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First thing, I want you to do before you comment on that paper. Read the paper I send you and follow those instructions. To support the 100 words comments you must base on those chapters readings and only quote the Vito, G. F. & Higgins, G. E. (2015). When you cite that 100 words send me in a separate page the exact page number you cited from the reading attachment I sent to you. I want to verify if what you write come from directly Vito, G. F. & Higgins, G. E. (2015). Required Reading: Vito, G. F. & Higgins, G. E. (2015). Practical Program Evaluation for Criminal Justice. Waltham, MA: Elsevier. Assignments must be written and typed following the guidelines in the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (APA manual), and must be written at college level, with good sentence structure and good syntax. Students must also adhere to the professional guidelines for the use of copyrighted literature and commercially produced materials, as well as materials generated by colleagues and friends and information collected from conferences and presentations.


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Program evaluation is one of the most important methods for assessing the process and impact of
criminal justice programs and policies. In general, in program evaluations, researchers collaborate with
administrators of criminal justice to determine the effectiveness of programs
designed to change offenders or people who might become offenders. In program evaluation
researchers collect information, or data, about the program, staff, and clients; analyze it; and then
report back to the program leaders and other important stakeholders regarding the results. Sometimes
evaluation results are then used by policymakers and practitioners to inform changes in their programs
and policies.
Evaluations are also useful in helping people involved in administering the program learn more about it.
Program evaluations have been increasingly important to criminal justice practice in the last few
decades, in part because of limited resources. Process evaluation aims to provide the criminal justice
system with technical information that can assist them in developing and implementing similar
One form of data collection that would be vital to the criminal program is interviewing. This involves
understanding the impressions and experiences in more detail. Interviewers allow more information to
be gathered. Also, the focus group is another form of data collection in which you are able to obtain
information from a diverse group of people. The focus group is inexpensive compared to interviews;
however, a limited number questions can be asked in the focus group.
Two major sources of crime data commonly used in the United States are the Uniform Crime Reports
(UCR) and the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS). UCR are only the most serious crime
committed in a single incident while the NIBRS requires officers to report multiple offenses, victims and
offenders. Platt (2014) stated that the primary reason for not reporting crimes is the belief that the
police are either incapable of solving crimes or are likely to aggravate the situation by brutalizing or
intimidating the victims. This distrust of the police is realistically based on the extensive experiences of
working-class communities, especially racial and national minorities, with police brutality and
Platt, Tony. (2014). “Street” Crime: A View from the Left.
Social Justice. Vol. 40, Iss. 1/2, (2014): 216-230.
Chapter 7
Cost-Efficiency Evaluations
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
Cost-Efficiency Evaluations
Program evaluations have to consider the
Evaluators should link program outcomes
to costs if the results of the evaluation are
to be useful in making decisions.
Most of the methodologies that evaluators
use come from the business and economic
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
Cost-Efficiency Evaluations
Cost-effective analyses are important at
two parts of the program process:
Planning stage, projecting the costs of a
potential program and matching them to its
intended objective(s).
Evaluators must assess the quality of the
program’s implementation and impact in the
context of the program costs.
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
Types of Costs
Direct versus Indirect:
The planner needs to consider the costs that
associate with providing service(s) and the
support costs that make providing the
service(s) possible.
Recurring versus Nonrecurring Costs:
Recurring costs come about at regular
Nonrecurring costs are for items that do not
require interval style purchase.
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
Types of Costs
Hidden versus Obvious Costs:
The issue here is to slow planners down in
their consideration of costs.
Hidden costs require a great deal of inquiry
and research.
Opportunity Costs:
Planners have to consider the cost of the
program being considered and the cost of
other programs.
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
Types of Costs
Variable versus Fixed Costs:
These costs represent the amount of money
necessary to simply open the doors of the
Incremental versus Sunk Costs:
Incremental costs reflect the amount of funds
that the organization expends on a daily
basis–salaries or repairs.
Sunk costs are those that have been
previously expended.
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
Why Examine Costs?
The funds for criminal justice are almost
always limited, so informed choices are
The informed choice involves a
consideration of the types of cost in
relation to its perceived benefit or positive
impact to society.
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
Outcomes to Costs
The determination of the costs is only part of
the process.
The difficult part of the process is the
determination (i.e., estimate or have precise
information) of benefits.
As it turns out, it is the easiest part of the process.
Benefits are difficult to determine because they
are complex due to the multiple ways they can be
determined, and their goals are usually not easily
or clearly presented.
Another method of determining benefits is to
think about the amount of money available if
the money has not been spent.
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
The Heart of Cost-Benefit Analysis
In cost benefit-analysis, the costs and the
outcomes are measured in the same unit-usually monetary.
The division of the costs by the benefits
results in a benefit-cost ratio.
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
The Heart of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
Typologies for cost-effectiveness analyses:
If the amount to be spent is set, the planner
or evaluator can compare two alternatives to
determine which one is expected to be the
best outcome for the money.
The cost of achieving a specified outcome
can be compared for various approaches to
a problem.
Examine the different intensities of a
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
Units of Understanding are Important
Planners and evaluators are often asked to
choose between programs that have been
designed to achieve different goals or
Cost-utility analysis is a process where the
stakeholders (i.e., those with some interest
in a potential program) examine and
compare the possible benefits with the
costs of the potential program.
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
Issues of Cost Analyses
Unit of Analysis:
The unit of analysis is an important feature to keep in
mind. Babbie (2002) discusses unit of analysis as the
thing used to create summary descriptions of all such
units and explain differences among them.
What Future Costs and Benefits Hold:
The future brings about changes in program clients,
missions, goals, or objectives.
The difficulty in estimating these long-term benefits
becomes complex when considering the externality
The externality effect is known as a spill-over. A spillover occurs when more benefits are realized from a
program than those that are initially intended.
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
Issues of Cost Analyses
Paying Costs and Reaping Benefits:
An immediate view is that those that pay the
cost will reap the benefits.
Using cost benefit and cost-effectiveness
A cost-benefit analysis that shows a program
is worthy of funds, but exceeds the
organization’s budget is not feasible; it pushes
the organization to make decisions using
available resources.
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
Limits of Cost Analyses
Value of Life:
One of the methods of placing a value on life
is through earning potential.
The earning potential focus has some limits.
Earning potential does not take into account the
amount of money spent on children as they
Earning potential will not properly estimate the
value of an elderly individual.
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
Limits of Cost Analyses
Assumptions and Cost Analysis:
Evaluators have to be open and honest about
their assumptions and approximations.
An important issue for evaluators is to provide
multiple estimates for cost-benefit and cost
effective analyses.
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
Janet E. Wall, EdD, CDFI
President, Sage Solutions
What Is Evaluation?
An evaluation is a purposeful, systematic, and careful collection and analysis of information used
for the purpose of documenting the effectiveness and impact of programs, establishing
accountability and identifying areas needing change and improvement.
Summative Evaluation
There are many types of evaluation, depending on the purpose, timing, and procedures used. A
summative evaluation, sometimes called outcome evaluation, is conducted for the purpose of
documenting the results of a program. Specific goals of a program are identified and the degree
of accomplishment of those goals is documented. The results of a summative evaluation might
point to changes that should be made in a program in order to improve it in subsequent
implementations. The results of summative evaluations can specify program status and
conditions for accountability purposes. The results can also be used as a needs assessment for the
subsequent planning of changes in a program or of the introduction of new programs and
interventions. The following table presents some questions that might be addressed by a
summative evaluation.
When Conducted
After a program has
been implemented
and completed
Examples of Summative Evaluation Questions
What did the program accomplish?
Did the program reach its goals and objectives?
What impact did the program have on its recipients?
What were the outcomes?
Who benefited from the program?
How much was the benefit?
Was the benefit greater with this program as compared with another
Did all types of students or clients benefit from the program?
What were the positive outcomes?
What were the negative outcomes?
What should be improved/changed in the program?
Does the benefit of the program warrant the cost?
Formative Evaluation
A formative evaluation, also known as process or implementation evaluation, is performed to
examine various aspects of an ongoing program in order to make changes/improvements as the
program is being implemented. This type of evaluation attempts to document exactly what is
transpiring in a program. Data are collected and analyzed at a time when program changes can be
made to ensure that the quality of the program implementation is maintained throughout. For
example, if a career development program has been introduced in a school district, it is important
to know to what extent the program has actually been implemented as designed. The following
table suggests some questions that might be addressed in a formative evaluation.
When Conducted
While the program is
ongoing – perhaps
several times
Examples of Formative Evaluation Questions
Is the program being implemented as it was designed?
Do the students or clients understand the program’s concepts?
What are the misconceptions about the program?
Are all program implementers implementing the program in the same
Is the program being implemented on schedule?
Is there sufficient time to implement all aspects of the program?
What aspects of the program do not seem to be working as well as you
Do program implementers need additional training on the program?
Are there any negative outcomes surfacing?
Who Should Conduct or Lead the Evaluation Process?
In some instances an evaluation is designed to answer multiple questions at multiple locations
with multiple types of individuals using sophisticated statistical techniques. In such cases it is
best to bring in a professionally trained individual or company to assist with the evaluation.
However, evaluation does not need to be complex, highly statistical and in need of specialized
experts to be useful and worthwhile. The best evaluations are conducted by those who know and
care about the program and its effects on students and clients — that means you. In an age of
increasing accountability, you need to show the worth of what you are doing and the impact that
programs are having on your students and clients.
Evaluation Process—Overview
Effective program evaluation is a carefully planned and systematic approach to documenting the
nature and results of program implementation. The evaluation process described below is
designed to give you good information on your program and what it is doing for students, clients,
the community and society. The process will help you think through the evaluation in a thorough
manner before you begin to implement a program. It will help you document the impact of your
program and use the results for program improvement. The suggested evaluation process
contains nine steps:
1. Define the Purpose and Scope of the Evaluation
2. Specify the Evaluation Questions – What Do You Want to Know?
3. Specify the Evaluation Design
4. Create the Data Collection Action Plan
5. Collect Data
6. Analyze data
7. Document Findings
8. Disseminate Findings
9. Feedback to Program Improvement
The discussion below provides a brief description of each step. For more detailed information
and an interactive tutorial click on http://www.acrnetwork.org/evaluation.htm at the ACRN website.
Evaluation Process—Step 1
Define the Purpose and Scope of the Evaluation
In general, the purpose of your evaluation should be to establish the outcomes or value of the
program you are providing and to find ways to improve the program. Both a formative and a
summative evaluation should be designed. Defining the purpose of your evaluation will help you
focus and delineate the other steps in the evaluation process.
The scope of your evaluation must also be determined. It may be narrow or broad; it may focus
on all students or targeted groups. A narrow, focused evaluation might seek answers to
questions such as:
• Do all of our 10th grade students create a skills-based resume?
• Can our eighth grade students identify their career interests?
• How successful was our career day?
• Can ninth grade students describe the career pathways available to them at the high school?
The scope of your evaluation can also be very broad and reflect the goal statement of your school
or the mission statement of an agency. For example:
Are all graduates of ABC High School prepared to enter the workforce or continue with further
education and training?
Does the career development program promote academic success?
Does the career development program help reduce incidence of school violence?
The scope of an evaluation is often determined by the amount of resources available to you. The
larger and more involved the evaluation, the costlier it will be in terms of energy and dollars. If
minimal resources are available, consider a more focused and less involved evaluation process.
Evaluation Process—Step 2
Specify the Evaluation Questions—What Do You Want to Know?
It is important to craft your evaluation questions clearly and completely. Evaluation questions
take many forms. Perhaps the easiest is to think of the evaluation questions on a small scale, like
learner objectives. One of your goals might be to have every 9th grade student or every client
learn their career interests using an interest inventory. An evaluation question might be: “How
many of our students/clients have identified their career interests?” Evaluation questions are
often broader and are focused on the larger picture or goals of the program rather than a small
component of it. A larger evaluation question might be “How well has the career program
prepared graduates to be successful in the world of work?” or “How well has our career
development program helped middle school students transition to high school?”
Your evaluation questions can be inspired by several sources including:
• Program objectives
• Program goals
• Strategic plans
• Needs assessments that have been conducted
• Inquiries and priorities from an advisory council
• The mission statement of your school or agency
• National efforts such as the No Child Left Behind legislation or the National Career
Development Guidelines
• Comparisons with national information such as achievement results of the National
Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) or other national studies related to career
Share your questions with colleagues and ask them to provide comments. This should help you
clarify your questions and better assure that they are clear, understandable and worthwhile.
Sample Questions
Evaluation questions are specific to your program and goals. The following list offers some ideas
you might adapt for your own evaluation. Remember, specify your questions clearly and in
• As a result of participating in the middle school career development program, do students
improve their school attendance and attitude toward school?
• To what extent do 9th grade students consider non-traditional occupations as part of their
career exploration?
• How many students in 10th grade produce a career plan that is signed by them, their
parents and their counselor or teacher?
• To what extent does our career guidance program contribute to a drug-free environment?
• To what extent do teachers integrate career information into the science curriculum?
• To what extent have the counselors in XYZ School District implemented the National
Career Development Guidelines?
• Do students in schools with fully developed career guidance programs have higher
academic achievement than students in schools with less fully developed programs?
• As a result of the career guidance program, to what extent do students demonstrate the
motivation to achieve individual potential; apply critical thinking skills; apply the study
skills necessary for academic success; seek information and support from faculty, staff,
family and peers; organize and apply academic information from a variety of sources; use
knowledge of learning styles to positively influence school performance; and become
self-directed and independent learners?
• What percent of ABC High School students are employed, or in educational/training
programs three years after graduation?
• Do local employers think our students are prepared for the world of work?
• How many of our 10th graders have identified their interests through an interest
• Do our students contribute positively to society after graduation?
• Can our 6th grade students identify appropriate and inappropriate social behaviors?
Has our new career-mentoring program helped to reduce drug-related incidents in our
high school juniors and seniors?
After you have written the evaluation questions, define the criteria for the evidence you need to
answer the questions. Consider the following examples.
Do local employers
think our students are
prepared for the world
of work?
To what extent do
teachers incorporate
career development
activities as part of
their classroom
Do our students
contribute to society in
a positive way after
Does the career class
help students improve
their career maturity?
How successful is our
career guidance
program in preparing
students to use positive
social skills with their
friends, family and
Possible Evidence
90 percent of the employers participating in the internship
program indicate that our interning …
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