Hi Richard,Attached you will find the term paper assignment I need finished before May 17th at midnight.It’s guidelines require 2000-2500 words, I would like the paper to be on the topic of German Expressionism in the 1920’s.I have attached my annotated bibliography to this email, it was a preliminary assignment we needed to complete to show our professor that we are working on the paper. You don’t need to use the sources I used, I just figured I would include them for reference in case you decided to use them.Here is the links to the sources I used:https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1LL9ww4EOK_…https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1qmgYyo4sQB…I also have taken the liberty of attaching some of my past papers so you can get a rough sense for my writing style. Matt spoke very highly of you, I’m excited to read what you write.
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DUE MAY 19 BEFORE MIDNIGHT
30% of course grade
(Honors option: 2,500-3,000 words, with at least one additional source.)
For this essay, you may come up with an original research topic of your own, or you may
respond to ONE or TWO of the three prompts below. In either case, you must make
meaningful use of at least three scholarly referencess, and at least two of those must come
from sources outside the assigned readings; and you should consider at least three films. I
recommend discussing your ideas with me in advance.
Original Research topic: If you are proposing your own topic, you have a fair amount of
leeway to research any aspect of film history up through 1945. Some possibilities include (but
are not limited to) a particular national cinema; technological / aesthetic / economic trends in the
American film industry; a particular genre or movement in film; representations of race, gender,
sexuality, ethnicity, etc.; or an expanded / in-depth consideration of a topic covered in the course,
such as censorship and the Production Code.
Cite your sources using MLA format.
Choose ONE or TWO of the following topics (for a TOTAL of 2,000-2,500 words). Whichever
you choose, I strongly recommend re-watching the films that you discuss. Cite sources using
1) Compare/contrast two movements in European film from the 1920s or 1930s. These may
include Soviet Montage (e.g., Battleship Potemkin), the European Avant-Garde (various short
films), German Expressionism (e.g., Metropolis), or French â??art filmsâ? (Zero for Conduct, The
Grand Illusion). (But please do not cover the same films in #3.) You may also choose to view
alternate films from any of these movements, or from other relevant national cinemas of the
1920s or 30s, such as Sweden (which would involve additional research on your part). Your
response must refer substantially to at least two films and to scholarly readings. Your response
should focus on the historical contexts of the films in question, which may include concerns such
as aesthetics, film industry practices, larger historical forces, etc.
2) Discuss the various changes that take place in Hollywood during the early sound period
(roughly 1926/27- 1931/32). You should consider at least two films, which may be short or
feature length, and you should refer substantially to scholarly sources. Your response should
focus on the historical contexts of the films in question, which may include concerns such as
aesthetics, film industry practices, etc.
3) Compare/contrast Hollywood films of the 1930s-40s (such as Stagecoach, or Design for
Living, or The Lady Eve, or Foreign Correspondent) with either the French cinema of the 1930s
(as represented by Zero for Conduct and/or The Grand Illusion) or the Italian Neorealist
movement (epitomized by Rome Open City). Your response should focus on the historical
contexts of the films in question, which may include concerns such as aesthetics, film industry
The New Queer Cinema Movement
The strong dominance of gay and lesbian on the previous yearâ??s film festival led Ruby to
Coin the term â??New Queer Cinemaâ? in 1992 (Ruby, p.30-32).The term originated from the use of
the word Queer in writings of academic contents in the 1980, and the 1990â??s as a means of
describing, lesbian transgender, gay , bisexual identities and experiences and experience Jones,et
al.n.p).Additionally, the films aimed at showing a sexuality which was fluid and contrary to the
traditional understanding of sexuality. Films in the New Queer Cinema Movement in most cases
featured explicit and unapologetic scenes of similar sex sexual activity and showed the
characters of the same-sex in relationships that challenged traditional heterosexual beliefs and
opinions of family and marriage. Although not all identified with a specific political movement,
these films were notably radical, as they aimed to challenge and change the assumptions about
identity, gender, class, family, and society. New Queer Cinema Movement films share themes
which include heteronormativity rejection, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender protagonists.
Since then, various academic works have described the phenomenon and used it in describing
several other films released in the 1990s.
Background of the New Queer Cinema Movement
The New queer cinema movement is approximated to have begun in the 1960â??s when the
many individual film directors had actively incorporated homosexuality in their independent
films. The movement aimed to spread awareness about the AIDS crisis which had occurred in
the 1980s and 1990s (Jones, et al.n.p) .The famously controversial film movement consisted
basically of independent pictures appreciating homosexuality through film based on AIDS
activist films. In coining this phrase, she aimed to describe the growing movement of such
themed film created by independent lesbian and gay filmmakers majorly in the North America
and England in the 1990s (Rubby,p.30-31).She developed her theory by describing films that
were exhaustive in form and very assertive in their presentation of sexual identities. In this, Ruby
challenged both the heterosexual status quo definition which refrained from the promotion of
good impression of lesbians and gay men as advocated by the gay liberation movement of the
1970s and 1980s (Ruby, n.p).
Peak of the New Queer Movement
The movement hit its peak in the film industry in the 1990s (Rose and Turner). The
Queer Movement however got to its maturity at the 1994 Sundance Festival when the director
Rose Troche and her cast stamped Park City with their lesbian romantic comedy termed Go Fish
(Rose and Turner). Many films from the movement portrayed homosexuality on screens in which
characters discovered and identify their sexuality, reference to the AIDS crisis, instances and
elements of irony and romance among homosexuals. New voices began to challenge old stigmas
and agitate for more realistic representations during this period. The industry then suddenly
begun to picture the gay and lesbian potential spending power.
Decline of the Movement
The movement became very active within the time it was at its pick but fizzled out very
quickly. The major filmmakers of â??New Queer Cinema,â? who included Tom Kalin and Jenny
Livingston failed to produce notable follow-up films (Jones, et al.n.p). Due to such failures the
growth in the commercial viability of the gay-themed films and the lesbian related films
exhausted reducing the number of the independent films with gay themes in the remaining part
of the 90s.In May 2004 during an interview, Rich confirmed the decline of the movement saying
that it is over (Ruby, n.p).
The success of several films with gay-related themes at the high-end film festivals
emerges as some of the major reasons which encouraged Rich to come up with the term. She
believed the movement would bring transformation and redefine the 90s cinemas. Many believed
the New Queer Cinema Movement would accelerate both cultural and political the identity of
gays which originated from the exposure and challenges of the HIV crisis.
Evolution of the Films
The Beginning of the 2010s, saw several filmmakers, among them, Rose Troche identify
a newer trend in lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender filmmaking, where the influence of New
Queer Cinema is continuously evolving toward a universal audience appeal (Ruby, n.p).
Universal Audience is embracing and growing a sense of acceptance for the film .The gets
indicated by the increasing production of these films and their growing popularity within the
Rich, who also came up with the New Queer Cinema term or phrase has identified the
emergence of films with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender-themes. Such films include films
such as Brokeback Mountain, and The Kids Are All Right. As mainstream hits in the late 2000s
as a key moment in the evolution of the genre, both Troche and Mathews singled out Stacie
Passon’s 2013 film Concussion a film that is about marital infidelity((Jamie,et al.n.p). In which
the main characters’ lesbianism is a relatively minor aspect of a story whose main theme entails
depicting the ways in which any long-term relationship has the risks of getting troubled and
becoming unfulfilling, regardless of its gender configuration. As an example of the trend, The
French film Blue Is the Warmest Color, gets singled out as a notable example of such trends
The Reason why these Films Were Made at this Time.
Help People in Discovering their Sexuality
Discovery of one’s sexuality is one of the themes that the films in the New Queer
Movement agitate for. For a long time, homosexuals struggled with their identity and had no
chance of expressing themselves due to the intimidation they received from the norms and
stereotypes from the society (Jamie, et al.n.p). Also included in these films are the homosexual
relations, the hard life in homosexuality, romance, transsexuals, and death. All the films
associated with the movement involved interactions and romances among homosexuals. Some
even featured the death of a beloved character resulting from AIDS. Others also included how
one grows until they finally discover their identity as to whether they identify as either as either
men or women. Such themes aimed at informing the society on the critical issue of sexuality, the
importance of sexual identity and elimination of certain stereotype which had developed about
homosexuality across communities. Through the new Queer films, several people who had not
identified their sexuality for a long time were able to determine their sexuality.
Help People Identify to Gays and Lesbians.
The films aimed to identify with the gay and lesbian audience and also assist others in
relating to them. Before the introduction of the New Queer Film Movement, there were relatively
fewer films which gay could identify themselves with (Ruby, n.p). However after the movement
was introduced, more and more people begun to identify as gay and lesbians and discovering that
they were other people like them too around the world. Guys became more vocal and more
expressive about their identity. The gay and lesbian audience even begun to demand fairer
treatment and actively expressed their discontent. The films did not only assert identities in an
aggressive manner but also demanded the acknowledgment and recognition of Queer culture.
The introduction of the New Queer films helped in the uniting of lesbians, gays, bisexuals and
the transsexual in the process of the counterculture.
Reveal to Industries the Potential which was in the Guy and Lesbian products
The films reveal and convinced industries that there was money to be made out of gay
products. Distributors began to exploit such opportunities and made profits. Different companies
specialized in different gay products. The production of gay and lesbian products saw a rise with
the introduction of the new queer Movement. The gay market was gradually growing by the
dedicated festival programmers and filmmakers and the distributors who had a good knowledge
of the market. In the expansion of the lesbian and gay products the homosexuals increasingly felt
part of the society and started carrying out their activities and engagement without any
hindrance. The society was starting to accept the Queers as the film’s market expanded. It
became clear for a business that they could maximize and make many profits from the
production and sale of gay and lesbiansâ?? product. Hence they had to do everything possible to
change the societyâ??s view.
Assist Gay and Lesbian Filmmakers to gain Visibility in the Film Industry.
The movement helped to eliminate critics and stereotypes that gay and lesbian
filmmakers persistently received whenever they released a film to the market. The independent
film producers with gay and lesbian contents found theatrical distribution. The New Queer
Cinema assisted these independent filmmakers by establishing a model of fundraising that has
significantly benefited the subsequent gay and lesbians filmmakers. Additionally, the Queer
filmmakers gained much confidence and produced their films without fear of any intimidation by
The movement film also aimed to complicate individual gay figures of the 20th century.
For instance, this was exhibited in the when the 1920 lovers, Richard Loeb and Nathan Leopold
Junior allegedly killed a young boy aged 14years.However, it gets reported that the directors of
the gay communities would have avoided such stories because it portrays gay men as murderous.
However, they did not stop using it owing to their aim of revealing the affection that the gays
had for each other
The type of people who made the New Queer Cinema Films
The New Queer Cinema Movements films got created by independent director and
filmmakers who aimed to challenge social norms the discriminating cultural beliefs and
perspectives people had on lesbians and gays in the society (Jennie, n.p).They aimed to attain a
status where alternative sexual identities did not receive stigma from the society and or judged
on the beliefs of the society. The directors of such films included Gus Van Sant the director of
My Own Private Idaho, and producer Laurie Parker .Other directors and producers of such films
included, Todd Haynesâ?? feature Poison, Gregg Arakiâ??s The Living End (Ruby, p.33).They
wanted to bring to an end the shame the culture put on gay men and the blame on gay men and
pouting blame of the serious AIDS pandemic on them.
How it Embraced Gender and Sexuality as Socially Constructed Objects
The films recognized gender as a socially construct object and defines gender as
arranging of characteristics that pertain to and bringing differentiation between masculinity and
femininity (Ruby, p.31).Varying in different contexts, such characteristics includes
biological,sex-based social structures and gender identity. The films showed such issues as some
cultures having specific gender roles where female and male roles were distinct. The queer films
put the focus on the study and discovery of natural and unnatural behaviors on homosexual
behavior and expanded its focus to cover all kinds of sexual activity that were in the category of
normative and deviant. The films also focused on the confusion which existed between desires,
gender, and sex. The films portrayed that gender is a social construct which is subject to change
depending on the cultural attitude.
The New Queer Cinema presented sexuality and also human identity as socially
constructed and for that matter fluid and changeable, rather than fixed as the society belief
(Jamie,et al. n.p). In the world of these films, sexuality is in most cases a chaotic and more so
subversive force, which is isolated to and often brutally repressed by certain heterosexual power
structures. The New Queer Film Movement changed perception people had about sexuality
(Ruby, n.p). The films held that sexuality is a critical issue that has to cause a lot of controversy
in the society that holds several stereotypes about Queer individuals. The films share a very frank
approach to sexuality and the act of sexy. By showing intimate scenes in one of the films, keep
the lights on it gets described how unusual it is that most of the films about couples fail to reflect
such aspects of the relationship. These also films embrace sexuality and the act of sex as a part of
every dayâ??s life behavior and that they should not get treated as issues that do matter much in
life. In the films sexuality gets portrayed as an important part of human life. Identification of
one’s sexuality is also key in helping them know who they are whether men or women so that
they have less fear in associating and relating with people .Most importantly the films call for
respect for everyone irrespective of their sexuality.
In conclusion, the New Queer Film Movement brought revolutions and extensive changes
in the homosexualsâ?? world. With many support and agitation for homosexual rights, the new
Queer films have assisted gays and other homosexuals in openly identifying themselves and
realizing that they are many around the world. Additionally, the movement also assisted
countering the blame and criticism imposed on the gays for the AIDS pandemic where they got
blamed for being behind the pandemic. The films come out at a time where gays received many
critics from the society and had a lot of stereotype working against them. The directors of these
films came up bold to challenge the status quo and aggressively glorifies homosexuality. Since
the coining of the phrase New Queer Cinema, gay and lesbians films become freely shown on
televisions and gay and lesbian film festivals. It gets important also to note that the New Queer
films did not fully solve the gay problems. Despite helping them to identify themselves as gay
and lesbians without fear and even going further to demand fair and equal treatment,
homosexuals still suffer certain stereotypes and cultural believes that makes them reluctant to
identify as gay or lesbians.
Babbit, Jamie, et al. But I’m a Cheerleader. Metronome, 2003.
Juett, JoAnne C., and David Jones, eds. Coming Out to the Mainstream: New Queer Cinema in
the 21st Century. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2010.
Livingston, Jennie. “Paris is burning [Film].” New York: Insight Media (1990).
Rich, B. Ruby. “New queer cinema.” Sight and Sound 2.5 (1992): 30-34.
Rich, B. Ruby. New queer cinema: The directorâ??s cut. Duke University Press, 2013.
Troche Rose, and Guinevere Turner. Go Fish. Metro Goldwyn Mayer Home Entertainment,
Sin & Censorship
Birdcaged Bonnie Scene
The New Hollywood, sometimes referred to the American New Wave was
responsible for the new generation of young filmmakers that came to fruition during the
1960â??s. With Hollywood under extreme pressure from a new technology called
Television, the Motion Picture Production Code suffered a decline in the 1950â??s and
early 60â??. After the studios were forced to give up ownership of their theaters, Hollywood
no longer had a say in what films played in what theaters. This allowed for the screening
of foreign films which lacked a production code and confronted the prejudices towards
homosexuality and traditional gender roles, inevitably forcing Hollywood to adapt to the
new norms of society. By the late 1960â??s, the production code was entirely abandoned.
Bonnie & Clyde paved the road for future filmmakers by creating a film that famously
glorified crime and violence, breaking all taboos of itâ??s time.
In the fantastic opening shot, the camera sits behind the rails of Bonnieâ??s bed
implying that sheâ??s trapped, she frustratingly hits the jail-cell-like bars before yanking
herself up and putting her head between them. This gives the impression that sheâ??s
meant to be behind bars from the start. This subtle foreshadowing hints at the fact that
Bonnie will later become a fugitive after she meets Clyde. The camera then dollies into
a extreme close up of Bonnieâ??s unsettled eyes before cutting to a shot of her standing
up naked and walking to the window. For 1967 standards, this was quite provocative,
however, the clever camera movements and use of close ups allowed Bonnie to show a
lot of skin without actually revealing anything. This was done in an effort to attract movie
goers to theaters through an act called teasing; showing just enough for the audience to
see that sheâ??s clearly naked without actually showing her nude. As Bonnie peers
through the window and sees Clyde debating stealing her mother’s car, she yells out
“Hey boy, what you doin’ with my mama’s car?”. The two size each other up before
Bonnie tells Clyde to wait there, she frantically looks for clo …
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