2 Pages about: Uninsured in the USA

Assignment: This paper will focus on your ability to analyze information from several sources and compile a clear explanation of the topic. Analysis includes identifying relevant facts, making inferences (answering why, what conclusions you can make, what the information tells us about an issue) and especially finding evidence to support your point of view. Besides reading the textbook, we will be watching:1) Frontline PBS â??Sick Around Americaâ? https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/sickaroun…and 2) Access the data from Kaiser Family Foundation (kff.org) â??Uninsured and Healthâ?.https://www.kff.org/health-reform/fact-sheet/the-u…https://www.kff.org/health-reform/issue-brief/tren… Remember to properly cite the source of your information. Use citations in the text of the paper and Works Cited at the end of the paper, APA style. Criteria Points Score Introduction/ opening statement: Explain the factors contributing to the number of uninsured in the USA from year 2000-2008. 2 Discussion/ description of issue How many were uninsured before the ACA? Who is most likely to be uninsured and why? (Describe work status and/or group status.) Why do the numbers of uninsured rise and fall? How does being uninsured impact health? How does being uninsured impact healthcare? 4 Concluding statement Make inferences-how is this relevant to health and healthcare Summarize your professional response and thoughts 2 Grammar/ Syntax/ Spelling Well written and well organized Properly cite in text and references 2 Total 10
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Health Insurance Coverage in the U.S.,
2008
Uninsured
15%
Medicaid/
Other Public
13%
EmployerSponsored
Insurance
52%
Medicare
14%
Private NonGroup
5%
Total = 300.5 million
NOTE: Includes those over age 65. Medicaid/Other Public includes Medicaid, SCHIP, other state programs, and
military-related coverage. Those enrolled in both Medicare and Medicaid (1.9% of total population) are shown
as Medicare beneficiaries.
SOURCE: Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured/Urban Institute analysis of March 2009 CPS
Health Insurance Coverage of
the Nonelderly Population, 2008
Uninsured
17%
Medicaid/
Other Public
18%
Employersponsored
Insurance
60%
Private Nongroup
5%
262.8 Million
SOURCE: Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured/Urban Institute analysis of 2009 ASEC
Supplement to the CPS.
Nonelderly Uninsured by
Poverty Levels and Age, 2008
Adults
Children 8%
1%
Children
<133% FPL 133-399% FPL 10% 400% FPL 39% Adults 35% Adults 7% Children Total = 45.7 million uninsured Note: Federal Poverty Level (FPL) for a family of four in 2009 is $22,025/year. SOURCE: KCMU/Urban Institute analysis of 2009 ASEC Supplement to the CPS. Characteristics of the Uninsured, 2008 Family Income Family Work Status Part-Time Workers 14% 400% FPL and Above 10% 200-399% FPL 23% No Workers 19% 1 or More FullTime Workers 66% Age 0-18 18% 55-64 9% <100% FPL 38% 19-29 30% 100-199% FPL 29% Total = 45.7 million uninsured The federal poverty level was $22,025 for a family of four in 2008. Data may not total 100% due to rounding. SOURCE: KCMU/Urban Institute analysis of 2009 ASEC Supplement to the CPS. 30-54 43% Nonelderlyâ??s Health Insurance Coverage by Family Poverty Level, 2008 Private Uninsured Number 5%6% 125.1 M 89% 300% 71% 200% - 299% 42% 100% - 199% Under 100% Medicaid/Public 20% 12% 29% 45% 18% 29% 35% NOTES: Data may not total 100% due to rounding. The Federal Poverty Level for a family of four in 2008 was $22,025 (according to the U.S. Census Bureauâ??s poverty threshold). Family size and total family income are grouped by insurance eligibility. SOURCE: Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured/Urban Institute analysis of 2009 ASEC Supplement to the CPS. 41.5 M 46.0 M 50.2 M Federal Poverty Guidelines Uninsured Nonelderly vs. All Nonelderly, by Family Work Status, 2008 No workers 19% Only part time 14% 12% 8% 52% One full-time worker Two full-time workers 55% 12% 27% Uninsured All Nonelderly 45.7 Million 262.8 Million NOTES: Data may not total 100% due to rounding. SOURCE: Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured/Urban Institute analysis of 2009 ASEC Supplement to the CPS. Average Annual Health Insurance Premiums and Worker Contributions for Family Coverage, 2005-2010 $1,284 Worker Contribution Increase $10,880 $2,713 $8,167 $13,770 27% $3,997 47% $9,773 20% 2005 Note: The average worker contribution and the average employer contribution may not add to the average total premium due to rounding. Source: Kaiser/HRET Survey of Employer-Sponsored Health Benefits, 2005-2010. 2010 Worker Contribution Employer Contribution Average Health Insurance Premiums and Worker Contributions for Family Coverage, 1999-2009 $13,375 131% Premium Increase $9,860 $5,791 $4,247 128% Worker Contribution Increase $1,543 1999 $3,515 2009 Employer Contribution Note: The average worker contribution and the average employer contribution may not add to the average total premium due to rounding. Source: Kaiser/HRET Survey of Employer-Sponsored Health Benefits, 1999-2009. Worker Contribution Average Monthly Worker Premium Contributions Paid by Covered Workers for Single and Family Coverage, 1999-2010 *Estimate is statistically different from estimate for the previous year shown (p<.05). Source: Kaiser/HRET Survey of Employer-Sponsored Health Benefits, 1999-2010. Average Annual Worker and Employer Contributions to Premiums and Total Premiums for Family Coverage, 1999-2010 $5,791 $6,438* $7,061* $8,003* $9,068* $9,950* $10,880* $11,480* $12,106* $12,680* $13,375* $13,770* * Estimate is statistically different from estimate for the previous year shown (p<.05). Source: Kaiser/HRET Survey of Employer-Sponsored Health Benefits, 1999-2010. Percent of Nonelderly Women Reporting No Doctor Visit in Past Year Due to Cost, by Race/Ethnicity Hispanic 10.3% American Indian/ Alaska Native Black White Asian and NHPI US 27.4% 38.5% AR DE US 25.7% 34.5% 15.3% AK 21.9% 33.4% 13.4% MA US 14.7% 24.4% 7.9% DC 12.1% US 22.7% 7.1% DC OR US TX WV FL Data: BRFSS, 2004-2006. Note: Data reflect the U.S. average and the states with the highest and lowest percentages. Source: The Kaiser Family Foundation, Putting Womenâ??s Health Care Disparities on the Map, available at: www.kff.org/womensdisparities/. Distribution of U.S. Population by Race/Ethnicity, 2008 Native Hawaiians & Other Pacific Islander 0% Asian 4% American Indian/ Alaska Native 1% (2.3 million) (0.4 million) Two or more races 1% (13.2 million) (4.5 million) non-Hispanic Black 12% (37.2 million) Hispanic 15% (46.9 million) non-Hispanic White 67% (199.5 million) Total = 304.1 million NOTES: Data do not include residents of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or the Northern Mariana Islands. Totals may not add to 100% due to rounding. All racial groups and individuals reporting â??two or more racesâ? non-Hispanic. SOURCE: Kaiser Family Foundation, based on Table 3: Annual Estimates of the Population by Sex, Race and Hispanic Origin for the United States: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008 (NC-EST2008-03). Population Division, U.S. Census Bureau. Proportion of Nonelderly Who Self-Identify as a Person of Color, by State, 2008 NH VT WA MT ND MN OR WI RI MI WY PA IA NE NV CA IL CO OH IN MO KY NC TN OK AZ NM AK MD DC SC AR MS TX CT NJ DE WV VA KS MA NY SD ID UT ME AL GA LA FL HI U.S. Total = 37% Minority 4 â?? 15% (12 states) 16 - 25% (12 states) 26 - 39% (13 states) 40 - 80% (13 states and DC) SOURCE: Kaiser Family Foundation analysis of March 2009 Current Population Surveys, U.S. Census Bureau. Health Insurance Coverage of the Nonelderly Population by Race/Ethnicity, 2008 Private (Employer and Individual) 13% 13% 32% 21% Medicaid and Other Public 19% 12% 30% 17% Nonelderly Population 2008 White 166.4 million Hispanic 50% African American 44.7 million 33.3 million 14% 27% 28% 69% 42% 28% 28% 26% 74% Uninsured 55% Asian NHOPI 11.7 million 0.7 million 59% 44% American Two or Indian/ More Races Alaska Native 1.7 million 4.3 million NOTES: â??Other Publicâ? includes Medicare and military-related coverage. All racial groups non-Hispanic. NHOPI= Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander. SOURCE: Urban Institute and Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured analysis of the March 2009 Current Population Survey. Health Insurance Status, by Race/Ethnicity: Children, 2008 Private (Employer and Individual) 7% 18% Medicaid and Other Public 11% 21% 12% 22% 47% 7% NSD 48% 72% 66% 36% Uninsured 56% 41% White, Hispanic African American, non-Hispanic Asian/ Pacific Islander Two or More Races 44.1 million 17.2 million 11.3 million 3.3 million 2.2 million Total Child non-Hispanic Population 2008 NOTES: â??NSDâ? = Not sufficient data; â??Other Publicâ? includes Medicare and military-related coverage. The sample size for American Indian/Alaska Native was not large enough for reliable estimates. Totals may not add to 100% due to rounding. SOURCE: Urban Institute and Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured analysis of the March 2009 Current Population Survey. Nonelderly Uninsured by Race/Ethnicity, 2008 Distribution by Race/Ethnicity Risk of Being Uninsured National Average 17% Hispanic 32% White (non-Hispanic) Two or More Races White (non-Hispanic) 46% Asian/Pacific Islander American Indian/ Alaska Native 1% African American (non-Hispanic) 15% 2 or More Races Asian/Pacific Islander 1% 5% African American (non-Hispanic) 13% 14% 19% 21% American Indian/ Alaska Native 28% 32% Hispanic 0% 20% Total = 45.7 Million Uninsured NOTES: American Indian group includes Aleutian Eskimos. SOURCE: Urban Institute and Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured analysis of the March 2009 Current Population Survey. 40% Poverty Status of Nonelderly Population by Race/Ethnicity, 2008 Poor (<100% FPL) 41% Near-Poor (100%-199% of FPL) 45% 28% 21% 20% 57% 22% 21% 14% 31% 34% White Hispanic African American Asian Pacific Islander 166.4 million 44.7 million 33.3 million 11.7 million 0.7 million 17% 13% Nonelderly Population 2008 45% 69% 73% 14% 52% Non-Poor (200% of FPL) 28% 33% 23% American Indian/ Two or Alaska Native More Races 1.7 million 4.3 million NOTES: Individuals who reported more than one race group were categorized as â??two or more races.â? Nonelderly includes individuals under age 65. FPL= Federal Poverty Level. The FPL for a family of four in 2008 was $22,025. DATA: March 2009 Current Population Survey. SOURCE: Kaiser Family Foundation estimates. No Health Care Visits Within the Past 12 Months, by Race/Ethnicity and Poverty Status, 2007 31% 20% 15% White, NonHispanic 15% Hispanic African American Non-Hispanic < 100% of Poverty 14% 14% White, NonHispanic Hispanic African American Non-Hispanic 200% of Poverty DATA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey, family core and sample adult questionnaires. SOURCE: Health, United States, 2009, Table 80. No Usual Source of Health Care: Adults 18-64, by Race/Ethnicity and Poverty Status, 2006-2007 46.7% 42.1% 25.0% 26.5% 24.5% 24.2% 23.4% 14.0% 12.4% White, NonHispanic Hispanic African American NonHispanic < 100% of poverty White, NonHispanic Hispanic African American NonHispanic Between 100% and 200% of poverty White, NonHispanic Hispanic African American NonHispanic 200% or more of poverty DATA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey. SOURCE: Health, United States, 2009, Table 76. No Dental Visit in the Past Year, by Race/Ethnicity and Poverty Status, 2007 White, Non-Hispanic Hispanic 65% 59% 45% African American, NonHispanic 41% 37% 35%33% 30% 28% 24% 17% < 100% of poverty 18% 200% of poverty 2-17 Years of Age < 100% of poverty 200% of poverty 18-64 Years of Age DATA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey, sample child and sample adult questionnaires. SOURCE: Health, United States, 2009, Table 93. No Doctor Visit in Past Year for Nonelderly Adults by Race/Ethnicity and Insurance Status, 2005-2006 Insured Uninsured 53% 48% 40% 39% 45% 31% 21% 14% White, NonHispanic 20% 13% Hispanic African American 14% 13% American Indian/Alaska Native Asian and NHPI SOURCE: Kaiser Family Foundation and Urban Institute analysis of the National Health Interview Survey, 2005 and 2006, two-year pooled data. Two or More Races Fair or Poor Health Status by Race/Ethnicity and Income, 2007 Share reporting fair or poor health: White, Non-Hispanic Hispanic African-American, Non-Hispanic 22.6% 20.9% 21.0% 17.7% 15.2% 15.1% 9.1% 9.4% 5.9% <100% of Poverty 100-199% of Poverty 200% of Poverty NOTES: Respondents assessed their health status as excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor. The federal poverty level for a family of four in 2007 was $21,203 (http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/threshld/thresh07.html). DATA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey. SOURCE: Health, United States, 2009, Table 57. Changes in Quality of Care Disparities Over Time: Summary by Race/Ethnicity, 2000-2001 to 2005-2006 18% 18% 29% 29% Improving 47% 65% 41% 53% Same Worsening 35% 18% Black vs. White Asian and (n=17) Pacific Islander vs. White (n=17) 29% American Indian/Alaska Native vs. White (n=17) 18% Hispanic vs. Non-Hispanic White (n=17) NOTES: â??Improvingâ? means disparity is becoming smaller over time; â??worseningâ? means disparity becoming larger over time. Data on all measures are not available for all groups; â??nâ? refers to the number of measures on which the groups were compared. Totals may not add to 100% due to rounding. Time period differs by measure and includes oldest and newest years of available data. SOURCE: Kaiser Family Foundation, based on AHRQ, National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2008, available at http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/qrdr08.htm. Infant Mortality Rate by Race/Ethnicity, 2005 Infant deaths per 1,000 live births: 13.6 8.1 4.9 Asian and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 5.6 5.8 Hispanic White, NonHispanic American Indian/Alaska Native African-American, Non-Hispanic NOTES: Births are categorized according to race/ethnicity of mother. DATA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. SOURCE: Health, United States, 2009, Table 17. Infant Mortality Rates for Mothers Age 20, by Race/Ethnicity and Education, 2003-2005 Infant deaths per 1,000 live births: Less than High School 15.1 African American, Non-Hispanic 10.1 American Indian/Alaska Native 9.1 White, Non-Hispanic Asian and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Hispanic 5.9 5.4 13.9 African American, Non-Hispanic High School 8.2 American Indian/Alaska Native White, Non-Hispanic Asian and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Hispanic 6.6 5.8 5.4 11.5 African American, Non-Hispanic College 6.5 American Indian/Alaska Native White, Non-Hispanic Asian and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Hispanic 4.2 3.8 4.7 NOTES: Data reported for 37 states, DC, and NYC. DATA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. SOURCE: Health, United States, 2008, Table 19. Cancer Screening Rates by Race/Ethnicity, 2005 Breast Cancer (Mammogr aphy) White, Non-Hispanic Hispanic African-American, Non-Hispanic Asian Onlyâ?  American Indian/Alaska Native Two or More Races Cervical Cancer (Pap Test) White, Non-Hispanic Hispanic African-American, Non-Hispanic Asian Onlyâ?  American Indian/Alaska Native Two or More Races Colon and Rectum Cancer (Fecal Occult Blood Test) White, Non-Hispanic Hispanic African-American, Non-Hispanic Asian Onlyâ?  American Indian/Alaska Native Two or More Races 68.2% 58.9% 64.7% 54.0% 67.1% 63.6% 79.1% 74.4% 80.2% 63.9% 71.2% 83.9% 17.9% 12.1% 15.7% 12.9% * 17.5% NOTES: â? Data for Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders do not meet the criteria for statistical reliability, data quality or confidentiality. *Data do not meet the criteria for statistical reliability, data quality or confidentiality. Age-adjusted percentages of women 40 and older who reported a mammography within the past 2 years, women 18 and older who reported a Pap test within the past 3 years, and adults 50 and older (male and female) who reported a fecal occult blood test within the past 2 years. DATA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey. SOURCE: National Healthcare Disparities Report, NHDRnet available at: http://nhdrnet.ahrq.gov/nhdr/jsp/nhdr.jsp. Cancer Death Rates by Race/Ethnicity, 2005 Deaths per 100,000 population: Breast Cancer White, Non-Hispanic Hispanic African-American, Non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islander American Indian/Alaska Native Lung Cancer White, Non-Hispanic Hispanic African-American, Non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islander American Indian/Alaska Native White, Non-Hispanic Hispanic Colorectal African-American, Non-Hispanic Cancer Asian or Pacific Islander American Indian/Alaska Native 24 15 34 12 15 56 22 60 26 34 17 12 25 11 12 NOTES: Breast cancer rate is per 100,000 female population; other rates are for both genders. DATA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System - Mortality. SOURCE: National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2008, available at: http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/qrdr08.htm. Role of Health Insurance in Explaining Racial/Ethnic Gap in Having a Regular Source of Care Health Insurance Income Other** Unexplained White-Hispanic Gap: 15.7%* 20% 16% 64% White-African American Gap: 5.4% 42% 17% *Researchers did not separate income from other personal socio-economic factors **Other refers to local area demographics and health care system factors SOURCE: Zuvekas & Taliaferro, 2003, analyzing 1998 MEPS data 39% 2% Death Rate due to Heart Disease by Race/Ethnicity, 2006 Deaths per 100,000 population: 320.6 250.0 212.5 175.2 170.2 136.3 160.9 118.9 87.3 White, Hispanic African Asian and American NonAmerican Pacific Indian/ Hispanic Islander Alaska Native Men 113.2 White, Hispanic African Asian and American NonAmerican Pacific Indian/ Hispanic Islander Alaska Native Women NOTES: Rates are age-adjusted. DATA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System. SOURCE: Health US, 2009 Table 32. Perceptions of Disparities in Health Care When going to a doctor or health clinic for health care services, do you think most African Americans receive the same quality of health care as whites, higher quality of care or lower quality of health care as most whites? Same Whites Blacks Hispanics Higher Lower Donâ??t Know/Refused 62% 36% 2% 55% 3% 49% 9% 24% 12% 6% 9% 33% When going to a doctor or health clinic for health care services, do you think most Latinos receive the same quality of health care as whites, higher quality of care or lower quality of health care as most whites? Same Whites Blacks Hispanics 29% 38% Higher Lower Donâ??t Know/Refused 4% 55% 7% 5% 26% 58% 48% SOURCE: Kaiser Family Foundation, March/April 2006 Kaiser Health Poll Report Survey, April 2006 (Conducted April 2006) 14% 6% 8% Fair or Poor Health Status by Race/Ethnicity, 2007 Share reporting fair or poor health: 13.0% 16.8% American Indian/Alaska Native Two or More Races 14.1% 8.3% White, NonHispanic 17.1% 7.1% Hispanic AfricanAmerican, NonHispanic Asian Only* NOTES: Respondents assessed their health status as excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor. * The sample size for Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander was not large enough for reliable estimates. DATA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey. SOURCE: Health, United States, 2009, Table 57. Uninsured in the USA HE362W Contemporary Health Issues Assignment: This paper will focus on your ability to analyze information from several sources and compile a clear explanation of the topic. Analysis includes identifying relevant facts, making inferences (answering why, what conclusions you can make, what the information tells us about an issue) and especially finding evidence to support your point of view. Besides reading the textbook, we will be watching Frontline PBS â??Sick Around Americaâ? and access the data from Kaiser Family Foundation (kff.org) â??Uninsured and Healthâ?. Remember to properly cite the source of your information. Use citations in the text of the paper and Works Cited at the end of the paper, APA style. Criteria Introduction/ opening statement: â?¢ Explain the factors contributing to the number of uninsured in the USA from year 2000-2008. Discussion/ description of issue â?¢ How many were uninsured before the ACA? â?¢ Who is most likely to be uninsured and why? (Describe work status and/or group status.) â?¢ Why do the numbers of unin ... Purchase answer to see full attachment

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