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First thing, I want you to do before you comment on that paper. Read the paper I send you and follow those instructions. To support the 100 words comments you must base on those attachments readings I send to you or quote from the Vito, G. F. & Higgins, G. E. (2015). When you cite that 100 words send me in a separate page the exact page number you cited from the reading attachment I sent to you. I want to verify if what you write come from directly Vito, G. F. & Higgins, G. E. (2015). Required Reading: Vito, G. F. & Higgins, G. E. (2015). Practical Program Evaluation for Criminal Justice. Waltham, MA: Elsevier. Assignments must be written and typed following the guidelines in the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (APA manual), and must be written at college level, with good sentence structure and good syntax. Students must also adhere to the professional guidelines for the use of copyrighted literature and commercially produced materials, as well as materials generated by colleagues and friends and information collected from conferences and presentations.
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Coopere
When it comes to evaluations the evaluator should have a clearly defined purpose statement
that expresses the reason for the evaluation and the intended use of the findings. Throughout the
evaluation it is important for the evaluator to revisit the agreed upon intent that they are
gathering information on to make sure that they have covered all the necessary bases. Two types
of evaluation reports that are available to evaluators are a traditional report and an actionoriented report. The traditional report involves formal evaluations that are followed by formal
comprehensive reports, which are often required to satisfy funding requirements. Traditional
reports: add to the knowledge base, provide context and historical reference, serve as a
foundation for supplemental reports, and provide accountability. Although there are many
positives, tradition reports may not ensure the use of the results, can be quite expensive, are time
consuming, and are too lengthy for easy reading. Action-oriented reports, unlike traditional
reports, offer flexibility in both time and creativity. If an action-oriented report is well designed
it will save time by placing attention of the important findings and the possible next steps.
Action-oriented reports allow for discussions after the briefing, which can be quite beneficial if
stakeholders are present. After data has been collected stakeholders can review interim findings,
interpret data, help prepare findings, and take part in developing potential recommendations.
Stakeholders, if they feel inclined to, could also play a key role when developing the evaluation
report by helping define the audience, identifying new potential uses of the information gathered,
and in ensuring that the report findings meet the evaluation process.
It is important for the evaluator to take ethics into consideration when they create their reports
especially when it comes to children and people who have been victims of crimes. The evaluator
should be vigilant in regard to whether or not they will be disrupting the participant’s life, if the
participant will suffer emotional consequences, whether or not there are any safety concerns and
if the participant will come to social harm due to the information released / reported. It is also
important that the evaluator is 100% sure that everyone participating in the evaluation is doing so
willingly and has given informed consent. Another important factor to remember as an evaluator
is that although it is not always possible to conduct evaluations without identifying information,
all the information should be kept confidential and should not be shared with others. Other items
that the evaluator should pay attention to when conducting an evaluation are feasibility,
propriety, accuracy, and utility. While these participants are present for an evaluation it does not
give the evaluator free reign to interpret and report anything they see fit, there are still guidelines
that should be followed to ensure the participants safety.
References
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Evaluation Reporting: A Guide to Help
Ensure Use of Evaluation Findings. Atlanta, GA: US Dept of Health and Human Services.
Retrieved on April 25, 2018, from
https://www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/docs/evaluation_reporting_guide.pdf
Book
Cover
Here
Chapter 9
Reporting and Using Evaluations
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
1
Reporting and Using Evaluations
?
?
?
Report must be clearly and specifically
communicated
Information must be given to those who
can use it
The aim of the report must be to provide
information and advice on what should be
done and which alternatives are worth
consideration
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
2
Abstract or Program Summary
?
Present the purpose of the program, how
the evaluation was conducted, and a
summary of research findings
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
3
Presenting the Theory Supporting
the Program
?
Identify and describe theory that will serve
as the basis for the program and the
expectation that it will have the desired
impact
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
4
Presenting the Process Evaluation
?
?
?
?
Emphasis is on how the host organization
served as the basis for the implementation
of the program
The evaluator should describe program
implementation
Describe program destruction and delivery
in detail
Provide a description of how services were
delivered
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
5
Presenting the Process Evaluation
?
The process evaluation should include:
?
?
?
?
?
?
Relevant description on program operations
Consider the management of the program
Describe and assess how the desired service
was provided by the program
Must tap the opinions of program staff and
clients
Describe the nature of the client population
Identify and frankly present management
issues
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
6
Presenting the Process Evaluation
?
The process evaluation should include:
?
?
How implementation issues affect service
delivery
Assessing service delivery inovlves observing
and describing how it was delivered by
program staff
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
7
Presenting the Impact Evaluation
?
?
?
This is the meat of the evaluation
Conclusions are reached and supporting
data are presented
The summary is a crucial aspect of the
report because it is the first section
consulted by readers
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
8
Factors Influencing the Use of
Program Evaluation Results
?
?
?
?
Researchers focus on analysis to
determine “what works” in criminal justice
Practitioners are looking for language to
tell them how to do it
Criminology needs to get both data and
information into the hands of policy makers
and administrators
Must identify stakeholders in the process
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
9
Factors Influencing the Use of
Program Evaluation Results
?
“Collaborative Evaluation” assumes that
active ongoing engagement between
evaluators and program staff will result in
stronger evaluation designs, enhanced
data collection and analysis, and results
that stakeholders understand and use
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
10
Table 9.1 Focus of Process and
Impact Evaluations
Process Evaluation Focus
Inputs
Results
Personnel
Arrests
Equipment
People trained
Expenditures
Barriers installed
Other resources
Other tasks accomplished
Impact Evaluation Focus
Outcomes
Crimes reduced
Fear abated
Accidents reduced
Other reductions in problems
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
11
Table 9.2 Interpreting Results of
Process and Impact Evaluations
Process
Evaluation
Results
Impact
Evaluation
Results
Response
Implemented
as Planned
Problem
A. Evidence that
declined and no the response
other likely
caused the
cause
decline
Problem did not
decline
Response Not
Implemented
as Planned
C. Suggests that
the response
was accidentally
effective or that
other factors
may have
caused the
decline
B. Evidence that D. Little is
the response
learned
was ineffective
Copyright © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved
12
GENNARO F. VITO & GEORGE E. HIGGINS
•
Examines major evaluation types (as well as the benefits, concerns, and constraints of each), including needs
evaluations, theory evaluations, process evaluations, outcome/impact evaluations, and cost-efficiency evaluations.
•
Defines the data points each evaluation type requires, and the manner in which these data can be collected.
•
Demonstrates how different types of evaluations can be used together to provide clear information regarding a
program’s overall performance level.
•
Cites and makes use of actual, real-world policy evaluations and vetted programs.
When closely examined, many of the most prominent criminal justice policies to emerge over the last 30 years are found wanting.
High rates of incarceration and recidivism reflect the flaws of many contemporary crime prevention approaches. It’s becoming
increasingly clear that policy need not just be executed, but properly evaluated. Practical Program Evaluation for Criminal
Justice describes applicable, step-by-step instructions on how to determine whether an initiative is truly necessary prior to its
adoption (thus eliminating the risk of wasting resources), as well as how to accurately gauge its effectiveness during initial rollout
stages. This is achieved through the gradual introduction of basic data analysis procedures and statistical techniques, which, once
mastered, can prove or disprove a program’s worth and make for an improved criminal justice system. Practical Program
Evaluation for Criminal Justice provides the knowledge and tools needed to successfully apply the principles of
fiscal responsibility, accountability, and evidence-based practice to criminal justice reform plans.
Gennaro F. Vito is a Distinguished University Scholar and professor in the Department of Justice Administration at the University
of Louisville, where he has a faculty appointment in the Administrative Officer’s Course of the Southern Police Institute. He holds a
Ph.D. in public administration from The Ohio State University. He is a past President and Fellow of the Academy of Criminal Justice
Sciences and received its Bruce Smith Sr. Award in 2012. His research interests are concerned with criminal justice policy analysis
and program evaluation and police management.
George E. Higgins is a Professor in the Department of Justice Administration at the University of Louisville where he also serves
as the Ph.D. Program Coordinator. He received his Ph.D. in Criminology from Indiana University of Pennsylvania in 2001. He has
published more than 100 journal articles and book chapters primarily in the areas of criminological theory testing, racial profiling,
and cybercrime. In 2009, he was awarded the Coramae Richey Mann Leadership Award, which is the top award from the Minority
and Women’s Section of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences for research and leadership in race and ethnicity research. He
is the past editor of the American Journal of Criminal Justice and the current editor of The Journal of Criminal Justice Education.
Criminal Justice | Public Policy
PRACTICAL PROGRAM EVALUATION FOR CRIMINAL JUSTICE
An applicable, step-by-step explanation of how to conduct credible criminal justice program evaluations
and improve the quality and effectiveness of the criminal justice system.
VITO • HIGGINS
PRACTICAL PROGRAM
EVALUATION FOR CRIMINAL JUSTICE
ISBN 978-1-4557-7770-9
9 781455 777709
Routledge
www.routledge.com
PRACTICAL PROGRAM
EVALUATION FOR
CRIMINAL JUSTICE
GENNARO F. VITO & GEORGE E. HIGGINS
PRACTICAL
PROGRAM
E VA L U AT I O N F O R
CRIMINAL JUSTICE
Page Intentionally Left Blank
PRACTICAL
PROGRAM
E VA L U AT I O N F O R
CRIMINAL JUSTICE
GENNARO F. VITO
GEORGE E. HIGGINS
First published 2015 by Anderson Publishing
Published 2015 by Routledge
2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN
and by Routledge
711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017
Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business
Copyright © 2015 Taylor & Francis. All rights reserved.
No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or
utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now
known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any
infor mation storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from
the publishers.
Notices
No responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to
persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise,
or from any use of operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas
contained in the material herein.
Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and
knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or
experiments described herein. In using such information or methods they should
be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for
whom they have a professional responsibility.
Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and
are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe.
This book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under copyright by the Publisher (other than as
may be noted herein).
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Application Submitted
British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN-13: 978-1-4557-7770-9 (pbk)
Dedication
To the Vito and Higgins families.
Page Intentionally Left Blank
CONTENTS
Digital Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
Chapter 1
Getting Started with Program Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Administrator and Evaluator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Strengths and Weaknesses of Program Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Evidence-Based Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Meta-Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Campbell Collaboration (Crime and Justice Group) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Discussion Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Chapter 2
Planning a Program Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Problem-Oriented Policing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Planning an Evaluation Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Logic Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Politics of Evaluation Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Ethical Issues in Evaluation Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Discussion Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Chapter 3
Needs Assessment Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
De?nition of Needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Data Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Problems with Needs Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
vii
viii
CONTENTS
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Discussion Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Chapter 4
Theory-Driven Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Evaluability Assessment Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Describing and Producing Program Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Analyzing Program Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Discussion Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Additional Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Chapter 5
Process Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Process Evaluation: Program Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Process Evaluation: Monitoring Conduct of Evaluation
Research Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Process Evaluation: Use of Qualitative Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Process Evaluation Assessment: Evidence-Based
Correctional Program Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Discussion Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Chapter 6
Outcome Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Classic Experimental Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
To Experiment or not to Experiment? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Quasi-Experimental Research Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Before-and-After Design (One Group Pre-Test, Post-Test Design) . . . . 91
Question of Causation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
CONTENTS
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Discussion Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Chapter 7
Cost-ef?ciency Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Limits of Cost Analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Discussion Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Chapter 8
Measurement and Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . …
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