WEEK 5 ASSIGNMENT–SOCIAL MARKETING ,Week 6 Assignment–Gender Performance , Week 7 Assignment Final Paper–Music and Influence, Week 8 Assignment–Agenda Setting, Framing, and Uses

Week 5 Assignment–Social Marketing – Due 4/15InstructionsAfter studying the assigned readings for week 5, synthesize what you have learned by completing the following in essay format. Search online and find a website for an organization which has a campaign promoting a core issue that interests you (For example: The Red Cross and need for blood donations–You may not use this example).Start your essay with a short overview of the organization and the issue (just a few lines) and then consider the topics we have covered in this week’s readings and discuss how they are reflected in what you see on this website.What clear messages do you see?What audiences is the institution trying to reach?How has technology affected the way this organization presents itself?Consider issues of Media Ethics and how they are represented or manifested in the website. Draw on examples offered on that website to support your observations. Specifically consider the content of21st Century Communication: A Reference Handbook: Chapter 77: Theories and Effects of Public Relations, under the section “Assumptions and Lay Theories.” Which of these theories does the content of your chosen site most closely align with? Why? Explain your answer.The essay should be in 12pt type, no more than 2 pages in length, double spaced. Approximately 500-600 words, and must be properly cited throughout the paper in APA format and must contain a Reference sheet or Bibliography. Support your responses with research from the Learning Resources. Submit your response in the file submission area for this assignment. If you choose to “add a file” by attaching a MSWord or PDF document, please also copy and paste your response into the comments area.Rubric Name: COMM 202 Assignment RubricDevelopment and ContentExceeds Standards40 pointsMeets Standards35.6 pointsNeeds Improvement27.6 pointsDoes Not Meet Standards23.6 pointsCategory is worth 40% of overall gradeDevelops answers with effective supportive examples; provides a balanced presentation of relevant information and shows a thoughtful, in-depth analysis; reader gains insights; specifically meets criteria of defining key points, events, or contributionsDevelops answers with adequate supportive examples; information displays evidence of a basic analysis; reader gains some insightsDoes not fully develop answers and may lack detailed supportive examples; analysis is basic or general; reader gains insightsAnswers are undeveloped or has no supportive examples; analysis is vague or not evident; reader is confused or may be misinformedPurposeExceeds Standards30 pointsMeets Standards26.7 pointsNeeds Improvement20.7 pointsDoes Not Meet Standards17.7 pointsCategory is worth 30% of overall gradeIntroduces and answers all questions effectively and clearly; central purpose is readily apparent to the reader; makes connectionsIntroduces and answers all questions adequately; purpose is consistently clear throughout the paperIntroduces and answers all questions somewhat effectively; writing has a clear purpose but may sometimes digress from itIntroduces and answer questions poorly; purpose is generally unclearDocumentation and SupportExceeds Standards20 pointsMeets Standards17.8 pointsNeeds Improvement13.8 pointsDoes Not Meet Standards11.8 pointsCategory is worth or 20% of overall gradeAnswers are supported effectively with legitimate sources from the learning resources and/or outside resources that are clearly attributed consistently throughout paper; uses APA format accurately and consistentlyAnswers are supported effectively with legitimate sources from the learning resources and/or outside resources that are clearly attributed but not consistent, yet “generally” supported; uses proper formatting with minor violationsAlthough attribution is present and many sources seem to be legitimate, some statements are unsubstantiated or generalized and the source of some ideas is unclear or some claims are made without support from the learning resources and/or outside resourcesAttribution is missing, or sources given are poorly chosen; claims are consistently made without support from the learning resources and/or outside resources; reflect incomplete knowledge of formatting.Organization and Writing MechanicsExceeds Standards10 pointsMeets Standards8.9 pointsNeeds Improvement6.9 pointsDoes Not Meet Standards5.9 pointsCategory is worth 10% of overall gradeArranges ideas clearly and logically to support the purpose; ideas flow smoothly and are effectively linked; reader can follow the line of reasoning; Writing demonstrates a sophisticated clarity, conciseness, and correctness with no grammatical/sentence structure errorsArranges ideas adequately to support the purpose; links between ideas are generally clear; reader can follow the line of reasoning for the most part; Writing is accomplished in terms of clarity and conciseness and contains only a few grammatical/sentenceArranges ideas adequately, in general, although ideas sometimes fail to make sense together; reader remains fairly clear about what writer intends; Writing sometimes lacks clarity or conciseness and contains various grammatical/sentence structure errorsArranges ideas illogically; ideas frequently fail to make sense together; reader cannot identify a line of reasoning and becomes frustrated or loses interest; Writing is unfocused, rambling, or contains serious grammatical/sentence structure errorsOverall ScoreLevel 490 or moreLevel 370 or moreLevel 260 or moreLevel 10 or more100 – 90 points = 100% – 90% =A+ – A -89 – 70 points =89% – 70% =B+ – C-69 – 60 points =D+ – D-59-0 points =<59% =FHide Submission Folder InformationSubmission FolderWeek 6 Assignment--Gender Performance - Due 4/22InstructionsAfter studying the assigned reading, Sociology: The Social Construction of Gender, considering the concept of “gender as socially constructed,” answer the following questions and prompts.A) How does media create meanings about gender?B) Provide examples of how this is manifested in our everyday lives.C) Provide a link to a commercial/ad that stereotypes gender. Even though it is natural to find humor in some of these portrayals, in what ways is this problematic.Also, consider that sex is a system of classification based on biology and physiology, while gender reflects the cultural meaning that is ascribed to a person’s sex, thus resulting in labels of “masculinity and femininity.” Furthermore, our biology is not distinctively male or female and a significant number of people are born “intersex” with variations in chromosomes or sexual organs. Most biological researchers agree on the estimation that intersex people are about as common as encountering someone with green eyes. It is important to understand that masculinity and femininity are not oppositional, although it seems to be portrayed so in media. In Western society (such as in the U.S. and Western Europe) we typically adhere to certain ideas and values that define masculinity and femininity as we perform the roles. What if the list was different? All of us, in honesty, could reveal that we interchange among the qualities. Take a look at the list and answer the following questions:MasculinityFemininitystrengthdominanceaggressionindependenceempowermentactiverational thoughtproductionbreadwinnersubjectoutdoorstechnologyweaknesssubmissioncompliance/vulnerabilitydependencedisempowermentpassiveemotionconsumptionnurturerobjectindoorsnatureProvide answers to the following questions or prompts in your assignment submission.D) How is the list being currently challenged?E) What traits do you have that are typically considered “on the list” of the other sex?F) What examples do you see in your daily life of people challenging the historic list?Hide Submission Folder InformationSubmission FolderWeek 6 Assignment--Gender Performance - Due 4/22InstructionsAfter studying the assigned reading, Sociology: The Social Construction of Gender, considering the concept of “gender as socially constructed,” answer the following questions and prompts.A) How does media create meanings about gender?B) Provide examples of how this is manifested in our everyday lives.C) Provide a link to a commercial/ad that stereotypes gender. Even though it is natural to find humor in some of these portrayals, in what ways is this problematic.Also, consider that sex is a system of classification based on biology and physiology, while gender reflects the cultural meaning that is ascribed to a person’s sex, thus resulting in labels of “masculinity and femininity.” Furthermore, our biology is not distinctively male or female and a significant number of people are born “intersex” with variations in chromosomes or sexual organs. Most biological researchers agree on the estimation that intersex people are about as common as encountering someone with green eyes. It is important to understand that masculinity and femininity are not oppositional, although it seems to be portrayed so in media. In Western society (such as in the U.S. and Western Europe) we typically adhere to certain ideas and values that define masculinity and femininity as we perform the roles. What if the list was different? All of us, in honesty, could reveal that we interchange among the qualities. Take a look at the list and answer the following questions:MasculinityFemininitystrengthdominanceaggressionindependenceempowermentactiverational thoughtproductionbreadwinnersubjectoutdoorstechnologyweaknesssubmissioncompliance/vulnerabilitydependencedisempowermentpassiveemotionconsumptionnurturerobjectindoorsnatureProvide answers to the following questions or prompts in your assignment submission.D) How is the list being currently challenged?E) What traits do you have that are typically considered “on the list” of the other sex?F) What examples do you see in your daily life of people challenging the historic list?G) What about examples in media of characters or people challenging the list?H) Finally, do you agree or disagree that gender is socially constructed? Provide evidence that backs your opinion. Support your responses with research from the Learning Resources. Use APA in-text citations where necessary and cite any outside sources. Create an APA Reference List or Bibliography at the end of the document.Submit your responses in the file submission area for this assignment. If you choose to “add a file” by attaching a MSWord or PDF document, please also copy and paste your response into the comments area.Rubric Name: COMM 202 Assignment RubricDevelopment and ContentExceeds Standards40 pointsMeets Standards35.6 pointsNeeds Improvement27.6 pointsDoes Not Meet Standards23.6 pointsCategory is worth 40% of overall gradeDevelops answers with effective supportive examples; provides a balanced presentation of relevant information and shows a thoughtful, in-depth analysis; reader gains insights; specifically meets criteria of defining key points, events, or contributionsDevelops answers with adequate supportive examples; information displays evidence of a basic analysis; reader gains some insightsDoes not fully develop answers and may lack detailed supportive examples; analysis is basic or general; reader gains insightsAnswers are undeveloped or has no supportive examples; analysis is vague or not evident; reader is confused or may be misinformedPurposeExceeds Standards30 pointsMeets Standards26.7 pointsNeeds Improvement20.7 pointsDoes Not Meet Standards17.7 pointsCategory is worth 30% of overall gradeIntroduces and answers all questions effectively and clearly; central purpose is readily apparent to the reader; makes connectionsIntroduces and answers all questions adequately; purpose is consistently clear throughout the paperIntroduces and answers all questions somewhat effectively; writing has a clear purpose but may sometimes digress from itIntroduces and answer questions poorly; purpose is generally unclearDocumentation and SupportExceeds Standards20 pointsMeets Standards17.8 pointsNeeds Improvement13.8 pointsDoes Not Meet Standards11.8 pointsCategory is worth or 20% of overall gradeCategory is worth or 20% of overall gradeAnswers are supported effectively with legitimate sources from the learning resources and/or outside resources that are clearly attributed consistently throughout paper; uses APA format accurately and consistentlyAnswers are supported effectively with legitimate sources from the learning resources and/or outside resources that are clearly attributed but not consistent, yet "generally" supported; uses proper formatting with minor violationsAlthough attribution is present and many sources seem to be legitimate, some statements are unsubstantiated or generalized and the source of some ideas is unclear or some claims are made without support from the learning resources and/or outside resourcesAttribution is missing, or sources given are poorly chosen; claims are consistently made without support from the learning resources and/or outside resources; reflect incomplete knowledge of formatting.Organization and Writing MechanicsExceeds Standards10 pointsMeets Standards8.9 pointsNeeds Improvement6.9 pointsDoes Not Meet Standards5.9 pointsCategory is worth 10% of overall gradeArranges ideas clearly and logically to support the purpose; ideas flow smoothly and are effectively linked; reader can follow the line of reasoning; Writing demonstrates a sophisticated clarity, conciseness, and correctness with no grammatical/sentence structure errorsArranges ideas adequately to support the purpose; links between ideas are generally clear; reader can follow the line of reasoning for the most part; Writing is accomplished in terms of clarity and conciseness and contains only a few grammatical/sentenceArranges ideas adequately, in general, although ideas sometimes fail to make sense together; reader remains fairly clear about what writer intends; Writing sometimes lacks clarity or conciseness and contains various grammatical/sentence structure errorsArranges ideas illogically; ideas frequently fail to make sense together; reader cannot identify a line of reasoning and becomes frustrated or loses interest; Writing is unfocused, rambling, or contains serious grammatical/sentence structure errorsOverall ScoreLevel 490 or moreLevel 370 or moreLevel 260 or moreLevel 10 or more100 – 90 points = 100% - 90% =A+ - A -89 – 70 points =89% - 70% =B+ - C-69 - 60 points =D+ - D-59-0 points =<59% =FWeek 7 Assignment Final Paper--Music and Influence - Due 4/29 - Submit FilesHide Submission Folder InformationSubmission FolderWeek 7 Assignment Final Paper--Music and Influence - Due 4/29InstructionsSynthesize what you have learned about media and society in this course through the writing of this final paper about music and its influences. Music is a medium that has shaped the ages. As noted throughout your texts, social movements have existed and evolved through many methods and vehicles. Music is one of those vehicles and music represents more than entertainment. It has spoken for generations, and exemplified belief systems.For your final paper assignment, you are to write a 3-4 page research essay (excluding APA title page, appendix, and reference sheet or bibliography) that addresses the following questions and contexts. In this paper, explore the relationship of music to each decade from the 1960s through 2000-2010. Your paper should discuss high profile events or movements that happened in each decade and for each decade pick a song that personifies or represents the primary “mood” of the decade. In the essay:cite examples of how activism and social justice are exemplified through musicshow how technology and social media influenced the listener’s reactionsThe summary portion of the essay (perhaps at least 3/4 page of the entire essay) should draw connections between the decades and synthesize your findings. For instance, discuss what are commonalities of movements and people who are represented throughout the decades? Are these songs anthems for each decade or do the stand the test of time with other generations? Are there common threads that connect some decades with others?Grading Guidelines identify events in each decade explain how events are connected to what the song representsshow how lyrics are used in the messaging (if full lyrics are used in the paper, they must be attached as an appendix and do not count in the 3-4 total pages) help justify your opinions with 3-5 credible sources with proper source citation throughout the paper and in the bibliography utilize terminology from the course readings when applicableshow how technology and social media or other media outlets influenced the listener’s reactionsappropriate grammar and structure; college level writing the summary is appropriate length and draws connections between the decades and synthesizes the findings, such as what are the commonalities of the movements and people represented and addresses the question, “are these songs only anthems for each individual decade or do they also provide representation for and transfer to, other generations and decades?The essay should be in 12pt type and must be properly cited throughout the paper in APA format. Support your responses with research from the Learning Resources. Use APA in-text citations where necessary and cite any outside sources. Create an APA Reference List or Bibliography at the end of the document.Submit your responses in the file submission area for this assignment. If you choose to “add a file” by attaching a MSWord or PDF document, please also copy and paste your response into the comments area.Final Grade on Paper ______/50Start DateFeb 14, 2018 2:45 PMDue DateApr 29, 2018 11:59 PMHide RubricsRubric Name: COMM 202 Assignment RubricDevelopment and ContentExceeds Standards40 pointsMeets Standards35.6 pointsNeeds Improvement27.6 pointsDoes Not Meet Standards23.6 pointsCategory is worth 40% of overall gradeDevelops answers with effective supportive examples; provides a balanced presentation of relevant information and shows a thoughtful, in-depth analysis; reader gains insights; specifically meets criteria of defining key points, events, or contributionsDevelops answers with adequate supportive examples; information displays evidence of a basic analysis; reader gains some insightsDoes not fully develop answers and may lack detailed supportive examples; analysis is basic or general; reader gains insightsAnswers are undeveloped or has no supportive examples; analysis is vague or not evident; reader is confused or may be misinformedPurposeExceeds Standards30 pointsMeets Standards26.7 pointsNeeds Improvement20.7 pointsDoes Not Meet Standards17.7 pointsCategory is worth 30% of overall gradeIntroduces and answers all questions effectively and clearly; central purpose is readily apparent to the reader; makes connectionsIntroduces and answers all questions adequately; purpose is consistently clear throughout the paperIntroduces and answers all questions somewhat effectively; writing has a clear purpose but may sometimes digress from itIntroduces and answer questions poorly; purpose is generally unclearDocumentation and SupportExceeds Standards20 pointsMeets Standards17.8 pointsNeeds Improvement13.8 pointsDoes Not Meet Standards11.8 pointsCategory is worth or 20% of overall gradeAnswers are supported effectively with legitimate sources from the learning resources and/or outside resources that are clearly attributed consistently throughout paper; uses APA format accurately and consistentlyAnswers are supported effectively with legitimate sources from the learning resources and/or outside resources that are clearly attributed but not consistent, yet "generally" supported; uses proper formatting with minor violationsAlthough attribution is present and many sources seem to be legitimate, some statements are unsubstantiated or generalized and the source of some ideas is unclear or some claims are made without support from the learning resources and/or outside resourcesAttribution is missing, or sources given are poorly chosen; claims are consistently made without support from the learning resources and/or outside resources; reflect incomplete knowledge of formatting.Organization and Writing MechanicsExceeds Standards10 pointsMeets Standards8.9 pointsNeeds Improvement6.9 pointsDoes Not Meet Standards5.9 pointsCategory is worth 10% of overall gradeArranges ideas clearly and logically to support the purpose; ideas flow smoothly and are effectively linked; reader can follow the line of reasoning; Writing demonstrates a sophisticated clarity, conciseness, and correctness with no grammatical/sentence structure errorsArranges ideas adequately to support the purpose; links between ideas are generally clear; reader can follow the line of reasoning for the most part; Writing is accomplished in terms of clarity and conciseness and contains only a few grammatical/sentenceArranges ideas adequately, in general, although ideas sometimes fail to make sense together; reader remains fairly clear about what writer intends; Writing sometimes lacks clarity or conciseness and contains various grammatical/sentence structure errorsArranges ideas illogically; ideas frequently fail to make sense together; reader cannot identify a line of reasoning and becomes frustrated or loses interest; Writing is unfocused, rambling, or contains serious grammatical/sentence structure errorsOverall ScoreLevel 490 or moreLevel 370 or moreLevel 260 or moreLevel 10 or more100 – 90 points = 100% - 90% =A+ - A -89 – 70 points =89% - 70% =B+ - C-69 - 60 points =D+ - D-59-0 points =<59% =FWeek 8 Assignment--Agenda Setting, Framing, and Uses - Due 5/6InstructionsAfter studying both of the assigned readings, Chapter 55: Media Portrayals and Representationsand 21st Century Communication: A Reference Handbook: Chapter 57: Agenda Setting and Framing, answer the following questions and prompts regarding your favorite program or other chosen media content.1. What device do you most often use for your favorite program watching or other chosen media? Do you agree that you favor the device that gives you access to the information and programming that most meets your needs?2. How does the program meet your specific needs and goals? Who else do you know that also seeks out this programming (movie, tv, radio show, game) and do they do so for the same reasons as you? Why are their uses of this programming similar or different from your own?3. What does this program or other media tell you about your place in the world in relationship to how much access you have to things you want in the "real" world? When you are stressed out, do you turn to this programming more or less? Why?4. What does this programming tell you about people who are different from you in terms of race, age, sexual orientation, political beliefs, socio-economic status, gender, religion or nationality? Are they portrayed in a positive or negative light? What kinds of power do they have?Support your responses with research from the Learning Resources. Use APA in-text citations where necessary and cite any outside sources. Create an APA Reference List or Bibliography at the end of the document.Hide Submission Folder InformationSubmission FolderWeek 8 Assignment--Agenda Setting, Framing, and Uses - Due 5/6InstructionsAfter studying both of the assigned readings, Chapter 55: Media Portrayals and Representationsand 21st Century Communication: A Reference Handbook: Chapter 57: Agenda Setting and Framing, answer the following questions and prompts regarding your favorite program or other chosen media content.1. What device do you most often use for your favorite program watching or other chosen media? Do you agree that you favor the device that gives you access to the information and programming that most meets your needs?2. How does the program meet your specific needs and goals? Who else do you know that also seeks out this programming (movie, tv, radio show, game) and do they do so for the same reasons as you? Why are their uses of this programming similar or different from your own?3. What does this program or other media tell you about your place in the world in relationship to how much access you have to things you want in the "real" world? When you are stressed out, do you turn to this programming more or less? Why?4. What does this programming tell you about people who are different from you in terms of race, age, sexual orientation, political beliefs, socio-economic status, gender, religion or nationality? Are they portrayed in a positive or negative light? What kinds of power do they have?Support your responses with research from the Learning Resources. Use APA in-text citations where necessary and cite any outside sources. Create an APA Reference List or Bibliography at the end of the document.Submit your responses in the file submission area for this assignment. If you choose to “add a file” by attaching a MSWord or PDF document, please also copy and paste your response into the comments area.Development and ContentExceeds Standards40 pointsMeets Standards35.6 pointsNeeds Improvement27.6 pointsDoes Not Meet Standards23.6 pointsCategory is worth 40% of overall gradeDevelops answers with effective supportive examples; provides a balanced presentation of relevant information and shows a thoughtful, in-depth analysis; reader gains insights; specifically meets criteria of defining key points, events, or contributionsDevelops answers with adequate supportive examples; information displays evidence of a basic analysis; reader gains some insightsDoes not fully develop answers and may lack detailed supportive examples; analysis is basic or general; reader gains insightsAnswers are undeveloped or has no supportive examples; analysis is vague or not evident; reader is confused or may be misinformedPurposeExceeds Standards30 pointsMeets Standards26.7 pointsNeeds Improvement20.7 pointsDoes Not Meet Standards17.7 pointsCategory is worth 30% of overall gradeIntroduces and answers all questions effectively and clearly; central purpose is readily apparent to the reader; makes connectionsIntroduces and answers all questions adequately; purpose is consistently clear throughout the paperIntroduces and answers all questions somewhat effectively; writing has a clear purpose but may sometimes digress from itIntroduces and answer questions poorly; purpose is generally unclearDocumentation and SupportExceeds Standards20 pointsMeets Standards17.8 pointsNeeds Improvement13.8 pointsDoes Not Meet Standards11.8 pointsCategory is worth or 20% of overall gradeAnswers are supported effectively with legitimate sources from the learning resources and/or outside resources that are clearly attributed consistently throughout paper; uses APA format accurately and consistentlyAnswers are supported effectively with legitimate sources from the learning resources and/or outside resources that are clearly attributed but not consistent, yet "generally" supported; uses proper formatting with minor violationsAlthough attribution is present and many sources seem to be legitimate, some statements are unsubstantiated or generalized and the source of some ideas is unclear or some claims are made without support from the learning resources and/or outside resourcesAttribution is missing, or sources given are poorly chosen; claims are consistently made without support from the learning resources and/or outside resources; reflect incomplete knowledge of formatting.Organization and Writing MechanicsExceeds Standards10 pointsMeets Standards8.9 pointsNeeds Improvement6.9 pointsDoes Not Meet Standards5.9 pointsCategory is worth 10% of overall gradeArranges ideas clearly and logically to support the purpose; ideas flow smoothly and are effectively linked; reader can follow the line of reasoning; Writing demonstrates a sophisticated clarity, conciseness, and correctness with no grammatical/sentence structure errorsArranges ideas adequately to support the purpose; links between ideas are generally clear; reader can follow the line of reasoning for the most part; Writing is accomplished in terms of clarity and conciseness and contains only a few grammatical/sentenceArranges ideas adequately, in general, although ideas sometimes fail to make sense together; reader remains fairly clear about what writer intends; Writing sometimes lacks clarity or conciseness and contains various grammatical/sentence structure errorsArranges ideas illogically; ideas frequently fail to make sense together; reader cannot identify a line of reasoning and becomes frustrated or loses interest; Writing is unfocused, rambling, or contains serious grammatical/sentence structure errorsOverall ScoreLevel 490 or moreLevel 370 or moreLevel 260 or moreLevel 10 or more100 – 90 points = 100% - 90% =A+ - A -89 – 70 points =89% - 70% =B+ - C-69 - 60 points =D+ - D-59-0 points =<59% =FSubmit Files adventures_in_the_gender_trade__1_.pdf Unformatted Attachment Preview 05-Spade-45407.qxd 11/12/2007 5:09 PM Page 217 5 BUYING AND SELLING GENDER I n the video called Adventures in the Gender Trade, Kate Bornstein, a transgender performance artist and activist, looks into the camera and says, “Once you buy gender, you’ll buy anything to keep it.” Her observation goes to the heart of deep connections between economic processes and institutionalized patterns of gender difference, opposition, and inequality in contemporary society. Readings in this chapter examine the ways in which modern marketplace forces such as commercialization, commodification, and consumerism exploit and construct gender. However, before we explore the buying and selling of gender, we want to review briefly the major elements of contemporary American economic life—elements that embody corporate capitalism—which form the framework for the packaging and delivery of gender to consumers. DEFINING CORPORATE CAPITALISM Corporate capitalism is an economic system in which large, national and transnational corporations are the dominant forces. The basic goal of corporate capitalism is the same as it was when social scientists such as Karl Marx studied early capitalist economies: converting money into more money (Johnson, 2001). Corporate capitalists invest money in the production of all sorts of goods and services for the purpose of selling at a profit. Capitalism, as Gitlin (2001) observes, requires a consumerist way of life. In today’s society, corporate capitalism affects virtually every aspect of life—most Americans work for a corporate employer, whether a fast food chain or a bank, and virtually everyone buys the products and services of capitalist production (Johnson, 2001; Ritzer, 1999). Those goods and services include things we must have in order to live (e.g., food and shelter) and, most important for contemporary capitalism’s survival and growth, things we have learned to want or desire (e. g., microwave ovens, televisions, cruises, fitness fashions, cosmetic surgery), even though we do not need them in order to live (Ritzer, 1999). From an economic viewpoint, we are a nation of consumers, people who buy and use a dizzying array of objects and services conceived, designed, and sold to us by corporations. George Ritzer (1999), a leading analyst of consumerism, observes that consumption plays such as big role in the lives of contemporary Americans that it has, in many respects, come to define our society. 217 05-Spade-45407.qxd 11/12/2007 5:09 PM Page 218 218 • PART II: PATTERNS In fact, as Ritzer notes, Americans spend most of their available resources on consumer goods and services. Corporate, consumer capitalism depends on luring people into what he calls the “cathedrals of consumption,” such as book superstores, shopping malls, theme parks, fast food restaurants, and casinos, where we will spend money to buy an array of goods and services. Our consumption-driven economy counts on customers whose spending habits are relatively unrestrained and who view shopping as pleasurable. Indeed, Americans spend much more today than they did just forty years ago (Ritzer, 1999). Most of our available resources go to purchasing and consuming “stuff.” Americans consume more of everything and more varieties of things than people in other nations. We are also more likely to go into debt than Americans of earlier generations and people in other nations today. Some social scientists (e.g, Schor, 1998, p. 2004) use the term hyperconsumption to describe what seems to be a growing American passion for and obsession with consumption. MARKETING GENDER Gender is a fundamental element of the modern machinery of marketing. It is an obvious resource from which the creators and distribu

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