weekly journal for a course

It is a course about immigration and Asian American.Just read the PPT that I attached and write the weekly journal, each journal can be half page but no more than one page, and there are 6 weeks in total, so the whole work can be three to four pages. It is a course about immigration and Asian American.Just read the PPT that I attached and write the weekly journal, each journal can be half page but no more than one page, and there are 6 weeks in total, so the whole work can be three to four pages.
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Work, Nation, Empire
Week 9: Building, Growing, Community
announcements
•
•
•
book reviews due this Friday March 16.
extra credit: Dean Saranillo (change), March 23, 2:30pm–4pm
questions?
question of the day
who and what is an alien?
•
•
•
•
creature from outer space
person from another country
person with citizenship elsewhere
person who doesn’t belong here
• politically
• socially
• culturally
• by appearance
•
by choice
where we were before . . .
the Heathen Chinee
Asian migration as part of American territorial/industrial expansion
•
•
industrial revolution – in Asia and the Americas – was context for Asian
migration to the U.S.
transcontinental railroad
• presence of Chinese vs. other “immigrants”
workin’ on the railroad
workin’ on the railroad
workin’ on the railroad
workin’ on the railroad
Central Pacific railroad
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Leland Stanford (later founded Stanford University)
recruited Chinese workers
several thousand workers
worked in organized groups/gangs
paid ~$30-35/month
shorter distance, but very difficult work
had to cross Sierra Nevada mountains
workin’ on the railroad
workin’ on the railroad
workin’ on the railroad
workin’ on the railroad
Central Pacific railroad
•
•
•
•
had to cross Sierra Nevada mountains
7000 ft. rise in elevation over 100 miles
summit tunnel at Donner pass
blasted tunnels/debris using black powder and nitroglycerin (which had
to be made on site)
workin’ on the railroad
Chinaman’s Chance
•
•
•
•
•
•
had to cross Sierra Nevada mountains
gambling term (extremely long-odds)
origins from the actual work practice
lowered in wicker baskets down the side of cliffs/mountains
lit fuses
baskets pulled up as fast as possible before explosion
the Heathen Chinee
Chinese and the American West
•
•
•
•
why did Americans in the American west hate Chinese so much?
“Chinaman’s chance”
the Heathen Chinee
American territorial expansion / nationalism / empire
U.S. territorial expansion
the Heathen Chinee
“Plain Language from Truthful James” or “The Heathen
Chinee”
•
•
•
•
written by Bret Harte
published in The Overland Monthly Magazine (September 1870)
originally meant as a parody (of Algernon Charles Swinburne, “Atalanta in
Calydon”)
made Harte the most popular writer in America
The Heathen Chinee
Which I wish to remark,
And my language is plain,
That for ways that are dark
And for tricks that are vain,
The heathen Chinee is peculiar,
Which the same I would rise to explain.
Ah Sin was his name;
And I shall not deny,
In regard to the same,
What that name might imply;
But his smile it was pensive and childlike,
As I frequent remarked to Bill Nye.
It was August the third,
And quite soft was the skies;
Which it might be inferred
That Ah Sin was likewise;
Yet he played it that day upon William
And me in a way I despise.
Which we had a small game,
And Ah Sin took a hand:
It was Euchre. The same
He did not understand;
But he smiled as he sat by the table,
With the smile that was childlike and bland.
Yet the cards they were stocked
In a way that I grieve,
And my feelings were shocked
At the state of Nye’s sleeve,
Which was stuffed full of aces and bowers,
And the same with intent to deceive.
The Heathen Chinee
But the hands that were played
By that heathen Chinee,
And the points that he made,
Were quite frightful to see, -Till at last he put down a right bower,
Which the same Nye had dealt unto me.
Then I looked up at Nye,
And he gazed upon me;
And he rose with a sigh,
And said, “Can this be?
We are ruined by Chinese cheap labor,” -And he went for that heathen Chinee.
In the scene that ensued
I did not take a hand,
But the floor it was strewed
Like the leaves on the strand
With the cards that Ah Sin had been hiding,
In the game “he did not understand.”
In his sleeves, which were long,
He had twenty-four packs, -Which was coming it strong,
Yet I state but the facts;
And we found on his nails, which were taper,
What is frequent in tapers, — that’s wax.
Which is why I remark,
And my language is plain,
That for ways that are dark
And for tricks that are vain,
The heathen Chinee is peculiar, -Which the same I am free to maintain.
The Heathen Chinee
The Heathen Chinee
The Heathen Chinee
The Heathen Chinee
The Heathen Chinee
The Heathen Chinee
The Heathen Chinee
The Heathen Chinee
The Heathen Chinee
The Heathen Chinee
workin’ on the railroad
American transcontinental railroad
•
•
•
•
•
also signified territorial/imperial expansion
across trans-Mississippi west
myth of “Manifest Destiny” and individualism
reality of industrial/corporate development of “frontier” lands
Asians/Chinese as a contrast from the perspective of workers/individuals
• railroads
• mining
• agriculture
workin’ on the railroad
American territorial/imperial expansion
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
West Coast (California/Oregon) settled first
interior is consolidated later
interior lands differ significantly in character
significantly less rainfall
rockier, less fertile soil
why grow corn in Nebraska?
federal territories were “opened” up for development
• Railroad Acts (1862, 1864, 1867)
• Homestead Act
• Mining Acts
workin’ on the railroad
American territorial/imperial expansion
• federal territories were “opened” up for development
•
•
•
majority of lands available to individuals were later consolidated under
corporate ownership (railroads)
mining and agricultural rights aimed at individuals were similarly subsumed
by corporations
corporations had the capital that individuals did not have for large-scale
development
workin’ on the railroad
American territorial/imperial expansion
• federal territories were “opened” up for development
•
most railroad companies eventually became corporations
• ran telegraph/communications
• worked as moneychangers/banks
• American Express
• Western Union
workin’ on the railroad
American territorial/imperial expansion
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
opportunities available to individuals
were in the niches not considered worth developing large-scale
Asian / Chinese workers
already in the U.S.
relocated to find alternative work
less so in mining, particularly after Rock Springs, Wyoming massacre (1885)
eventually in agriculture
workin’ on the railroad
American territorial/imperial expansion
•
•
•
•
contrast to overseas American territories:
Hawai’i and others were islands
• not as much available territory/opportunity
• already corporately consolidated
larger Asian influx in Hawaii meant Asians became majority (settler)
population
in Philippines, Guam, and Samoa, native populations were colonized
American empire
American territorial/imperial expansion
•
•
19th century territorial expansion into the North American continent
overseas expansion beginning late 19th century
• Hawai’i
• Philippine Islands
• Puerto Rico
• Cuba
• Guam
• Midway
the Heathen Chinee
the Heathen Chinee
the Heathen Chinee
the Heathen Chinee
the Heathen Chinee
John “Johnny” Chinaman
national character/archetype
John “Johnny” Chinaman
Red Gentleman to Yellow
Gentleman: “Pale face
’fraid you crowd him out,
as he did me.”
John “Johnny” Bull
caricature and archetype
for England (w/bulldog)
• John Arbuthnot
(1667-1735)
•
Uncle Sam
caricature and archetype
for United States
• male figure
•
John Confucius
political variant of “John
Chinaman”
• created by Thomas Nast
(American cartoonist) in
the 1870s
•
Columbia / John Chinaman
•
“Hands off, Gentlemen!
America means fair play
for all men.”
John Chinaman
•
term extended to
children’s literature
John “Johnny” Chinaman
John “Johnny” Chinaman
John “Johnny” Chinaman
John “Johnny” Chinaman
John “Johnny” Chinaman
American empire
The Heathen Chinee
•
•
•
•
national ethnic characters/archetype
• John Chinaman
• different from “stereotype”
• John Bull, Uncle Sam, etc.
“Yellow Peril”
19th century labor and mass invasion
blaming the victim?
• opium
• mass invasion
• both were result of systematic colonial underdevelopment
the Heathen Chinese
the Heathen Chinee
American empire
Los Angeles anti-Chinese riot
•
•
•
•
Los Angeles, CA Chinatown, October 24, 1871
Calle de los Negros (“Street of the Negroes”)
local man caught in the cross-fire between two Chinese factions
(longstanding feud between them)
up to 20 Chinese were tortured and lynched by a mob (est. 500) in what is
arguably the largest mass lynching in American history
the Heathen Chinee
American empire
Rock Springs massacre
•
•
•
•
Rock Springs, Wyoming massacre, Sept. 2, 1885
railroad workers (and people with mining experience) relocated for work
in Wyoming, to mine for coal, Union Pacific Coal (subsidiary of railroad)
up to 25% of population of Wyoming in 1870s-80s was Chinese (20,789 in
1880)
American empire
Rock Springs massacre
•
•
•
•
•
Rock Springs, Wyoming massacre, Sept. 2, 1885
labor dispute between white and Chinese miners (all immigrants)
whites were paid more, Chinese less
more Chinese were hired, seen as “scabs” taking away white jobs
many white miners were members of the Knights of Labor
American empire
Rock Springs massacre
•
•
•
•
•
•
Rock Springs, Wyoming massacre, Sept. 2, 1885
riot broke out
armed mob convened, attacked Chinatown (with group of women cheering)
destroying 75 Chinese homes
28 Chinese miners died and another 15 were injured
federal troops brought in
American empire
Rock Springs massacre
•
•
•
•
Rock Springs, Wyoming massacre, Sept. 2, 1885
sixteen arrested, but not brought to trial (grand jury refused to indict) and
eventually released
many Chinese fled Wyoming (Rock Springs population declined by 50%)
protests by Chinese American groups and Chinese government
American empire
Rock Springs massacre
•
touched off wave of anti-Chinese violence in West
•
especially in Washington Territory (still part of state of Oregon)
Chinese expelled from Tacoma in November 1885 and Seattle in February
1886.
violence in and other towns in Puget Sound area
“alien land” law written into Washington State Constitution in 1889
•
•
•
the Heathen Chinee
the Heathen Chinee
The No Place Project
•
http://www.noplaceproject.com/#!theproject/cfvg
map of white supremacy mob violence
•
http://www.monroeworktoday.org/explore/
American empire / work
work and empire
•
•
•
•
agriculture
• labor intensive production of fruits, vegetables, and flowers
• recruited Asian migrant workers
• “truck farm” or “market garden (basis for Asian American opportunities)
mining
lumber industry
fishing and canning
American empire?
American empire?
American empire
truck farming
•
•
“truck farm” or “market garden”
• small-scale production of fruits, vegetables, and flowers
• usually sold for cash
• requires more intensive labor
in California, became the basis for Asian American opportunities
cherries
cherries
American empire
Ah Bing
•
•
•
•
•
immigrated to the U.S. around 1855
foreman, Lewelling (originally Luelling) fruit nursery in Milwaukie, Oregon
developed the Bing cherry
• a large, dark variety of the sweet cherry
• grown to be eaten fresh (as opposed to used in canning or cooking)
• they ship well
Bing cherry is the most widely available/eaten variety in the United States
Ah Bing returned to China in 1889 for a visit, but never returned because of
exclusion acts
lumberjacks?
lumberjacks?
lumberjacks?
fishing and cannery workers
George Shima
American empire / work
George Shima, the “Potato King”
•
•
•
born Ushijima Kinji in Kurume, Japan
immigrated to the U.S. in 1889
worked as domestic servant, then migrant farm laborer, then as a labor
supplier
American empire / work
George Shima, the “Potato King”
•
•
•
in the 1890s, purchased swampland in the San Joaquin delta,
• drained it using dikes
• started trying to grow rice, then switched to potatoes
• by 1913, 28,800 acres in production
• by 1920, produced 85% of California’s potato market (“Shima Fancy”
brand potatoes)
became 1st President of Japanese Association of America, working to oppose
California Alien Land Law (1913)
died in 1926
San Joaquin river delta
American empire / work
California agriculture festivals
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
almond, Oakley, September
apple, Springville, October
artichoke, Castroville, May
asparagus, Stockton, April
avocado, Carpinteria, October
blackberry, Covelo, August
cherry, Beaumont, June
citrus, Santa Paula, July
eggplant, Tracy, August
garlic, Gilroy, July
•
•
•
•
grape, Lodi, September
lemon, Goleta, October
peach, Marysville, July
pear, Courtland, July
chinks?
the “Iron Chink”
American empire / work
“Chink”
•
•
•
term exists in English from 15th century as a weakness in metallic surface/
solid: “chink in the armor”
not used as racial epithet regarding Chinese
American territorial expansion and racialization
• Chinese (and other Asians) worked in fishing and cannery industries in
Pacific Northwest
• invention of mechanized canning apparatus (late 19th century)
• nicknamed “Iron Chink” because of the sound it made
• and the racial association to the workers it displaced
empire, race, nation
conclusion
•
•
•
idea of “Asians” was an expression of many modern concerns (industrial,
economic, and national) associated with citizenship and territorial expansion
onto an emergent racial category
“domestic” American west
overseas/island territories
Work, Nation, Empire (cont.)
Week 9: Building, Growing, Community
announcements
•
•
•
book reviews due this Friday March 16.
extra credit: Dean Saranillo (change), March 23, 2:30pm–4pm
questions?
question of the day
who and what is an alien?
•
•
•
•
creature from outer space
person from another country
person with citizenship elsewhere
person who doesn’t belong here
• politically
• socially
• culturally
• by appearance
•
by choice
where we were before . . .
the Heathen Chinee
Asian migration as part of American territorial/industrial expansion
•
•
industrial revolution – in Asia and the Americas – was context for Asian
migration to the U.S.
transcontinental railroad
• presence of Chinese vs. other “immigrants”
U.S. territorial expansion
The Heathen Chinee
John “Johnny” Chinaman
American empire / work
work and empire
•
•
•
•
agriculture
• labor intensive production of fruits, vegetables, and flowers
• recruited Asian migrant workers
• “truck farm” or “market garden (basis for Asian American opportunities)
mining
lumber industry
fishing and canning
American empire?
American empire?
American empire
truck farming
•
•
“truck farm” or “market garden”
• small-scale production of fruits, vegetables, and flowers
• usually sold for cash
• requires more intensive labor
in California, became the basis for Asian American opportunities
cherries
cherries
American empire
Ah Bing
•
•
•
•
•
immigrated to the U.S. around 1855
foreman, Lewelling (originally Luelling) fruit nursery in Milwaukie, Oregon
developed the Bing cherry
• a large, dark variety of the sweet cherry
• grown to be eaten fresh (as opposed to used in canning or cooking)
• they ship well
Bing cherry is the most widely available/eaten variety in the United States
Ah Bing returned to China in 1889 for a visit, but never returned because of
exclusion acts
lumberjacks?
lumberjacks?
lumberjacks?
fishing and cannery workers
George Shima
American empire / work
George Shima, the “Potato King”
•
•
•
born Ushijima Kinji in Kurume, Japan
immigrated to the U.S. in 1889
worked as domestic servant, then migrant farm laborer, then as a labor
supplier
American empire / work
George Shima, the “Potato King”
•
•
•
in the 1890s, purchased swampland in the San Joaquin delta,
• drained it using dikes
• started trying to grow rice, then switched to potatoes
• by 1913, 28,800 acres in production
• by 1920, produced 85% of California’s potato market (“Shima Fancy”
brand potatoes)
became 1st President of Japanese Association of America, working to oppose
California Alien Land Law (1913)
died in 1926
San Joaquin river delta
American empire / work
California agriculture festivals
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
almond, Oakley, September
apple, Springville, October
artichoke, Castroville, May
asparagus, Stockton, April
avocado, Carpinteria, October
blackberry, Covelo, August
cherry, Beaumont, June
citrus, Santa Paula, July
eggplant, Tracy, August
garlic, Gilroy, July
•
•
•
•
grape, Lodi, September
lemon, Goleta, October
peach, Marysville, July
pear, Courtland, July
chinks?
the “Iron Chink”
American empire / work
“Chink”
•
•
•
term exists in English from 15th century as a weakness in metallic surface/
solid: “chink in the armor”
not used as racial epithet regarding Chinese
American territorial expansion and racialization
• Chinese (and other Asians) worked in fishing and cannery industries in
Pacific Northwest
• invention of mechanized canning apparatus (late 19th century)
• nicknamed “Iron Chink” because of the sound it made
• and the racial association to the workers it displaced
American empire
American territorial/imperial expansion
•
•
earlier informal 19th century overseas territorial incursions
• American Samoa
• Hawai’i
• Central America/Caribbean
• Monroe doctrine
• “banana republics” (United Fruit Corporation)
territorial expansion into the North American continent
American empire
American territorial/imperial expansion
•
•
overseas expansion beginning late 19th century
• annexation of Hawai’i
• Cuba/Puerto Rico/Philippines/Guam (Spanish-American War, 1898)
• Panama/Colombia
other interventions
• Mexico (during Mexican Revolution, 1910-20)
• occupation of Dominican Republic (1916-1924)
empire, race, nation
citizenship, manifest destiny, and race
•
•
•
who belongs?
and who does not?
increasingly manifest in two forms of regulation
• immigration
• naturalization
empire, race, nation
immigration
•
•
•
when did people start immigrating to the U.S.?
when did the U.S. start restricting immigration?
why?
empire, race, nation
immigration
•
•
•
•
•
although federal government decided immigration policy, immigration
enforcement was mostly state-regulated in 19th century
in 1860s regulation begins under Dept. of Treasury
regulation of ships, passengers, taxes, and fees
Bureau of Chinese Inspection created after 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act
1890s-1900s Bureau of Immigration formed under new Dept. of Labor and
Commerce
• regulation of incoming immigrant aliens
• inspection and control
empire, race, nation
naturalization
•
•
•
citizenship and naturalization
few countries considered the “naturalization” in the 19th century
• England did not formal naturalization until 1914
• many countries assumed country/nation/nativity (implicitly racial)
naturalization connected citizenship to new political idea of “nation”
• previously, monarchies decided sovereignty; political members of their
societies were “subjects” to the law
• United States had no conception of “native” subjects
• in the U.S. and other political democracies, citizens decide/determine
laws
empire, race, nation
naturalization laws
•
1790 Naturalization Act
• “free white persons”
• emphasis in the phrase was on “free” (and “free white”), not on “wh …
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