Urinalysis Lab, materials provided. Data provided.

Please follow the materials provided to complete a lab write up. There are 4 samples and I have included an example from a previous lab write up on hematocrit, as well as lab materials from the exercise. The example is 9 pages but you can complete with as few as you need as long as it is complete.


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Blood Investigation Lab
James Lanigan
National University
Biology 202
Dr. Mark Kelly
Blood Investigation Lab
The hematocrit blood test determines the percentage of red blood cells (RBC’s) in the blood.
Blood is composed mainly of plasma and red blood cells: white blood cells and platelets make
up less than 1% of blood content. The hematocrit test indicates the percentage of blood by
volume that is composed of red blood cells. The hematocrit is a test in which a small amount of
blood (about 0.05 to 0.1ml) is placed in a thin capillary tube, the tube is sealed with wax or clay,
and then placed in a centrifuge to be spun. The red cells collect at the bottom and form a red
column and are separated from the straw-colored serum column by a small area composed of
white blood cells and platelets, called the buffy coat. The height of the total blood in the capillary
tube (red cells, white cells and serum equals 100%). The height of the red cell column divided
by the height of the total fluid in the capillary tube equals the hematocrit (percentage of RBC’s in
the total blood volume). Adult males have a normal range of 42%-54% and adult women have a
normal range of 38-46%.
Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein in red blood cells. Oxygen entering the lungs attaches to the
hemoglobin in the blood, which carries it to the tissues in the body. Anemia is the condition
where a person has less red blood cells than the normal range. When a person has anemia,
this will mean they have low levels of oxygen in their blood due to the decrease in hemoglobin
proteins which would normally be sustained through normal levels of red blood cells.
High hemoglobin levels could be indicative of polycythemia. It causes the body to make too
many red blood cells, causing the blood to be thicker than usual. This can lead to clots, heart
attacks, and strokes. High hemoglobin can be caused by dehydration, smoking, or living at high
altitudes, or it can be due to other chronic health conditions. Low hemoglobin levels usually
indicate that a person has anemia.
Methods and Materials
Subject(s)?: Dr. Kelly asked for a student to volunteer to be a subject for the lab. A female
student volunteered to be the subject for our group. The student’s name is Katelyn Tombs, she
is 21 years old; her weight is 125 lbs. Her height is 5 feet and 7 inches tall.
(1) heparinized capillary tube 75mm long 1.1-1.2 mm wide, +-.2 – 0.020 mm;
manufactured by Kimble & Chase
(1) 28 gauge “Health Care True Plus” lancet, LOT #161195NM Manufactured by Nipro
Diagnostics Inc.
Zipocrit Portable Centrifuge by LW Scientific Model: ZO-1 Rate: 10000r/min serial#902411
Tallquist Hemoglobin scale manufactured by Kemtec VCAT:12-136
Antibodies for A, B and RH factor
(1) blood typing tray
The procedure for this lab involved me, the lab researcher (James Lanigan) performing a 30
second hand wash, applying nitrile gloves,cleaning the subjects Left ring finger with an alcohol
pad, and pricking the finger with the safety lancet. Then I collected the subject blood in the
capillary tube until it was about 80% full. To secure the blood, so that it would not leak out one
end of the tub was placed in clay. The capillary tube was then loaded into the centrifuge and its
location was recorded, there are a total of 4 tube slots in the centrifuge. When 4 tubes were
loaded into the centrifuge, the timer was set for 15 minutes and then spun. Blood was also
collected into a blood typing tray, just 3 drops in each of 3 oval recesses on the tray. Next,
about 5 drops of blood were squeezed onto the Tallquist in an even, round, circular pattern so
that hemoglobin levels could be observed. Finally, after the 3 drops of blood were dropped into
each oval recess in which one is denoted A, another is denoted B and the last oval recess is
denoted B one drop of the A antibody was dropped into the A oval, one drop of B antibody was
dropped into the B oval and one drop of RH antibody was dropped into the RH antibody. After
15 minutes the centrifuge timer’s bell rang and our sample was removed.
Hematocrit Determination
To determine hematocrit we measure the length of the column of blood and plasma in the
capillary tube in centimeters. Then measure the length of the red part of the liquid in the tube in
centimeters and then measure the plasma part of the liquid in centimeters. The equation for
hematocrit is the length of the red blood cells divided by the total length of blood and plasma in
the tube.
Hemoglobin Determination
As noted previously, about 5 drops of blood were collected on the Tallquist in an even fashion in
a circular pattern. The tallquist was then compared to a hemoglobin scale which measures
hemoglobin by color. For this reason, the sample has to be compared immediately due to the
color change of blood samples with exposure to air.
Blood Type Determination
To determine blood type, an A antibody drop is placed in the blood in the oval marked A. Next a
drop of B antibody is dropped in the oval marked B. Finally, a drop of Rh antibody is placed in
the oval marked Rh. A toothpick is then used to mix the solution of antibody and blood. Last,
blood type is determined by observing which samples show signs of agglutination.
Due to not having more than 1 laboratory subject to observe only descriptive statistics could be
recorded, no analytical statistics could be calculated for the lab experiment.
Raw data collected from the experiment via recorded observation of students.
Hematocrit Results
Total length: 5.2 cm
RBC length: 2.5 cm
Plasma length: 2.7 cm
Hematocrit = 48%
In this exercise we found the subject’s hematocrit to be 48% which is outside the normal range
for a female adult. The subject is of normal height and weight, identifies as a non-smoker, does
not live at high altitude and has no known chronic illnesses.
Hemoglobin Results
Based on the color comparison, it appears our subject blood is in the normal range with above
80% hemoglobin levels, about 14.1 gms in the 90% category.
Blood Type Results
Our blood samples showed no signs of agglutination after antibodies were applied. This
reaction signifies our subject has no antibodies to A, B or Rh. This means our subject has type
O- blood.
Conclusions and Discussion
In this study, we observed the blood type, hemoglobin level and hematocrit of only one subject.
We found her hematocrit to be outside the normal range for an adult female; the subject
informed us that she has no known chronic illnesses, identifies as a non-smoker and does not
live at a high altitude For this reason we conclude that she needs to drink more water. We
found her hemoglobin level to be in the normal range for an adult female despite the subject
having a hematocrit outside the normal range. The subject has a blood type of O- which is
consistent the subject’s mother of the same blood type.
Only one student was used in this lab experiment and it was not well controlled. Additionally,
we only observed one sample from the subject on only one day without knowing her diet or
liquid intake. It is unknown if her hematocrit levels and hemoglobin levels change throughout
time for this subject based on nutrition or liquid consumption. From the data we gathered we
find her to have a hematocrit outside of the healthy range and a healthy hemoglobin level.
Based on just the results of this lab experiment, our results on the subject’s health is
inconclusive due to conflicting information from the hemoglobin test and the hematocrit test. In
order to get more accurate results, the lab experiment should be repeated several times in a
given week.

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