Water Resources Full Lab Report

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Bulletin 653EX Ed. 2b
OPERATION & EXPERIMENT MANUAL
HAMPDEN MODEL H-6530
Hydraulic Demonstration Channel
Bulletin 653EX Ed. 2b
OPERATION & EXPERIMENT MANUAL
HAMPDEN MODEL H-6530
Hydraulic Demonstration Channel
©Copyright 2012 by Hampden Engineering Corporation, East Longmeadow, MA
All rights reserved.
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
2
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
CONTENTS
Safety
5
Demonstrator Layout
7
Description
9
Installation
11
Trainer Setup
13
Experiments
1 Straight Channel (with and without tailgate)
17
2 Using H-6530-10-6 Pipe Flow Set
19
3 Using H-6530-12-6 Pipe Drop Inlet
21
4 Using H-6530-13-6 Hydraulic Jump
23
5 Using H-6530-16-6 Broad Crest Weir
25
6 Using H-6530-17-6 Spillway Section
27
7 Using H-6530-19-6 Sudden Contraction/Expansion
29
8 Using H-6530-22-6 Flow Nozzle Pipe
31
9 Using H-6530-24-6 Pitot Tube
33
10 Using H-6530-28-6 Culvert Fitting
35
11 Using H-6530-29-6 Sharp Crested Weir
37
12 Using H-6530-30-6 Adjustable Undershot Weir
39
13 Using H-6530-31-6 Crump Weir
41
14 Using H-6530-32-6 Venturi
43
15 Using H-6530-33-6 Hook and Point Gauge (Vernier)
45
16
47
Using the V-notch Weir
Appendix A H-6927-10 Digital Manometer Option
A-1
Appendix B Orifice Plate Dimensions
B-1
Appendix C Accessory Dimensions
C-1
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H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
Appendix D Manufacturers’ Data
4
D-1
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
SAFETY
READ INSTRUCTIONS COMPLETELY BEFORE STARTING TRAINER
Normal operation of the trainer is not considered hazardous. However, the RECOMMENDED
PROCEDURES SHOULD BE FOLLOWED to be sure that the classroom instruction is
performed under the safest possible conditions. If the operator knows and understands the
construction and operation of the parts in the system, it will help one to operate it safely.
THE OPERATOR SHOULD ALWAYS BE ALERT to experimental procedures which may be
a hazard to the operator or be injurious to the equipment. Every control device and switch
has a specific operational application. Be certain that all connections and control settings are
carefully managed. NO SETTINGS SHOULD BE MADE INDISCRIMINATELY.
STUDENT USE OF THE TRAINER SHOULD ALWAYS BE SUPERVISED. Even the most
experienced student should never operate it while alone.
Always have good ventilation and good lighting when operating the system.
Instruments and equipment used in testing, while durable, are sensitive to abuse. When connecting an electrical instrument into a circuit, make sure that the instrument and its settings
are within the voltage and current range which may be applied to the instrument. This will
protect the trainer, the instrument, and the operator.
Use extreme CAUTION when making electrical measurements. Remember, it is too late to
learn that a circuit is live after one has touched it. Be certain that the operator knows if the
trainer is on or off at all times. Never handle live circuits when in contact with pipes, other
wires, or damp floors.
Keep the floor clean of debris—oil, water, or other slippery material.
An electrical short across a ring or wristwatch can cause a severe burn. It is best to remove
all watches and jewelry when working on electrical equipment.
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H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
Always disconnect the electrical power source before isolating any component, electrical or
otherwise, from the trainer system. Lock the switches open to prevent someone from closing
them during demonstration or test procedure.
Hands-on experience is an important teaching tool. However, most accidents are the result of
CARELESSNESS—when students are concentrating on their lessons, they tend to momentarily
neglect safety. Therefore, like the service technicians, the students must train themselves to do
things safely. They must study the job for its safety problems before starting and think about
the safety aspects before each step.
Refer all repairs to qualified personnel.
6
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
DEMONSTRATOR LAYOUT
Headgate
Assembly
Channel
Control
Panel
PVC Ball Valves (2)
Orifice (2)
Pump and
Motor
Drain and
Reservoir
Tanks
Figure 1: H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel (front view)
Slope Up Pushbutton
(lifts the headgate)
Slope Motor
Circuit Breaker
Slope Down Pushbutton
(lowers the headgate)
Pump Circuit
Breaker
Main AC Circuit Breaker
Figure 2: Control Panel
7
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
Large
Flow Control
Ball Valve 3″
Orifice – 3″ Pipe
(See Appendix B)
Orifice – 1½” Pipe
(see Appendix B)
Small
Flow Control
Ball Valve 1½”
Figure 3: H-6530 Valve and Orifice Locations
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H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
C
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A
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1
DESCRIPTION
General
The Hampden MODEL H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel is designed to investigate analytical applications of fluid mechanics to situations in which fluids can be treated
as continuous media. The particular laws involved include conservation of mass, continuity,
energy, and momentum. Application of these laws may be simplified in order to describe
quantitatively the behavior of the fluid.
The basic hydraulic channel unit can be used to study many open channel flow phenomena
including:
· Operation of a sluice gate (using the head gate assembly)
· Effect of positive and negative grade (slope) on the development of critical flow
velocity.
· The parameters involved in the formation of a “hydraulic jump” in a straight channel.
This unit is fully self-contained and mobile. The operator is able to control all flow variables
including motorized slope adjustment, movable tailgate, adjustable headgate, undershot gate,
and flow rate.
9
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
Specifications
Base Assembly:
• Three locking swivel and three fixed casters.
• Electric motor with screw jack for slope adjustment
• Pivot Assembly
Working Channel:
• Clear Acrylic, ½” thick
• Length 144″, width 6″ I.D., height 12″ I.D.
• Feed and return channel sub-base are manufactured of stainless steel.
• Brass inserts at 6″ intervals along the length of channel base.
Reservoir:
• Polyethylene tank with drain valve and pump connections
• Working channel support fixture
Pump:
• 1½ HP, 208V–3Ø
• Piping is PVC
• Flow control controlled by two PVC ball valves
• Orifice plates fitted in the supply piping
Control Panel:
• Main Circuit Breaker with ground fault protection
• Pump motor circuit breaker
• Slope motor circuit breaker with raise and lower pushbuttons
(capable of –3° to 7° slope)
• Handwheel for headgate operation
10
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
C
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2
INSTALLATION
Locate the H-6530 in an area with adequate light. Allow for access to all sides of the Demonstrator. A vertical clearance of at least 80″ at the headgate (left) end of the unit is required for
full slope adjustment.
Services
Mechanical:
Water and drain are needed.
Electrical:
The H-6530 is provided with a #12 5/c power cord to plug into a 120/208V AC 60Hz,
three-phase outlet.
The unit is protected by a 20A shunt trip main AC circuit breaker. There is also an
equipment ground fault protection system incorporated in this unit.
The pump is protected by a 6A circuit breaker and the motor is protected by a 4A circuit
breaker.
11
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
12
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
C
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3
TRAINER SETUP
1.
Plug in Demonstrator.
2.
Be sure channel is level (if not, switch on Main AC and Motor circuit breakers.
Adjust the channel by using the “Slope Up” and “Slope Down” pushbuttons until
the level indicator is level.). Switch OFF circuit breakers.
3.
Fill the reservoir to about ¾ of tank.
4.
For basic operation, place the tailgate assembly into the channel (see Figure 1-1).
5.
Switch ON Main AC.
6.
Switch ON Pump circuit breaker.
NOTE: Pump may take a few minutes to catch a prime.
7.
Either of the ball valves can be used to fill the channel—depending on the flow rate
needed for the experiment. The smaller valve yields a flow rate of 0–10 GPM. The
larger valve yields a flow rate of 0–100 GPM.
13
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
14
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
C
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EXPERIMENTS
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H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
16
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
EXPERIMENT NO. 1
n
USING THE STRAIGHT CHANNEL
Purpose
To gain familiarization of the controls of the channel, flow rate, slope, and optionally the tailgate and head assemblies.
Accessories Needed
· H-6927-10 Digital Manometer (see Appendix A for operation and setup)
· Tailgate Assembly (optional)
· Protective Screen (used at return end of channel)
Procedure
· Be sure the channel is level and empty.
· Install the head gate and tail gate on to the channel. The tailgate will be installed
near the end of the channel and the head gate will go in the gate slot at the start of
the channel.
· After the optional assemblies are installed, turn on the Main AC and the slope motor
circuit breakers.
· Use the slope up and slope down buttons to adjust the slope to the desired degree.
· Determine which ball valve you wish to use (large for large flow, small for less flow)
and open to desired flow.
· Turn on the pump circuit breaker to start the flow of water.
· Adjust the flow of water through the channel by adjusting the ball valve chosen.
· Adjust the tail gate and the head gate to see different types of flow throughout the
channel.
17
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
· Adjust the slope by using the slope up and down push buttons.
Repeat above operations for both 3″ and 1½” feed lines.
Figure 1-1 Tailgate Assembly
18
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
EXPERIMENT NO. 2
n
USING THE PIPE FLOW SET
Purpose
To study the effect of various conduit inlets on flow capacities and head levels.
Accessories Required
· H-6530-10-6 Pipe Flow Main Section
· H-6530-10-6A Round Edged Entrance Section
· H-6530-10-6B Square Edged Entrance Section
· H-6530-10-6C Beveled Edge Entrance Section
· H-6927-10 Digital Manometer
· Tailgate
· Gate Sleeve
Procedure
Step 1.
Be sure the channel is level and empty.
Step 2.
Attach the desired entrance section onto the end of the pipe flow main section.
Place this assembly into the channel.
Step 3.
Adjust the headgate.
Step 4.
Open the larger globe valve until the desired flow rate is obtained.
Step 5.
Repeat Steps 2–4 for each entrance section.
19
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
FLOW DIRECTION Æ
Round Edged
Entrance Section
Beveled
Edge
Entrance
Square Edged
Entrance Section
Flow Main Section
Gate Sleeve
Figure 2-1: H-6530-10-6 Pipe Flow Main Section
20
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
EXPERIMENT NO. 3
n
USING THE PIPE DROP INLET
Purpose
To study the effect of a typical outflow structure from a reservoir.
Accessories Required
· H-6530-12-6 Pipe Drop Inlet
Procedure
Step 1.
Be sure the channel is level and empty.
Step 2.
Attach the Pipe Drop Inlet inside the Headgate.
Step 3.
Open the desired globe valve until the desired flow rate is obtained.
21
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
Figure 3-1: Pipe Drop Inlet
Figure 3-2: Pipe Drop Inlet – Installed
22
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
EXPERIMENT NO. 4
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USING THE HYDRAULIC JUMP
Purpose
To show the energy reduction obtained in a stilling basin where the location of the jump is
unstable and completely dependent on the tail-water height.
Accessories Required
· H-6530-13-6 Hydraulic Jump
· Gate Sleeve
· Tailgate
Procedure
Step 1.
Be sure the channel is level and empty.
Step 2.
Place the Hydraulic Jump section into the channel. Secure with thumbscrews.
Step 3.
Adjust the channel to desired slope.
Step 4.
Lower the tailgate completely.
Step 4.
Adjust the headgate.
Step 5.
Open the larger globe valve until the desired flow rate is obtained.
Adjust the tailgate until hydraulic jump forms (see Figure 4-2).
23
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operating Instructions
Flow Direction
Figure 4-1: H-6530-13-6 Hydraulic Jump Basin
Figure 4-Figure 4-2: H-6530-13-6 Hydraulic Jump Forming
24
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
EXPERIMENT NO. 5
n
USING THE BROAD CREST WEIR
Purpose
To show the principle of flow measurement by critical depth measurement.
Accessories Required
· H-6530-16-6 Broad Crest Weir
· H-6530-23-6 Gauge Carrier
· H-6530-27 Hook and Point Gauge
· H-6927-10 Digital Manometer
· Tailgate Assembly
· Protective Screen
Procedure
Step 1.
Be sure the channel is level and empty.
Step 2.
Place the H-6530-16-6 Broad Crest Weir into the channel. Secure with four
thumb screws.
Step 3.
Mount the H-6927-10 Digital Manometer onto the side of the channel
approximately above the orifice.
Step 4.
Mount the H-6530-23-6 Gauge Carrier and the H-6530-27 Hook and Point Gauge
onto the channel about 12″ from the weir.
Step 5.
Adjust the headgate and tailgate.
Step 6.
Open the larger globe valve until the desired flow rate is obtained.
Step 7.
Adjust the hook and point gauge until the hook is barely touching the water.
25
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
Flow Direction
Figure 5-1:
H-6530-16-6 Broadcrest Weir (left), and H-6530-33-6 Hook & Point Gauge (right)
Figure 5-2: Result of H-6530-16-6 Broad Crest Weir
26
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
EXPERIMENT NO. 6
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USING THE SPILLWAY SECTION
Purpose
To demonstrate the effect of a spillway as a means of controlling safe water levels.
Accessories Required
· H-6530-17-6 Spillway Section
· H-6927-10 Digital Manometer
· Tailgate
Procedure
Step 1.
Be sure the channel is level and empty.
Step 2.
Place the H-6530-17-6 Spillway into the channel. Secure with four thumb
screws.
Step 3.
Mount the H-6927-10 Digital Manometer onto the side of the channel
approximately above the orifice.
Step 4.
Mount the H-6530-23-6 Gauge Carrier and the H-6530-27 Hook and Point Gauge
onto the channel about 12″ from the weir.
Step 5.
Adjust the headgate and tailgate.
Step 6.
Open the larger globe valve until the desired flow rate is obtained.
Step 7.
Adjust the hook and point gauge until the hook is barely touching the water.
27
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
Figure 6-1: H-6530-17-6 Spillway Section
28
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
EXPERIMENT NO. 7
n
USING SUDDEN CONTRACTION/EXPANSION
Purpose
To demonstrates the effects a sudden contraction or expansion of a conduit has on the
energy content.
Accessories Required
· H-6530-19-6 Sudden Contraction/Expansion
· H-6530-19-6A Gate Sleeve
· H-6927-10 Digital Manometer
· Tailgate
Procedure
Step 1.
Be sure the channel is level and empty.
Step 2.
Place the Gate Sleeve into the headgate.
Step 3.
Place the Sudden Contraction/Expansion section into the channel. Slide the left
end through the gate sleeve. Secure to the channel with thumbscrews.
Step 3.
Mount the H-6927-10 Digital Manometer onto the channel. Connect the open
manometer tubes to the ports on the Sudden Contraction/Expansion insert
through support.
Step 4.
Adjust the headgate.
Step 5.
Open the larger globe valve until the desired flow rate is obtained.
29
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
Figure 7-1: Sudden Contraction/Expansion Assembly
30
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
EXPERIMENT NO. 8
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USING THE FLOW NOZZLE
Purpose
To study the determination of the pressure differential- discharge relation of the orifice in
comparison to the flow nozzle
Accessories Required
· H-6530-22-6 Flow Nozzle including Gate Sleeve
· H-6927-10 Digital Manometer
Procedure
Step 1.
Be sure the channel is level and empty.
Step 2.
Attach the Flow Nozzle onto the Gate Sleeve section. Place this assembly into the
channel.
Step 3.
Mount the H-6927-10 Digital Manometer onto the channel. Connect the open
manometer tubes to the high and low ports of the installed flow nozzle.
Step 4.
Open the desired globe valve until a desired flow rate is obtained.
Step 5.
Record differential pressure readings from the digital manometer at various flow
settings.
31
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
Figure 8-1: H-6530-22-6 Flow Nozzle Pipes (Optional)
32
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
EXPERIMENT NO. 9
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USING THE PITOT TUBE
Purpose
The Pitot Tube is used to measure the total and static pressures of a moving fluid.
Accessories Required
· H-6530-24-6 Pitot Tube
· H-6530-23-6 Gauge Carrier
· H-6927-10 Digital Manometer
· Tailgate
Procedure
Step 1.
Be sure the channel is level and empty.
Step 2.
Attach the Pitot Tube to the Gauge Carrier and place assembly on top of channel
so that the bottom of the pitot tube is below the water level and pointed into the
flow direction.
Step 3.
Adjust the headgate and tailgate sections.
Step 4.
Open the larger globe valve until a desired flow rate is obtained.
33
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
Figure 9-1: H-6530-23-6 Gauge Carrier (left) and H-6530-24-6 Pitot Tube (right)
34
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
EXPERIMENT NO. 10
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USING THE CULVERT FITTING
Purpose
To study the effect of various conduit inlets on flow capacities and head levels.
Accessories Required
· H-6530-28-6 Culvert Fitting Set
· H-6927-10 Digital Manometer
· Tailgate
· Gate Sleeve
Procedure
Step 1.
Be sure the channel is level and empty.
Step 2.
Attach the desired entrance section onto the end of the pipe flow main section.
Place this assembly into the channel.
Step 3.
Adjust the headgate.
Step 4.
Open the larger globe valve until the desired flow rate is obtained.
Step 5.
Adjust the Culvert Set Valve to desired flow.
Step 6.
Repeat Steps 2–5 for each entrance section.
35
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
Figure 9-1: H-6530-28-6 Culvert Fitting
Note : The H-6530-28-6 Culvert Fitting apparatus appears similar
to the H-6530-10-6 Pipe Flow Set but is a larger diameter.
36
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
EXPERIMENT NO. 11
n
USING THE SHARP CRESTED WEIR
Purpose
To study the effect of a Sharp Crested Weir on water flow rates and level.
Accessories Required
· H-6530-29-6 Sharp Crested Weir
· H-6927-10 Digital Manometer
· Tailgate
Procedure
Step 1.
Be sure the channel is level and empty.
Step 2.
Place and secure the Sharp Crested Weir into the main Channel taking note
of the direction of flow (see Figure 11-1).
Step 3.
Adjust the headgate and tailgate to desired levels.
Step 4.
Open the larger globe valve until the desired flow rate is obtained.
37
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
FLOW DIRECTION Æ
Figure 11-1: H-6530-29-6 Sharp Crested Weir
38
H-6530 Hydraulic Demonstration Channel—Operation & Experiment Manual
EXPERIMENT NO. 12
n
USING THE AD …
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