In and OutWhat three large molecules are broken down by the digestive tract, and what are they composed of?Where does digestion begin?How does food get from the mouth to the stomach (name structure).What molecule is broken down primarily in the stomach?How does the function of the small intestine differ between its three parts?How is surface area increased in the small intestine? Using a notable source other than the powerpoint, find information on other benefits of intestinal bacteria. Cite your sources!_______________ are the primary organ where __________ is produced. The structural and function units of the kidneys are the _______________.Briefly discuss â??glomerular filtrationâ?.If water levels in the body increase, what happens to blood volume and therefore, blood pressure?How would the urinary system help to lower the amount of water in the body and therefore lower blood pressure if both were too high?a.What enzyme is at work here?b.What molecule does it break down?a.What are the components of gastric juice and how do they function?a.Duodenum:b.Jejunum and Ileum:
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In and Out
1. What three large molecules are broken down by the digestive tract, and what are they composed of?
2. Where does digestion begin?
a. What enzyme is at work here?
b. What molecule does it break down?
3. How does food get from the mouth to the stomach (name structure).
4. What molecule is broken down primarily in the stomach?
a. What are the components of gastric juice and how do they function?
5. How does the function of the small intestine differ between its three parts?
b. Jejunum and Ileum:
6. How is surface area increased in the small intestine?
7. Using a notable source other than the powerpoint, find information on other benefits of intestinal
bacteria. Cite your sources!
8. _______________ are the primary organ where __________ is produced. The structural and function
units of the kidneys are the _______________.
9. Briefly discuss â??glomerular filtrationâ?.
10. If water levels in the body increase, what happens to blood volume and therefore, blood pressure?
11. How would the urinary system help to lower the amount of water in the body and therefore lower
blood pressure if both were too high?
IN AND OUT
â?¢ Breaks large molecules into small.
â?¢ Absorbs small products for use and nutrition.
Proteins: composed of amino acids
Lipids: glycerol and fatty acids.
Water, vitamins, minerals.
Water balanced by urinary system.
â?¢ Eliminates solid waste that the body doesnâ??t need.
â??FEELINGSâ? OF HUNGER
â?¢ Hypothalamus responds to hormones.
â?¢ Ghrelin says â??give me food!â?
Released by stomach.
Increases before meals, decreases after.
High ghrelin levels shown to increase hunger scores.
Injections of hormone induce hunger.
â?¢ Leptin says â??Iâ??m full â?? no more!â?
Secreted primarily by adipose (fat) tissue.
Regulates body weight and energy balance.
Increases in overfed states, decreases in starvation.
Treatments with leptin shown to decrease appetite.
that you have
in your fat
DIGESTION BEGINS IN THE MOUTH
â?¢ Teeth mechanically break down food.
â?¢ Saliva is produced by the salivary glands.
It is composed of water, mucus, and salivary amylase.
Enzyme that breaks down starch (carb) into sugar.
â?¢ Chewing mixes food with saliva and creates a bolus.
â?¢ Bolus is swallowed; epiglottis ensures food does not enter airway.
â?¢ Bolus travels down the esophagus.
Smooth muscle contractions or peristalsis pushes it.
Lower esophageal sphincter controls food entering the stomach.
PROTEIN DIGESTION IN THE STOMACH
â?¢ Stretch of the stomach and presence of protein cause
release of gastrin hormone which then triggers the
release of gastric juice.
Hydrochloric acid at a pH of 2.
Denatures proteins; changes shape, renders non-functional.
Pepsin: enzyme to break down proteins.
Gastric Lipase: enzyme for lipids.
â?¢ Muscle contracts to move and churn food.
â?¢ Mixing liquefies food into chyme.
â?¢ Pyloric sphincter controls amount of chyme moving into
SMALL INTESTINE: DIGESTION
â?¢ Remaining digestion occurs in small intestine.
Duodenum (first ten inches) is where this occurs.
Presence of acid stimulates release of secretin hormone:
Causes release of water and bicarbonate from pancreas to neutralize acid.
Presence of food molecules in chime and stretch of wall stimulates
release of cholecystokinin hormone:
Release of enzymes from pancreas to break down molecules.
Release of bile to help emulsify fats for better digestion and absorption.
â?¢ Created in the liver, stored and released by the gall bladder.
SMALL INTESTINE: ABSORPTION
â?¢ The final 19 feet of small intestine, made up of the Jejunum
and the Ileum, absorbs nutrients.
95% of absorption takes place in the small intestine.
Absorbed into blood and lymph vessels.
Villi increase surface area to exponentially increase absorption.
Segmentation of smooth muscle increases rate also.
The fact that the small intestine is so long and has many folds
even before the villi aid in increasing surface area.
Ileocecal valve directs remnants to the large intestine (colon).
â?¢ Absorbs water and creates solid waste.
â?¢ Certain vitamins and minerals are absorbed as well.
Bacterial help ferment â??leftoversâ? to get some of these.
â?¢ At the lower end, solid waste is compacted as feces.
â?¢ Moves through the rectum, anus, and then out of the body.
Sphincters in the anus control when elimination occurs.
â?¢ Kidneys are the primary organ where urine is produced.
â?¢ The structural and functional units of the kidneys are the nephrons.
â?¢ Nephrons filter blood and create urine via:
â?¢ Urine is collected in the renal pelvis of kidney and transported via ureters to the urinary bladder.
â?¢ Release from the body occurs via the urethra.
REGULATION OF WATER
â?¢ Blood pressure and salt concentration determine water and
salt movement in tubules.
Monitored by the hypothalamus!
â?¢ Low blood pressure and high salt
Indicates not enough water (dehydration).
Antidiuretic hormone makes kidneys put water back in body.
Dark, concentrated urine is produced.
â?¢ High blood pressure and low salt
Indicates too much water (over-hydration).
Antidiuretic hormone is inhibited; water exits in urine.
Dilute, light colored urine is produced.
Direct relationship between water levels, blood
volume, and blood pressure!
When one goes up, so do the others!
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