 21(3), 199-222.
Jabbar, S. A., & Zaza, H. I. (2016). Evaluating a vocational training programme for women
refugees at the zaatari camp in jordan: Women empowerment: A journey and not an
output. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 21(3), 304-319.
doi:10.1080/02673843.2015.1077716
Post-conflict reconstruction: The importance of women’s participation. Retrieved Feb 14, 2018,
from https://www.cfr.org/report/post-conflict-reconstruction-importance-womens-participation
Sirin, S. R., & Rogers-Sirin, L. (2015). The educational and mental health needs of Syrian refugee
children. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute.

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