Research mandatory reporting requirements for EMS personnel in your own state. Write an essay to include a clearintroduction of the topic that at a minimum identifies the following:What patient conditions, activities, or environmental findings are EMS personnel legally obligated to report in your state?To whom must EMS professionals report their suspicions or concerns in order to meet the mandatory reportingrequirements?What repercussions are possible if EMS professionals are aware of mandatory reporting conditions and fail to report?Your paper should be a minimum of two pages, not including the title and reference pages.You must use a minimum of three sources, one of which may be your textbook. These may include peer-reviewed articles,professional organization websites, and government websites/documents.All sources used must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations. All referencesand citations used must be in APA style.

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EMS Professionalism
Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VIII
Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:
2. Summarize federal and state legislation that govern EMS.
2.1 Assess the responsibilities of EMS professionals as mandated reporters.
2.2 Explore the various professional organizations and efforts that affect EMS legislation.
Learning Outcomes
Learning Activity
Unit Lesson
Unit VIII Essay
Unit VIII Essay
Unit Lesson
Chapter 13
Chapter 14
Reading Assignment
Chapter 13:
Professional Organizations
Chapter 14:
Advocating for Change
Unit Lesson
Emergency medical service (EMS) professionals are facing new challenges as healthcare environments shift
and reimbursement methods change. There has not been a significant change in the education path to
become an emergency medical technician (EMT) or paramedic in almost a decade. There has been greater
compliance with reaching a consensus nationally on skills and competencies for all levels of EMS providers.
Just as these emergency or prehospital hills seem to be flattening, new or extended versions of these skills
and competencies are in demand. Because EMS is established through state law, making significant changes
to the practice of EMS professionals is not always easy. One method of approaching these changing needs is
through involvement with professional organizations. Nationally there are several professional
EMS organizations.
The National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians (NAEMT) is best known for its representation of
field level providers. NAEMT was formed in 1975, and there are over 20 state and country associations that
are affiliated with it. There are no specific state chapters for this organization, so if there are issues specific to
a state, the state level association members must work to advance their position. Not only does NAEMT
provide for advancement of the EMS profession, they also have a mission of educating EMS personnel
through specific training courses devoted to the EMS profession. One of their greatest contributions to the
profession is their interaction at the federal level to represent EMS personnel on any issue that might
influence the ability for EMS professionals to safely serve their patients. This is not limited to issues that are
specific only to the field provider but may also include agency issues such as reimbursement or legal issues
such as access to emergency medications (Murphy, 2015).
EMS 4303, Legal, Political, and Regulatory Environment in Emergency Medical Service Systems
The National Association of EMS Educators (NAEMSE) represents EMS educators across the country. It also
is a national level association with no specific state chapters. It has assumed a leading role in developing
curricula that support the EMS educator. It offers instructor courses, as well as continuing education through
an annual conference, which also supports networking among EMS educators. It is consistently moving
toward a national certification for the EMS educator. EMS programs specifically training paramedic level
providers must now hold accreditation by the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education
Programs (CAAHEP). Within CAAHEP, the Committee on Accreditation of Educational Programs for
Emergency Medical Services Professions is the organization specific to EMS programs. They review the
program and make recommendations to CAAHEP for accreditation where appropriate.
The National EMS Management Association (NEMSMA) was formed to support leadership and management
in EMS systems regardless of the type of organizational structure. Every level of EMS professional can join
depending on their membership type. As part of their advancement of the EMS profession, specifically those
who are managers or leaders of EMS organizations, they are beginning to offer credentialing exams for the
three levels of EMS officers: supervising, managing, and executive. As part of this initiative, they are requiring
a minimum of an associate’s degree at the supervising officer level, bachelor’s degree at the managing level,
and a master’s degree at the executive level. Their position is that college education is a necessity for EMS
professionals to succeed in the future.
Physicians who specialize in EMS also have an organization geared to representation of their interests. The
National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP) was formed in 1984 to provide a peer group organization
that serves as a resource for EMS physicians and other EMS personnel. It also advocates for EMS related
issues at the federal level. Prehospital Emergency Care is the official peer-reviewed journal of the six national
associations representing EMS professionals. These include NAEMT, NAEMSE, NEMSMA, and NAEMSP, as
well as the National Association of State EMS Officials, and the National Registry of Emergency Medical
Technicians (NREMT).
EMS organizations may also be accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Ambulance Services
(CAAS). CAAS was formed in 1990 in response to findings of a needs assessment conducted by the
American Ambulance Association in 1982. The first agencies received accreditation in 1993, and more than
170 agencies are accredited today throughout the United States, Canada, and West Indies. Earning CAAS
accreditation requires a commitment to standards that support a high quality EMS organization. Earning
CAAS accreditation also speaks to your community, local officials, medical practitioners, and staff. It says that
the organization is committed to delivery of high quality care to its patients in accordance with national
standards. Since it is voluntary, it also demonstrates a willingness to be independently reviewed for
compliance with the established standards (Murphy, 2015).
Professionals of any type seek involvement and interaction with other professionals. It is important for the
EMS administrator to actively participate in professional associations specific to their EMS organization and
position. Some of these activities may require advocacy at the local, state, or federal level. Most EMS
organizations at the federal level engage in political activities and hire lobbyists to represent association
interests. State level associations also engage in political activities to ensure EMS interests are represented
or considered with the passage of new legislation or changes to existing regulations. At the local level, EMS
administrators may find themselves actively working within the municipal infrastructure to obtain budget
approval or request capital expenditures. There may also be opportunities to develop statutes that protect the
interest of EMS personnel and organizations.
One of the most fundamental needs for the EMS profession at this point in time is representation and
participation in the development of future activities and education. As reimbursement and medical landscapes
change, there is risk for EMS organizations to continue operating in the manner they have become
accustomed. In the past, much of EMS was shaped by leaders from the same organizations representing
interests that were not always directly aligned with those an EMS professional might identify. If EMS as an
industry hopes to retain current control over what care is provided, in what environment, and by what
personnel, there must be active participation in committees, associations, and advisory councils who will
contribute to those changes.
Every EMS administrator should take time to explore who is representing EMS at the state and federal level.
Every state has a regulatory infrastructure, state level leadership, advisory boards, and professional
associations that contribute to the development of EMS in the state. Some of these positions may be
appointed by state level politicians, and some may serve as representatives for other organizations. Unless
EMS 4303, Legal, Political, and Regulatory Environment in Emergency Medical Service Systems
the EMS administrator takes the time to research what opportunities may be available, it is unlikely there will
be representation that specifically recognizes any needs the organization may have.
Networking supports the ability of the EMS administrator to connect with other EMS professionals who may
share needs or ideas relative to the development of the EMS industry. Networking opportunities may arise
from attendance at professional conferences at the state or national level, membership in professional
associations, enrollment in management courses at the college or university level, and participation in
volunteer groups specific to EMS related issues. This may include test item writing workshops at NREMT or
subspecialty committees at NAEMT. It is also important for the EMS administrator to remain current on
industry specific issues that may be covered in EMS publications such as EMS World, the Journal of
Emergency Medical Services, or Prehospital Emergency Care. There are also websites dedicated to EMSrelated issues through fire or public safety associations. Depending on the type of organization where the
EMS administrator is employed, there is opportunity to engage others in professional dialogue. Training
opportunities as well as participation in major incidents may also allow the EMS administrator to connect with
others in the EMS profession or who have EMS responsibilities.
The latest special interest area in EMS is mobile integrated health care or community paramedicine. The
industry has recognized the need for innovative approaches to managing patients in the new healthcare
landscape. Almost every national level association has taken a proactive approach to establishing
benchmarks, needs, and standards for this evolving area of EMS. There is strong focus on how these
programs can be integrated with existing and new models of health care. The reimbursement model for these
types of programs is vastly different from the traditional EMS reimbursement structure. EMS administrators in
the future have the opportunity to provide insight and recommendations on how these programs are formed,
administered, and integrated with existing EMS models. There is no better time to enter EMS administration.
Murphy, J. K. (2015). Legal, political and regulatory environment in EMS. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Suggested Reading
In order to access the following resource, click the link below:
Each state has differing laws regarding what EMS is mandated to report and with whom they must file. This
article provides information about what type of findings or suggestive signs may prompt an EMS professional
to report child abuse or neglect.
Concialdi, M., & Read, S. (2016). Child abuse and neglect: Mandatory reporting for EMS providers. EMS
World, 45(5), 52-55. Retrieved from
Learning Activities (Non-Graded)
Non-Graded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to
submit them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information.
The textbook contains review questions at the end of each chapter. In order to reinforce learning, you are
encouraged to complete these questions, with emphasis on legal requirements specific to your own
organization and/or state. These questions may identify areas of understanding where you might benefit from
additional explanation. Any questions should be submitted through Ask the Professor for clarification so that
all students in the course can benefit from the explanation.
EMS 4303, Legal, Political, and Regulatory Environment in Emergency Medical Service Systems

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