Write a 100-200 word analysis of what is signifying and what is being signified

Directions: 1. Read: “How Signs Work” 2. Pick a popular song, movie, or TV show and identify the symbols within it3. Write a 100-200 word analysis of what is signifying and what is being signified 4. Make sure you use MLA Citation and Works Cited

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ArthurAsaBerqer /’ –
( f ,3’4
Siefert’ Editors
GeorgeGerbner and Marsha
TheAnnenbergSchoolof Communications
Universityof Pennsylvania’
An Introduction
to Semiotics
by theauthor
New York & London
The voiceis the voiceof Jacob
But the handsarethe handsof Esau
An Introductionto Semiotics
LongmanInc., 1560Broadway,New York, N.Y. 10036
Associatedcompanies,branches,and representatives
throughoutthe world.
Copyright@)1984by LongmanInc.
All rightsreserved.No part of this publicationmay be
reproduced,storedin a retrievalsystem,or transmitted
in any form or by any means,electronic,mechanical,
photocopying,recording,or otherwise,without the prior
permissionof the publisher.
DevelopmentalEditor: GordonT. R. Anderson
FerneY. Kawahara
Library of CongressCatalogingin PublicationData
Berger,Arthur Asa,Date.
Signsin contemporaryculture.
1. Signsandsymbols.2. Semiotics.I. Title. II. Series.
P99.8437 1,984
ISBN 0-582-28487-2
Manufacturedin the United Statesof America
^ 6 – a < 2 1 Y e a r: 9 2 9 1 9 0 8 9 88 87 86 85 84 ^1 Contents Preface Acknowledgments I Definition Henry IV, Part I Honor in Shakespeare's 2 IJow SignsWork SherlockHolmes 16 3 Signs,Symbols,and Signals Empireof Signs 2I lx xi I 19 4 Formsof Signs Eight Hypotheseson Digilal Watches 29 5 VisualAspectsof Signs TheJudy ChicagoShow 38 6 Problemsof Signs Pop Art 45 7 Denotationand Connotation Comicsand ldeology 51 48 CONTENTS 8 Imaginary Signs Freud on Dreams 62 57 9 Signs that Lie On Parody 7l 67 10 Men's Looks: Signifiers and Life-Style Denimization 80 1l Coherencein Signs Formulas in the Public Arts 75 83 85 12 Who UsesSigns? Poetry as Sign 92 89 13 Signs and ldentitY The Rewards of Myth 95 I04 14 Terms Associatedwith Signs Auteur Criticism 111 108 15 Signs and Images Photography 11,9 t14 16 No Sign as Sign The Natural Look tzz 124 r27 17 Signs that Confound 130 Arcimboldo 133 18 Sign Modifiers Cartooning 136 19 Manifest and Latent Meaning in Signs Robinson Crusoe 143 139 20 Analyzing Signs and Sign Systems " Reach )ut and Touch Someone" 151 148 2l 155 Codes Baseball 162 22 Characteristics of Codes FoodsasSigns I70 23 Preface Meaning "The Paper Chase" 165 LIJ l"l7 References 181 A SelectedBibliograPhY Dictionary of Concepts 184 189 Index 1.93 This book is an introduction to semioticor semiologicalthought and an applicationof semioticsto the massmedia,the arts,and relatedconcerns. It is designedfor the generalreaderwho hasno background in semiotics, althoughI believethat even thosewith a familiaritywith the subjectmay find it useful. signsin ContemporaryCulture,unlike manyother semiotics books,is as much concernedwith the usesof semiotictheory as it is with the theory itself. Each chapter is divided into two sections:the first deals with a from semioticsand the secondappliesa concepr toJlc o_lJgpJc_l ilS.g"tg_tjgl from the theoreticalsection to some aspectof the mafrfrEaTa. Eveiy theoretical section has an application which is meant to suggesthow semioticscan be used to understandbetter the mass medii, poFiiil cult'ffi an?evervfrilrtre. Semiotics, the "scienceof signs"and of the codesusedto understand them, is an "imperialistic"science,one which hasapplicabilityto many differentareasof life. (Somesemioticians go so far as to claimthat it is a which can be used to explaineveryaspectof communicangqler_{i5tdtgg 6*fsuTfrTopibs6:toffi, ltr-L) fnur, in this book you will find discussi6ns PREFACE sports,photograadvertising, detectivefiction, humor, formulaicgenres' pty,f^rf,lon,televisionprograms'cartoons'theatre'artifacts'videogames' conceptsfoundin semiotics fairy tales,nr.r, unJ"Jffiate symbols'The others'as you will soon many and .un'U" ur"a tg"tgi.ute'these topics discover. if we don't recognizeit or Actually, y*e -?Ie all semioti-cians'even (We are all like the character understandthe techiii"Calitf;of fhElilUiect. alwaysspokeprose')We all he that in the Molidreplay*ho n"ut' realized 'tryiqg9.:^ilf we all read know about s!-llyg!Jg-b-ols;we all talk.about magazinesabout "bod'jliangq:€:-, ard "dressarticlesin n"*rpup"Fiitl leveland in a ueiy-iuperficial ing for power.,,w"'uir f.u.ticJ semioticson and *uy, as one might expect from untutored a most tltr.l.y-^*-e-*11i"9 unconscioussemlotlclans help you becomeLqigSignsin ContemporaryCulture is .meantto is a catch that I must There semioticians' systematicunO ,n-o-r"',,1g9.19-Il ineriliiiii,'however.s'a*imia-i.averycomplicatedscience..'Ithasitsown you will haveto learn terminologyand in order to functionasa semiotician dealingwithlglgq suchas some ofthis languag".s" y"" will find yourself icons' and indexes'I havekept this a"Lc-4'Lq;G;ifi".t ana slg'ninZa,, to the subject' "od"', to a minirnumand, sincethis is an introduction 1eryt{t-q-l-Agy certain aleas of controversy(among semioticians)'^. avoided for 1I"'::.:.YY"";;;; annoiateduiutiograptryat the end of the book rapidly and "" There is a large thosewho wish to pr.r* ,fr" subjectfuriher. of the b-ookscited in the many and subject ttt" growing literature'on-laige themselves'I hope' also' that bibiiograp.hies bibliographycontain will be ableto usesemiological readersof Signsi, i""ii^p"rory"Cilturt ih"it o*n analysesof ov1j45g'ryi!91e-9' to and semiotic 'nutt" "on."ftt a ke3_thatunlocksall kinds of doors semiotics nno culture, that they "iiii .fiid-'oifers insights and understunaiffi'Tfr'atare not availableto those without a familiarity with the subject' (perhapsevenidiosyncraSignsin Cortriporary Culturi is a personal theory and applicationof this tic) explanationof semioticand semiological the arts'andcul-qgIgllryry3'l: theoryto the rysl;;"d;;rp*{i+q;' onCe gtiTiIWct, _- CharlesSanderspeirce,one of the founiinE-f;ifr'er-s t"-9-ry-$t9+," ttt tt if ft said "...this uni".rt"'is perfusedwith signs' tor it is,it makessense believe I and case, the ii this of signs."If exclusively some explore to rign, areandhowtheyfunctionand .,iimad;=i;ftirui and revealingsignsaboutus' l of ,n" B--o-*+Llgtgsl]gg, "' ' .p"h-*.f t , U ,i t,. *1 " r-.rn.rv:- 'h.*-. ,'( <''-'x4."tt :/" .:].-'t.ut-. t " ,/ i?"'lt tr;, { . - o' r *{r-'''' r.'-,* t .tr,'t -,':../c"j).1:: .*,..a,Q.-V.2.".i ..'> i,.n 14
,u,,.ti,.,*,. t’ /t, or'”/*o’t-
) , L , ‘. –
3 ie/-‘zt’+z
l,- (,’,,;,y
,, ‘t
i i,ir:i irlf ,;.,;1.11;i;;’;:{.’
I owe a specialdebt of gratitude to George Gerbner, who saw a prototype
of this book and urged me to expdh*ii-iiin*6-a*fiitt-length text. I am also
grateful for his and-Marsha Siefert’s editorial advice and encouragement.
They were good enough to provide me with two reviewers, whose
commentsand suggestionswere of inestimablevalue. I appreciatethe close
readings they gave my manuscript and their many helpful ideas.
I also benefitted from the ideas (and in some casesthe friendship) of
the following people: U”:tb_”:lg.Eqo,Jean-Marie Benoist, Bg”lgqd_B3r$e,-q,
JonathanCuller, Ferdinand de Saussure,CharlesSandersPeirce,Fustel de
SGntev-Mitgra;;-cla;a;edidlte, Claude
TerenceHawkes,Robert Scholes,RosalindCoward,FredericJameson,
Keir Elam, John Ellis, Alan Gowans,Ed Graham, Edfdi’lffffi, ila*rid^
Noble, SeymourChatman,Jean,Piagj-t,JeanGuenot,Mg_$!A[.-{fu ltSlr_r.
ThomasSebeok,and Gle_gJ8Eiiglpn. Therewere manyothers.Thanlis,
alSoJo JE*Biowman f-oi some fine photos.
is a supreme realig,t.His speechon the subject of honor is one of the most
in tne play and one that literary scholars and philos*.^tiifrl–pffi”g.s
ophers have found particularly interesting.
In Act V, Scene2,IJ.al and Falstaff are having a conversationabout a
forthcoming battle and Hal tells Falstaff, half-seriously,that he owes God
a death. To which Falstaff rePlies:
Tis not due yet: I would be loath to pay him beforehis day. What needI be so
forwardwith him thatcallsnot on me?Well, ’tisno matter;honorpricksme on.
Yea, but how if honorprick me off whenI comeon?How then?Canhonorset
a leg?No. Or an arm?i.to. Or take awaythe grief of a wound?Nijltiiin
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