very important proposal draft 250 words

this is a proposal 250 words. your task is to read the file and do as next1) What is your moment, series of moments, topic, or theme? 2) What research have you done so far? 3) How is your research proving difficult. i uploaded a file that explains the whole research but at the moment you are conducting a proposal draft. it supposed to not be so difficult hopefully . please understand that this assignment (the whole research is worth 30% of my total grade ) and the proposal itself is worth 10%. if you are doing the proposal so good i will come back to you by 2 days or less to write me the rough and final draft and i will tip you so MUCH if you just get me a good grade on this assignment. the one who you will be working on is downloaded in a PDF format ( translating stories across cultures. please just be careful with it. MLA citation please.
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Your goal with this project is to contribute new knowledge to our understanding of the topics raised in
“Arts of the Contact Zone”, “Toward a Mestiza Rhetoric…”, “Translating Stories Across Cultures”,
Macbeth and the adaptations we watched, “The Man Made of Words”, and Memoirs of a Polar Bear.
You will do this by developing an original research question on translation, cross-cultural
communication, lenses/filters, rhetorical awareness, composition, mestiza rhetoric, code-meshing, etc…
and conducting research to answer that question. As in the first two assignments, you will begin by
finding a specific opportunity for conversation (a gap, tension, contradiction, ambiguity, or difficulty in
the history of the thing you isolate or in the topic more broadly). You will then go through a process that
will prove useful as you undertake research assignments in future courses:
1: develop an original research question
2: find reliable sources that help you answer that question
3: read and annotate those sources in a 4-page Annotated Bibliography
4: present your answer to that question (your claim) in a 6-page paper.
You are not restricted in the evidence you use in this essay. To the challenge of locating an
opportunity for conversation and formulating a question, therefore, this assignment adds the tricky
task of finding reliable and relevant sources and analyzing them to answer your question. If done
well, your claim will serve as a theory that could be tested against the research other students have
conducted.
Details
Your rough and final drafts should be formatted according to MLA guidelines, which you can find at
https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/
Purdue University Press
Translating Stories Across Cultures
Author(s): Carol Korn-Bursztyn
Source: Education and Culture, Vol. 14, No. 1 (Spring, 1997), pp. 18-23
Published by: Purdue University Press
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/42922421
Accessed: 12-01-2018 16:32 UTC
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18
Translating Stories Across Cultures
Carol Korn-Bursztyn
Introduction: Stories and Storytellers
Stories, and especially their resolutions are sedimented
within a web of belief and value specific to a particular
culture. The traditions or shared understandings of a culture
are communicated intergenerationally through shared social
practice, and especially through language. They suggest
paradigmatic dilemmas, and offer solutions drawing upon the
prevailing cultural beliefs and meanings. One is reminded
here of the anthropologist Clifford Geertz’s (1973) observation that the stories a society tells are an important means in
gather stories. For most these are familiar tales, heard time
and again while growing up. They encode particular ways of
being in the world, capture dim memories for historic events
or present typical dilemmas together with culturally
sanctioned solutions. The students, though, can neither
assume the authority that comes naturally to the Luba story-
teller, nor do these stories always hold the same resonance
today as they once did when heard at the family hearth.
The stories that a culture tells are intimately connected
to what Dewey referred to as “life as it is ordinarily lived”
(1934), or as it once was. Works of art, Dewey noted, lost
their
connection to ordinary life and became, instead, speciwhich the culture’s frame of reference and traditional folk
mens
of
fine art rather than artifacts connected to the daily
wisdom are applied to everyday problems. Bruner (1990) adds
lives
of
people.
Art and artistic activity have consequently
that a culture’s beliefs enter into the narratives that it tells
grown
increasingly
split off from communal life, rather than
about human plights. He further notes that these narratives
anchored
within
the
culture. Folktales, steeped as they are
tell not about the way things are, but about the way they should
within a particular culture, are repositories of cultural beliefs
be.
Stories bear also the imprimatur of the storyteller’s voice;
her understanding lends shape and form to the story. Like the
story she tells, the storyteller too is situated within a particular cultural and historical frame bound to the culture and to
and traditions, and may be psychologically distant for the
culturally different audience. In the absence of shared meaning, the story may be experienced as an interesting anthropo-
logical artifact, rather than as part of the lived experience of
the time in which the story is told. The Luba of East Africa the storyteller and audience within the native culture.
preserve, for example, their history in the form of “memory
The meanings that folktales hold for the culturally
culture’s history (“Memory: Luba and the making of
in which these tales are understood when the gap between
boards,” sacred objects which iconographically represent the diverse audience are likely to be very different from the ways
History, Museum for African Art, March-September, 1996). story and lived experience is far narrower. Yet it is only when
In Luba culture, history is preserved through the oral tradi- the stories are re-examined, held up to the light of the “new
tion, only specially designated court trained storytellers are culture” that differences in understanding and meaning
able to “read” the history told by these memory boards. The emerge. The middle ground, the disputed space between the
narrator’s power lies in his ability to tell the story of his people. story’s meaning in the culture of origin and its meaning for a
The story inevitably changes in the telling, different inter- contemporary New York City audience, becomes the site of
preters in different times attribute different meanings to the negotiated meanings. The embeddedness of stories and
symbols represented on the “memory board.” For the Luba storytellers within a culture is underlined when story and
historical events are constructed and reconstructed over time;
storyteller cross cultural borders in the act of telling stories.
The folktale below, and the discussion which follows,
this is accepted and undisputed practice with the story’s
illustrate
the problematics of culturally translating stories
meanings shared by storyteller and public alike. The storyembedded within social and cultural traditions. The need for
teller can assume that the story’s meanings are shared and
that the audience supports and participates in the authority of teachers to listen carefully for cultural difference in order to
the storyteller. The power of story within the Luba culture is
such that their influence within the geographic area is
predicated not on war, but on the authority of the storyteller.
In the Brooklyn College oral history/storytelling project,
the teacher education students are close to the stories they
record and work with. Many are themselves immigrants or
appreciate the varied meanings which stories can hold for
diverse students is underlined.
“The Magical Orange Seed ”
The following story was contributed by a student who
the children of immigrants, and turn to their own families to had heard it told many times during a childhood spent in the
Education and Culture Spring, 1997 Vol. XIV No. 1
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TRANSLATING STORIES ACROSS CULTURES 1 9
Dominican Republic and in New York.
one
in theThe
dailystory
lives of was
people.
It is grounded within particular
her grandmother and mother told; by
her
own
report
it
is
cultural beliefs in the role of areligious faith in ameliorating
untenable
situations and
in girls.
the role of the miracle in effectfamiliar story, and one primarily told
by women
to
In the story a young boy, Kico, and
his in
mother,
Donabehavior. The story exists
ing cures,
this case of abusive
Tata endure maltreatment at the hand within
of the
boy’s
stepfather,
a cultural
framework
that carves out for its participants possible
ways of being, atthey
the same time that other ways
Don Esteban, who is jealous of the loving
relationship
share. In Cinderella like fashion the
of being,
boyother
must
possibilities
perform
of being in the world are closed
menial, backbreaking labor while the
off.
stepfather’s
Heidegger (1962) refers
lazy
to son
this space which the culture
Panchito mocks him. Kico repeats carves
to himself
words
out, as a “clearing”
in a of
forest of perceptions and
possibilities.
TheThe
culture’s
particular way of seeing creates
encouragement: “I’m a good, strong
boy.”
abuse
what Gadamer
(1975)Dona
refers to
as a “horizon” in this
escalates, and Don Esteban deprives Kico
of food.
Tata
clearing.
A culture’s
includes
comes to her son’s aid by spiriting bread
and
milkhorizon
to him
in all that a person can
see from a particular
and determines what there
the fields. One day Panchito, Don Esteban’s
son, vantage
spiespoint,
Dona
is room for,
andfather.
what may not
show up
Tata bringing food to Kico, and informs
his
Kico
isas a possibility for the
brutally beaten by Don Esteban; the boy’s
participants
mother,
in the culture.
in shock,
faints.
The resolution of “The Magical Orange Seed” turns upon
the transformative nature of love, belief and faith, and upon
Kico runs to the forest, alone he prays, and finally breaks
down and cries. In the moment in which he longs for his dead
the role of the son in assuming responsibility for himself and
father and questions whether he is in fact “bad,” an old man
dressed in white and illumined by a mysterious light appears
with food. The boy is further instructed to ask for food for
for his mother, too. The retreat of personal memory in the
service of family harmony is assumed; forgiveness obliterates memory of the cruelties endured, enabling the family to
live happily ever after. The social and cultural horizons of
this story are bounded by the role of religious faith, by powerlessness of women and children and their dependence on
other hungry people, as well. Kico soon settles into a self
the goodwill of men.
sufficient routine in which he continues to do his stepfather’s
Despite the centrality of religion in the lives of many
Americans, little scholarly attention has been given to the
effects of religion on education; educational researchers have
before him. The old man, bathed in this ethereal glow, gives
the boy an orange seed, and advises him that if he plants the
seed and sings to it “with love” the seed will provide him
and stepbrother’s bidding, but turns to the orange seed for
sustenance.
slow to consider the way that religion and politics interKico soon puts on weight; Don Esteban andbeen
Panchito
sect grow
in shaping society and in informing political and educaquestion his fine appearance and gifts of food, and
increasingly envious. They spy on him, and uncover
tional policy
his(Scribner & Fusarelli, 1996). Chevalier (1995)
that folklorists too often overlook religious practice
secret. Panchito steals the orange seed, and he andobserves
his father
sneak off into the woods to work the orange seed’s
as genre,
magic.
and points to the strong, contemporary influences
on children’s
Kico soon discovers them happily munching on top
of the narrative expression of the African Methodist
orange tree, which continues to grow all the while. Episcopal
Kico sings
and African American gospel churches. Telling a
story them
with religious implications raises questions about the
to the seed asking it to transform the pair, making
intellectual tradition of separation of church and state. Like
“good,” and adding that he “loves” them so.
researchers,
The tree, which has by now reached alarming
heights,teachers are only too eager to avoid such thorny
continues to grow until Don Esteban and Panchito
topics.
begWhile
Kico a story’s religious and spiritual meanings can
be deconstructed
in the college classroom, a similar process
for forgiveness and agree to be “good.” The seed has
worked
its magic and both father and son are “cured” of their
withcruelty.
an elementary school aged group is far more complex.
This endeavor
is even further complicated by the sheer
Kico is grateful for the change wrought in his stepfather
and
diversity
of religious backgrounds and practices which the
stepbrother, and together with Dona Tata, all live happily
ever
bring with them from home to school, and by
after. Their home becomes “filled with laughterchildren
and love.”
teachers’ concerns
that they be viewed as partial to a particuAs an endnote, the mysterious old man in white reappears
to
lar religion,
while marginalizing other faiths.
Kico and reclaims the orange seed; the seed, he notes,
is no
“Thewho
Magical Orange Seed” highlights, also, significant
longer needed by Kico, but is by another crying child
differences in how domestic violence and the powerlessness
awaits his help.
of women and children are responded to in different cultures.
When considered from within the frame of contemporary
American society, a logical alternative for the mother was to
seek help
at a shelter for battered women. Furthermore, this
“The Magical Orange Seed” raises many questions
about
culturally
diverse student audience sympathetically viewed
domestic violence, religious faith, and the place of memory
Crossing Cultural Borders
Education and Culture Spring, 1997 Vol. XIV No. 1
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All use subject to http://about.jstor.org/terms
20
CAROL
KORN-BURSZTYN
other
times in losses
as one’s way ofthan
life changesvalorize
through
the boy as a “parentified
child,”
rather
h
contact and mutualthe
accommodation
with other cultures. In
his mother’s protector. Clearly
prevailing
ethos of
his book, Hunger ofaction
Memory, for example,
Richard Rodriguez
audience was to take personal
rather
than re
divine intervention when faced with abuse.
(1982) describes what he experiences as the inevitable losses
The students’ perspective, grounded in the primacy ofwhich attend enculturation. Others (Nieto, 1993; Hoffman,
the self as an active agent is a decidedly modern North1989) describe an ongoing process of braiding two cultures,
American phenomenon. It draws upon the notion of anthe private world of the culture of origin, and the public
individual, autonomous self, or what Cushman (1995) referspersona of the adopted culture. The problematics inherent in
to as the “bounded self.” This masterful, post- World War IIthis convergence of cultures, as exemplified by the act of
self exudes a sense of personal agency ; personal sacrifice loses storytelling are revealed in the crossing of stories across
its cultural centrality, and is replaced by an emphasis on cultural borders.
personal fulfillment. Additionally, the influence of contemporary feminist theory, which underlines the capacity of Story and Audience
women to act on their own behalf, emerges as a subtext of
the students’ responses. The resolution of “The Magical
In crossing these invisible borders culturally determined
Orange Seed,” with its emphasis on transformation of the meaning, hitherto undisputed, enters into dialogue with the
abusive father and preservation of the family structure at allsocially constructed meanings that stories hold for the
costs, was unacceptable to this audience.
audience. The assumptions that underlie the stories that a
The student for whom “The Magical Orange Seed” was culture tells are brought into relief when they are considered
a familiar childhood tale, did not “see” other resolutions tofrom a different cultural perspective. Gadamer (1967, 1975;
this story until engaged in its retelling to her classmates. OnlySass, 1989; Warnke, 1987) speaks of a “fusion of horizons”
in the retelling of this story did another, more critical readingarising from the meeting of one’s socially constructed
of this story become available. She was then able tohorizon with other possible worlds. Neither story, storyteller
reconsider its meanings from the vantage point of her ownnor audience constitutes a repository of definitive interpretaexperience as a New Yorker, educated in the alternatives thattion, all three rather participate in this “fusion” or coming
women have when faced with domestic violence. Gadamer
together of different layers of meaning. Gadamer further
(1975) referred to the attempt to understand the truth claims
observes that understanding is “productive,” the listener
of a different culture as a “fusion of horizons.” Here, the
actually contributes to the meaning, rather than intuiting and
student was a participant in both cultures, and was able to
accepting that which the speaker intends.
move between the vantage points offered by each. Paradoxi- Multiple meanings where only shared meaning once
cally, as she becomes more knowledgeable about her own existed is created out of the difference between story and
culture of origin, the greater the distance between her
storyteller and their audience. Difference provides opportugrowing understanding of that culture’s stories and the meannity for questions to be formulated where they could not have
ings they hold within the culture of origin. An important
existed before, and highlights the ways in which culture
question which arises out of this intersection of viewpoints informs
is
and shapes the stories that we tell. Contemporary
the meaning which this convergence of cultural horizons holds
multiculturalism assumes diversity, a multiplicity of stories
for the person who moves between two cultures. We can ask,
and views, with each culture’s stories celebrated for their
too, what it means to consider one’s culture of origin simuluniqueness as well as for the commonalities of all human
taneously through the lenses of both culture of origin and
experience. How do diverse audiences hear these stories, what
adopted culture.
meanings do they hold for them, and how do these meanings
In reflecting upon the traditions and stories which make
differ from the intended meaning of the storyteller? In a
up a culture, one steps back and considers what Gadamer diverse society storytellers are bereft of their authoritative
referred to as the understandings and the limitations which
stance vis a vis their audience. Their stories are filtered through
the culture bequeaths (Cushman, 1995). The way in whichthe lenses of their listeners as they respond both to story and
this process of braiding of cultures is negotiated is at once
storyteller. A single story will thus yield multiple meanings,
individual and communal, shaped both by personal experieach embedded within the culture, history, and language of
ence and by the reactions of others to the possibilities ofthe listener.
biculturalism. For some, this movement between cultural
The various audiences of “The Magical Orange Seed,”
horizons reveals an unbridgeable chasm into which language
for example, heard the story differently as it was filtered
and culture of origin are lost. Drawing upon Gadamer’s work,
through the sieve of cultural and social expectations of ea …
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