What is Critical Thinking?

Find three sources that discuss critical thinking. One source should be from the assigned and/or optional readings,(http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/critical-thinking-in-everyday-life-9-strategies/512) and the other two should be found through your own research. Read the three sources, and consider how they define critical thinking.In 300-500 words, explain your own personal definition of critical thinking. Keep the following guidelines in mind:Select a direct quote from one of your resources to include in your explanation.A reference page that documents the three sources you found (and any other resources you used) is required. Remember, all outside sources must be cited both in-text and on your reference page.The articles you found in your research may influence your definition, but your own ideas should be evident. In other words, your process should be: a) Read some definitions and descriptions of critical thinking; b) Comprehend or digest the information; and c) Write your own definition of critical thinking.(Note: Do not simply reword the definitions you read. Consider a new way to explain what you understand critical thinking to be.)Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the GCU Style Guide (attached)
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Grand Canyon University
GCU Style Guide
for Lower-Division Students
Introduction
Lower-division students of Grand Canyon University (GCU) are required to use a writing style
based upon a simplified version of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological
Association (APA) for preparing written assignments, except where otherwise noted. In the
interest of providing resource material for student use, this guide to GCU style and format has
been developed and made available. A template has been provided in the Student Success
Center’s Writing Center for student download and use.
PLEASE NOTE:
The curriculum materials (Syllabus, Lectures, Resources, etc.) created and provided by GCU in
the online or Web-enhanced modalities are prepared using an editorial format that relies on APA
as a framework but that modifies some format and formatting criteria to better suit the nature and
purpose of instructional materials. Students and faculty are advised that GCU course materials do
not adhere strictly to APA format and should not be used as examples of correct format when
preparing written work for class.
GCU Style
General
Academic writing, which is independent thought supported by reliable and relevant research,
depends on the ability to integrate and cite the sources that have been consulted. Use GCU style
for all references, in-text citations, formatting, etc. If this GCU Style Guide does not provide an
example of a reference note for a specific type of source, refer to the APA style. The APA style
guide can be located in the Student Success Center under the Writing Center. Helpful sites and
resources can also be found at the GCU Library Citing Sources Research Guide at
http://libguides.gcu.edu/CitingSources.
Use one space after punctuation marks at the end of a sentence. Write in third-person point of
view unless otherwise noted. Use first- and second-person sparingly, if ever. This means, avoid
using I, we, and you; instead, use he, she, and they. Do not use contractions (e.g., it’s, don’t,
should’ve).
The Writing Process
Students should become familiar with “The Writing Process” tutorial, located in the Student
Success Center. This multimedia resource walks students through the process of writing by
explaining and demonstrating the organization, drafting, editing, revision, and finalization of
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written papers. It also provides valuable information on the research process, locating and citing
sources, and how to paraphrase and use quotations. This is an essential tool students can use to
improve their writing and should be used in conjunction with the GCU Style Guide.
Paper Organization and Presentation
The standard organization of a GCU style paper includes the paper heading, the body, and
references. However, students are required to follow any specific directions given in the syllabus
or assignment rubrics that may differ from this standard. Students can access a template for GCU
Style paper format in the Student Success Center under the Writing Center. Students can write
over the template instructions and be certain the paper is in the proper, GCU style format.
Paper Heading
The paper heading includes four lines in the upper left-hand corner of the first page. The
student’s name, the course number, the date of submission, and the instructor’s name each take up
their own line. The whole paper, including the heading, body, and references should be doublespaced.
An example paper heading would look like:
Figure 1 – Example of paper heading (document page viewpoint)
Body
The body will contain all of the author’s main points as well as detailed and documented support
for those ideas.
The title is centered on the line after the paper heading, in initial caps. Refer to the GCU Style
Guide Template for an example.
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Due to the nature of most student essays, there is not usually a need for section headings and
subheadings (Introduction, Methods, Conclusion, etc.). If guidelines are required or helpful,
ensure there is a clear break in the flow of text and that the new heading/subheading is easy to
spot.
References
The References list provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any
source cited in the body of the essay. The reference list should be on a new page, separate from
and following the body of the essay. Label this page References (with no quotation marks,
underlining, etc.), centered at the top of the page. The References page should be double-spaced
just like the rest of your essay.
References on the References page are presented consistent with the following:
•
•
•
•
All lines after the first line of each entry in the reference list should be indented a half
inch (0.5″) from the left margin. This is called hanging indentation.
Authors’ names are inverted (last name first); give the last name and initials for all
authors of a particular work.
Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each
work.
See the Reference list section and examples in this document for details on specific
conventions.
Preparing References and Citations for Sources Used in Papers
Citations are used to reference material from another source. Using citations to give credit to
others whose ideas or words you have used is an essential requirement to avoid issues of
plagiarism. Just as you would never steal someone else’s car, you should not steal their words
either. To avoid potential problems, always cite your sources.
Common knowledge does not need to be cited. However, determining if a fact is common
knowledge can be difficult, so when in doubt, cite the material. Not properly citing a resource is
plagiarism; please refer to GCU’s policy on Plagiarism in the University Policy Handbook.
In-Text Citations
When to Cite
All quotations, paraphrases, and summaries must be documented with an in-text-citation and
reference note. In general, include an in-text citation immediately preceding or following the
quote, paraphrase, or summary used. GCU style allows the writer to use one in-text citation at
the end of a paragraph when only one source is used in that paragraph, even when multiple
sentences have been paraphrased from the same source.
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How to In-Text Cite
PARAPHRASING AND DIRECT QUOTES
When paraphrasing a source (writing in your own words) the in-text citations should include the
author(s) last name and the publication date in parentheses.
For a direct quotations (using three or more words in a row that are the same as the source),
citations should include author(s), date, and page number(s) in parentheses.
If there is no author, then the first few words of the title, enclosed in quotation marks, are used in
the author’s place, followed by the date. If there is no date, the abbreviation “n.d.” is used.
If a resource has no page number (as is often the case in electronic resources like websites) and a
direct quote is used in text, indicate the paragraph number where the quote is located preceded
by the abbreviation “para.”
Examples:
•
•
•
•
•
For paraphrasing: There are many concerns over the impact of the No Child Left
behind act on public education (Ornstein & Levine, 2008).
For direct quotes: “Ethics examines moral values and the standards of ethical behavior”
(Ornstein & Levine, 2008, p. 162).
For no author: (“The Scientific Revolution”, 2005)
For no date: (Jones, n.d.)
For no page number: (“Seventeen Moments in Soviet History,” n.d., para. 2)
SOURCES WITH MULTIPLE AUTHORS
For a work by two authors, cite both last names followed by year for every citation. For a work
by three to five authors, cite all last names followed by year on first reference, and the first
author’s last name followed by the abbreviation “et al.” and the year for subsequent references
(and page numbers for direct quotations). For a work by six or more authors, cite last name of the
first author followed by the abbreviation “et al.” and the year on the first reference and all
subsequent references.
Examples:
•
•
•
•
Two authors: (Walker & Allen, 2004)
Three or more authors (first reference): (Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, & Walsh, 2006)
Three or more authors (subsequent references): (Bradley et al., 2006)
Six or more authors (direct quote): (Wasserstein et al., 2005, pp. 345-347)
CITING SECONDARY SOURCES
Often, information will be found in a source that originated in another source. If this information
is desired for use in a paper, it is preferable to cite the original source rather than the secondary
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source, as this is most direct and authoritative method of documentation. Using secondary
sources should be avoided whenever possible as it can lead to information being misrepresented
or used out of context. However, there are situations where obtaining the original source is not
practical or possible, and so the secondary source can be used.
When citing a secondary source, identify the primary source and cite the secondary source
preceded by “as cited in.” Please note that the reference note that would be included for this
citation on the References page would be for the secondary source, but not the primary source
because the secondary source was used when writing the paper.
The following example represents a situation where an idea in a book by Wilson was
cited/quoted in an article by Anderson, the Anderson article was read (but not Wilson’s book),
and paraphrased in the paper.
Example:
•
•
Citing secondary source: According to Wilson… (as cited in Anderson, 2000).
Note that the Anderson article would be listed on the References page
CITING THE BIBLE
When referencing the Bible, cite the book, chapter number, and verse number(s) (starting and
ending). The first time the Bible is cited in the paper, also include the version used. This system
of citation for the Bible is sufficient and requires no reference note for the Bible on the
References page.
Examples:
•
•
Citing the Bible, first reference: Use book, chapter, verse, and version (Luke 2:16-20
King James Version).
Citing the Bible, subsequent references: Use only book, chapter, and verse (Luke 2:1620).
CITING PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS/INTERVIEWS/E-MAILS/LETTERS
Like the Bible, personal communications are not listed on the References page, but as in-text
citations only. The in-text citation should include the name of the interviewee or originator of the
communication (first initials and last name), the words “personal communication,” and the date
the communication occurred.
Example:
•
(A. E. Jones, personal communication, October 24, 2002)
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CITING GCU COURSE LECTURE NOTES
When citing a GCU Lecture Note in your paper, use the title of the lecture and the copyright
date for the in-text citation.
Example:
•
Citing a GCU Lecture Note: Citation would appear in text like this (“Lecture 1,” 2013).
The title in quotation marks is used instead of the author because lectures in GCU courses
are not attributed to individual authors; in this case, the title moves into the first position
in the in-text citation and is enclosed in quotation marks.
BLOCK QUOTATIONS
Direct quotations that contain 40 or more words from a source should be presented in “block”
format, uniformly indented rather than within quotation marks, according to the following
specifications:
•
•
•
•
•
Start a block quote on a new line.
Indent the entire quoted text block 0.5 inches from the left margin (in the same position
as a new paragraph)
Do not use quotation marks around the quotation block.
The parenthetical in-text citation for a block quote is placed outside the final punctuation
of the quoted passage.
Block quotes are double-spaced as are all other elements of the paper.
In general, long quotations requiring block formatting should rarely be used, normally not more
than once in an academic paper. Some papers, especially those in which the subject of discussion
is the language of a specific text (such as an analysis essay on a work of literature or the rationale
of a court’s decision), may benefit from using long direct quotes more frequently, but these
should always be justified by explanation of the quoted language in the students own words.
The following example shows a variety of in-text citations, including how to present and cite a
block quotation.
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An example paragraph with a block quotation would look like:
Figure 2 – Example of paragraph with a block quotation (document page viewpoint)
Reference List
When writing, it is important to document all sources with as much identifying information as
possible. This includes who wrote it, who published it, and where to find it. Remember to obtain
and make note of all of this information during the research process so that creating references
for the paper will be easier when it is time to make the references list. Also remember that it is
better to include information that is not required than to leave out necessary information.
Reference Note/In-Text Citation Rule
Each source cited in the essay must appear in the References list; likewise, each entry in the
References list must be cited in the text of the essay.
Exceptions to this rule include the Bible (and other classical works) and personal
communication, which are cited in text (as explained above in the In-Text citation section) but do
not require a reference on the references page.
Note About Electronic Resources
For most electronic resources like websites, electronic journal articles, and electronic books, the
URL or persistent link is a required part of the reference (though not included in the in-text
citation).
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Reference Examples
Books
Book by a Single Author
Format:
Author, A. A. (Year). Book title: Subtitle after colon. Location, State Abbreviation:
Publisher.
Example:
Daresh, J. C. (2004). Beginning the assistant principalship: A practical guide for new school
administrators. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
Book by More Than One Author
Format:
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Book title: Subtitle after colon.
Location, State Abbreviation: Publisher.
Example:
Black, J. A., & English, F. W. (1986). What they don’t tell you in schools of education about
school administration. Lancaster, PA: Technomic.
Edited Book
Format:
Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year). Title of work. Location, State Abbreviation: Publisher.
Example:
Feldman, P. R. (Ed.). (1997). British women poets of the romantic era. Baltimore, MD: Johns
Hopkins University.
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Chapter in a Book
Format — Print:
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. A. Editor & B. B.
Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Location, State Abbreviation: Publisher.
Example — Print:
Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R.
J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 17-43). New York, NY:
Guilford Press.
Format — Online:
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. A. Editor & B. B.
Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Retrieved from http://www.xxxx
Example — Online:
Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R.
J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 17-43). Retrieved from
http://www.science.com/ Philosophy and the science.pdf
eBook by a Single Author
Format:
Author, A. (Year). Book title. Retrieved from URL
Example:
Cosgrove, M. (2006). Foundations of Christian thought. Retrieved from
http://gcumedia.com/digital-resources/kregel/2006/foundations-of-christian-thought_faith-learning-and-the-christian-worldview_ebook_1e.php
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Specific Edition of a Book
Format:
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work (xx ed.). Location, State Abbreviation: Publisher.
Example:
Parker, F., & Riley, K. (2004). Linguistics for non-linguists: A primer with exercises (4th
ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Encyclopedia Entry With Author and Editor — Online
Format:
Author, A. A. (Year). Entry title. In A. A. Editor (Ed.), Title of encyclopedia (pp. xxx-xxx).
Retrieved from http://www.xxxx
Example:
Lawrence, B. (1998). Transformation. In M. C. Talor (Ed.), Critical terms for religious
studies. Retrieved from http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?qurl=http%3A%2F%2F
search.credoreference.com.library.gcu.edu%3A2048%2Fcontent%2Fentry%2Fuchica
gors%2Ftransformation%2F0
Encyclopedia Entry With No Author or Editor — Online
Format:
Entry title. (Year). In Title of encyclopedia (pp. xxx-xxx). Retrieved from http://www.xxxx
Example:
Christianity. (2003). In The Macmillan encyclopedia. Retrieved from
http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?qurl=http%3A%2F%2Fsearch.credoreference.com.l
ibrary.gcu.edu%3A2048%2Fcontent%2Fentry%2Fmove%2Fchristianity%2F0
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Dictionary Entry — Online
Format:
Entry title. (Year). In Title of dictionary (pp. xxx-xxx). Retrieved from http://www.xxxx
Example:
Lord’s prayer. (2012). In Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary. Retrieved from
http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?qurl=http%3A%2F%2Fsearch.credoreference.com.l
ibrary.gcu.edu%3A2048%2Fcontent%2Fentry%2Fmwcollegiate%2Flord_s_prayer%
2F0
The Holy Bible
The Bible does not need to be listed on the reference page, but it does need to be cited in-text.
(Refer to in-text citation rule.)
Periodicals
Article in a Journal— Print
Format:
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of article. Journal Title, Volume(Issue), Page
numbers.
Example:
Arnold, J. B., & Dodge, H. W. (1994). Room for all. The American School Board Journal,
181(10), 22-26.
Article in a Journal — Online
Format:
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Periodical Title, Volume(Issue), Page numbers.
Retrieved from URL or GCU Library persistent link
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Examples:
Smith, B. M. (2004). What will you do on summer vacation? Phi Delta Kappan, 85(10), 722.
Retrieved from http://www.pdkintl.org/kappan/k0406smi.htm
Dewsbury, G., & Ballard, D. (2014). The managerial costs of nurse call systems. Nursing &
Residential Care, 16(9), 512-515. Retrieved from
http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.library.gcu.edu:204
8/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ccm&AN=2012694989&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Article in a Magazine — Print
Format:
Author, A. A. (Year, Month). Article title. Magazine Title, Volume(Issue), xxx-xxx.
Example:
Mehta, P. B. (1998, June). Exploding myths. New Republic, 290(25), 17-19.
Article in a Magazine — Online
Format:
Author, A. A. (Year, Month). Article title. Magazine Title, Volume(Issue). Retrieved from
http://www.homepage
Example:
Clay, R. (2008, June). Science vs. ideology: Psychologists fight back about the misuse of
research. Monitor on Psychology, 39(6). Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor
Article in a Newspaper — Print
Format:
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Newspaper Title, pp. xx, xx.
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Example:
Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington
Post, pp. A1, A4.
Article in Newspaper — Online
Format:
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Newspaper Title. Retrieved from
http://www.homepage.com
Example:
Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times.
Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/11/health/11brod.html?
pagewanted=all&_r=0
Electronic Resources
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