Weak Communicator, Contrast

Write a paper about 2000 words including weak communicator, contrast and conclusion.The Outline of this paper is given.Please connect the paper to the textbook (takeaways) and give citation/reference (within the textbook or outside source).For your reference, the whole paper instruction:ASSIGNMENT: Write an essay in which you compare and contrast your choice of a strong/good communicator with a weak/poor person, organization, occupation, or company using organizational communications as the key indicator. Tell me:Provide appropriate background information about your two selections.Why you consider your subjects strong or weak communicators. Describe the situation fully.Who the affected parties are, how they are affected and the decision process if known.Discuss the consequences of the behaviors.Discuss alternative options which were available, if any.Include principles discussed in class or from your text.?


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Fundamentals of
This page intentionally left blank
Ninth Edition
Fundamentals of
Knowledge, Sensitivity, Skills, Values
Pamela S. Shockley-Zalabak
University of Colorado
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Shockley-Zalabak, Pamela.
Fundamentals of organizational communication: knowledge, sensitivity, skills, values/
Pamela S. Shockley-Zalabak.—Ninth edition.
pages cm
ISBN-13: 978-0-205-98030-7 (alk. paper)
ISBN-10: 0-205-98030-9 (alk. paper)
1. Communication in organizations. I. Title.
HD30.3.S55 2012
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
ISBN-13: 978-0-205-98007-9
To Charles Zalabak and Leatha and Jim Shockley
Brief Contents
Organizational Communication: A Competency-Based Approach 1
Perspectives for Organizational Communication
Communication Implications of Major Organizational Theories
Organizational Communication: Values and Ethical Communication
Behaviors 105
Individuals in Organizations 138
Groups in Organizations 185
Leadership and Management Communication
Participating in Organizations: Developing Critical Organizational
Communication Competencies 255
Organizational Conflict: Communicating for Effectiveness
Organizational Innovation, Change, and Communication 318
Strategic Organizational Communication: Professional Applications
of Organizational Communication 350
Career Options for Organizational Communication
Preface xxi
Acknowledgments xxv
Organizational Communication: A Competency-Based
Approach 1
The Changing Nature of Organizations and Work 2
Challenges for Individuals and Organizations 2
The Communications Era 3
Communication: The Key to Organizational Excellence 4
Excellence In Communication: Communication Competency 5
Organizational Communication: A Competency-Based Approach 7
The “What Business Is This of Ours?” Case 8
Understanding Human Communication 10
Defining Communication 10
Human Communication: Messages and Constitutive Processes 11
Source/Receiver 11
Encoding/Decoding 11
Message 12
Channel 12
Noise 12
Competence 13
Field of Experience 13
Communication Context 14
Realities and Effects 14
Communication as Constitutive of Shared Realities 15
Twenty-First-Century Concepts of Organizations 15
Definitions of Organizational Communication 17
Organizational Communication as Process 17
Organizational Communication as People 17
Organizational Communication as Messages 18
Organizational Communication as Meaning 18
Organizational Communication as Constitutive of Organizations 18
Self-Assessment of Personal Development Needs:
Your Personal Workbook 19
Chapter Highlights 20
Workshop 20
The Case Against Hiring Karen Groves 21
The “What Do You Mean I’m Not Getting A Raise?” Case 22
Tips for Effective Communication 22
References and Suggested Readings 23
Perspectives for Organizational Communication 24
Justin Payroll Company’s Processing Crisis 25
Introduction 25
The Functional Tradition 28
Organizational Communication Systems: Component Parts 28
Communication Inputs 29
Communication Throughput 29
Communication Output 30
Open versus Closed Systems 30
Message Functions 30
Organizing Functions 31
Relationship Functions 31
Change Functions 32
Message Structure 32
Communication Networks 33
Communication Channels 34
Message Direction 35
Communication Load 36
Message Distortion 37
The Functional Tradition: Summary of Essential Characteristics 38
The Meaning-Centered Approach 38
Communication as Organizing and Decision Making 39
Communication as Influence 41
Identification 42
Socialization and Assimilation 43
Communication Rules 44
Power 45
Communication as Culture 46
Communication Climate 48
The Meaning-Centered Approach: Summary of Essential
Characteristics 49
Twenty-First-Century Emerging Perspectives 49
Communication as Constitutive Process 50
Communication Constitutes Organization (CCO) 50
Postmodernism and Organizational Communication 52
Critical Theory and Organizational Communication 53
Feminist, Race, and Class Perspectives and Organizational
Communication 55
Institutions and Organizational Communication 57
Global Cultures and Organizational Communication 59
Technology and Organizational Communication 60
Twenty-First-Century Emerging Perspectives: Summary of Essential Issues 60
Practical Theory and Organizational Communication 61
Chapter Highlights 61
Workshop 63
The United Concepts Advertising Agency Dilemma Case 63
The “Newcomers Aren’t Welcome Here” Case 64
Tips for Effective Communication 65
References and Suggested Readings 65
Communication Implications of Major Organizational
Theories 70
The Davis Instrument Company’s Manufacturing Crisis 71
Introduction 72
The Scientific Management School 73
Principles and Basic Activities for Scientific Management 73
Frederick Taylor
Principles of Management 74
Henri Fayol
Principles of Bureaucracy 76
Max Weber
Communication Implications of Scientific Management Theories
in Contemporary Organizations 77
The Human Behavior School 78
Major Human Behavior Theories 78
Mary Parker Follett • Elton Mayo • Douglas McGregor
• Rensis Likert
Communication Implications of Human Behavior Theories in Contemporary
Organizations 82
Integrated Perspectives Viewpoints 83
Process and Environmental Approaches 83
Herbert Simon • Eric L. Trist and Kenneth W. Bamforth • Joan
Woodward, Paul Lawrence, and Jay Lorsch • Daniel Katz and Robert
Kahn • Gareth Morgan • Margaret Wheatley • Peter Senge
Cultural Approaches 88
Edgar Schein • Terrence Deal and Allen Kennedy • Thomas Peters and
Robert Waterman • Joanne Martin and Peter Frost • Karl Weick
Communication Implications of Integrated Perspectives in Contemporary
Organizations 94
Postmodern, Critical, and Feminist Perspectives 95
Stewart Clegg • Jurgen Habermas • Marta Calás and Linda Smircich
• Karen Ashcraft
Communication Implications of Postmodern, Critical, and Feminist Perspectives
in Contemporary Organizations 98
Chapter Highlights 99
Workshop 99
The “What Do You Mean I Am Not Promoted?” Case 101
The “We Never Had to Advertise Before” Case 101
Tips for Effective Communication 102
References and Suggested Readings 102
Organizational Communication: Values and Ethical
Communication Behaviors 105
The Presidential Fact-Finding (Witch Hunt?) Case 106
Introduction 107
Values In Organizational Communication 108
Organizational Value Systems 108
Organizational Values, Globalization, and Diversity 110
Individual Values 111
Appraising Your Individual Value System 115
Ethics In Organizational Communication 115
The Abuse of Ethics 115
Defining Ethics 116
Making Ethical Decisions 117
Defining Ethical Communication 118
Influences for Ethical Organizational Communication 119
Evaluating Ethical Behavior 120
Organizational Conundrums 121
Value and Ethical Challenges In Organizational Communication 124
Voice and Participation 124
Representing Skills and Abilities 125
Communication Behaviors Related to Money 125
Communication Behaviors Related to Information Collection,
Dissemination, Problem Solving, and Decision Making 126
Personal Communication Behaviors 127
Communication Behaviors and Technology 127
Destructive Communication Behaviors 128
Planned and Strategic Organizational Communication 129
Courage, Responsibility, Trust, and Ethics 130
Developing Ethical Standards in Organizational
Communication 130
Ethical Dilemmas in Organizational Communication 131
Chapter Highlights 134
Workshop 134
GreenBean Coffee, Inc.—Is It Our Responsibility? Laura Quinn, Ph.d. 135
Tips for Effective Communication 136
References and Suggested Readings 136
Individuals in Organizations 138
Dave Green’s First Real Job 139
Introduction 139
Individuals In Organizations 140
The Intrapersonal Experience 142
¦ Dave Green: The Intrapersonal Experience 142
Motivation 143
Abraham Maslow • Frederick Herzberg • B. F. Skinner • Gerald
Salancik and Jeffrey Pfeffer
Predispositions for Organizational Communication Behaviors 149
Leadership and Conflict Preferences 150
Communication Competency 150
Interpersonal Experiences 150
Dave Green: Interpersonal Experiences 151
Forming Interpersonal Relationships 151
Supervisors and Employees 153
Peers 157
Customers, Clients, and Vendors 160
Communication Networks and Interpersonal Relationships 161
Diversity and Interpersonal Relationships 164
Trust and Interpersonal Relationships 166
Workplace Emotion, Balance, and Interpersonal Relationships 166
Technology and Interpersonal Relationships 168
Increasing Interpersonal Effectiveness 170
Cultural Intelligence 170
Valuing Diversity 170
Personal Development: Active Listening and Descriptive Messages 174
Chapter Highlights 176
Workshop 177
John Rains’ Work Problem 177
Jane Moyers Doesn’t Know What Her Manager Wants 178
Phil Mayer and His Volunteer Work at Hudson Food Bank 178
The First _______Division Manager at Carson Retailers 179
Tips for Effective Communication 180
References and Suggested Readings 180
Groups in Organizations 185
Dave Green’s Small-Group Experiences 186
Introduction 186
Small-Group Experiences 187
Types of Groups 188
Primary Work Teams 189
Directional Groups 191
Quality Teams 192
Task Force Groups 193
Steering Committees 194
Focus Groups 194
Geographically Diverse Teams 194
Social Support Groups 195
Interorganizational Groups 195
Communities of Practice 196
The Team-Based Organization 196
High-Reliability Organizations 199
Group Processes 199
Workplace Democracy 199
Group Norms and Communication Roles 200
Working in Groups 202
Diverse Work Groups 202
Creativity and Collaboration 203
Virtual Groups 205
Groups, Knowledge Sharing, and
Technology Use 206
Increasing Group Participation Effectiveness 207
Negative Participation Behaviors 208
Positive Participation Behaviors 208
Chapter Highlights 209
Workshop 210
Group Communication Roles 211
The Transcript 211
Group Problem-Solving Transcript 212
Identification of Group Communication Roles 213
Tips for Effective Communication 214
References and Suggested Readings 214
Leadership and Management Communication
¦ Brian
Wood Knows He Is a Good Leader: How Could Anyone
Question Him? 218
Introduction 218
The Importance of Leadership and Management Communication 219
Theories of Leadership and Management 221
Trait Approaches 221
Style Approaches 222
Situational Approaches 226
Transformational Approaches 227
Discursive Approaches 229
Distinctions between Leadership and Management 231
Leadership and Management Challenges 232
Confronting Ethics and Failures 232
Changing Organizational Forms 233
Global and Multicultural Changes 234
Chaos, Flux, and Speed 235
Inclusive-Participation Processes 235
Building Trust 236
Determinants of Leadership Effectiveness 236
Communication Competencies as Determinants of Leadership
Effectiveness 236
Predispositions for Leadership Communication 237
Strategic Communication Objectives for Leadership 237
Communication Tactics for Leadership 240
Power Bases for Leaders 240
Situational Analysis for Leadership 245
Increasing Leadership Effectiveness 246
Principled, Excellent, and Ethical Leadership 246
Identifying Constructive Communication Behaviors
for Leadership 248
Chapter Highlights 250
Workshop 250
Tips for Effective Communication 251
References and Suggested Readings 251
Participating in Organizations: Developing Critical
Organizational Communication Competencies 255
The Decisions, Problems, More Decisions Case 256
Introduction 257
Participation Challenges for Problem Solving and
Decision Making 257
Defining Problem Solving and Decision Making 258
Influences for Problem Solving and Decision Making 259
Culture 259
The Problem Issue/Decision Issue 260
Communication Competency 260
Technical Competency 261
Methods for Problem Solving and Decision Making 261
Individual Approaches 261
Leader Mandate 262
Majority Rule 262
Powerful Minority 262
Consensus 262
Barriers to Effective Problem Solving and Decision Making 263
Organizational Barriers 263
Group Task and Procedural Barriers 264
Interpersonal Barriers 265
Problem-Solving Processes 265
The Standard Agenda: A Rational Model 266
Brainstorming 266
Decision Tree Process 267
Experientially Based Processes 267
Increasing Problem-Solving and Decision-Making Effectiveness 268
Interaction Process Skills 268
Fact-Finding and Evaluation Skills 269
Information Criteria 269
Communications Technology in Organizations 270
Increasing Technology Effectiveness 273
Chapter Highlights 273
Workshop 274
The Training Manager of Food Service Industries
E-Mail Exercise 274
Tips for Effective Communication 276
References and Suggested Readings 276
Organizational Conflict: Communicating for
Effectiveness 278
The Direction the Program Is Going Is Wrong Case 279
Introduction 279
Defining and Describing Conflict
Processes 280
Defining Conflict 280
Conflict Contexts 280
Conflict Causes 282
Conflict Episodes 285
Conflict Consequences 288
The Individual in Organizational Conflict 288
Orientations/Predispositions/Styles 289
Strategic Objectives 292
Communication Tactics in Conflict 293
Emotion during Conflict 296
Groups in Organizational Conflict 298
Group Members in Conflict 298
Framing and Sensemaking 299
Procedural Conflict 299
Interpersonal Issues 299
Substantive Issues 300
Groupthink 300
Dissent 300
Group Conflict Management Processes 301
Power and Organizational Conflict 302
Conflict with Customers and Vendors 303
Special Types of Organizational Conflict:
Sexual Harassment, Discrimination,
and Ethical Abuses 303
Productively Engaging in Conflict 307
Guidelines for Productive Conflict 307
Contribute to Supportive and Ethical Environments for Conflict 308
Monitor Your Personal Behavior and the Behavior of Others for Signs
of Destructive Conflict 310
Set a Meeting to Work on the Conflict 311
Chapter Highlights 313
Workshop 314
Tips for Effective Communication 314
References and Suggested Readings 315
Organizational Innovation, Change, and
Communication 318
¦ The
Techtron Computers “Want to Survive, Go Public, And Then
What?” Case 319
Introduction 319
The Realities of Innovation and Change 321
Barriers to Innovation and Change 323
Complacency 323
Organizational Silence 323
Knowledge or Information Deficits 324
Risk Perception 324
Uncertainty 325
Contradictions and Misalignments 325
Active and Passive Resistance 326
Organizational Leaders 326
Organizational Trust 326
Organizational Decline 327
Organizational Crisis 327
The Leadership of Innovation and Change 327
Models and Processes for Innovation and Change 329
Accelerators of Innovation and Change 329
Diffusion of Innovation 329
Stakeholder Theory 330
The Purchase Model 331
The Doctor–Patient Model 331
The Process Model 331
Appreciative Inquiry 331
Professional Responsibilities for Change 332
Gathering Input and Data 332
Data Evaluation 334
Planning and Implementing Solutions 335
Evaluating Results 336
Communicating about Change 336
Chapter Highlights 338
Workshop 339
Jane Edwards’ Problem Employee 339
The Case of the Poorly Written Manual 339
The Transition of Stanley Manufacturing 340
The Crisis at Homes for the Homeless 340
Mason Financial Is Working at Capacity 341
Changes for Hewlett Designers 341
Into the Pit and Out Again: An Organizational Turnaround, Nina Polok, Ph.d. 342
Tips for Effective Communication 348
References and Suggested Readings 348
Strategic Organizational Communication: Professional
Applications of Organizational Communication 350
The Press and the Stockholders Want to Know Case 351
Introduction 352
Describing Strategic Organizational Communication 352
Perspectives on Strategic and Organizational
Communication 353
The Organization and Its Environment 355
Multiple Publics 355
Environmental Scanning 355
The Global Environment 356
SWOT Processes 357
Strategic Organizational Communication 358
Public Relations 358
Communicating an Organization’s Image or Reputation 359
Internal Communications 360
Public Affairs and Issues Management 360
Marketing 361
Integrated Marketing Communications 362
The Marketing Mix 362
Advertising 363
Branding 364
Relationship Marketing and the Use of Marketing
Databases 364
Media Relations 365
The Media Interview 365
Risk and Crisis Communication 366
Technology and Strategic Organizational
Communication 368
Evaluating Strategic Organizational Communication 370
Ethical Issues in Strategic Organizational
Communication 370
Chapter Highlights 371
Workshop 372
Trust: Building Blocks for future Triumph, Lauren Bacon Brengarth, Ph.d. 372
Marketing Merger: Momentum or Moratorium, Lauren Bacon
Brengarth, Ph.d. 373
Tips for Effective Communication 374
References and Suggested Readings 374
Career Options for Organizational Communication 377
The “Where Do We Go from Here?” Case 378
Introduction 378
Choosing a Communication Career 379
Knowledge for Employment Matching 380
Sensitivity for Employment Matching 380
Skills for Employment Matching 381
Values for Employment Matching 382
Career Choices in Organizational Communication 382
Internal Communication 385
External Communications 385
Sales 386
Human Services 386
Education 387
Research: Information Management 387
Management 388
Consulting 388
Additional Options for Organizational Communication 389
Educational Preparation for Organizational Communication Careers 389
The Employment Search 390
The Informational Interview 390
The Employment Interview 391
Careers in the Twenty-First Century 392
Old versus New Career Paradigms: The Boundaryless Career 393
Twenty-First-Century Organizational Forms and Career Skills 395
Networked Organization 395
Cellular Organization 395
Team-Based Careers 396
Chapter Highlights 396

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