Answer Exercises in complete sentencesâ??

Complete exercises 9.1 through 9.6 by answering all parts in complete sentences.See the attached file has all the information
chapter_9__summarizing.pdf

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Answer Exercises in complete sentencesâ??
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

9
CHAPTER
Summarizing,
Paraphrasing,
Quoting, and
Synthesizing Sources
AT ISSUE
Do Social-Networking Sites Threaten Our Privacy?
(continued)
In Chapter 8, you learned how to evaluate sources for an essay about the dangers of posting personal information on social-networking sites. In this chapter,
you will learn how to take notes from various sources that address this issue.
As you saw in Chapter 8, before you can decide which material to use to
support your arguments, you need to evaluate a variety of potential
sources. After you decide what sources you will use, you can begin thinking
about where you might use each source and about how to integrate the
sources you have chosen into your essay in the form of summary, paraphrase, and quotation. When you actually write your argument, you will
synthesize the sources into your paper, blending them with your own ideas
and interpretations (as the student writer did when she wrote the MLA
research paper in Chapter 10).
For comprehension quizzes,
see bedfordstmartins.com/practicalargument.
313
314
Part 4
Using Sources to Support Your Argument
Summarizing Sources
A summary restates the main idea of a passage (or even an entire book or
article) in concise terms. Because a summary leaves out the examples,
explanations, and stylistic devices of the source, it is always much shorter
than the original. Usually, it is just a sentence or two.
WHEN TO SUMMARIZE
Summarize when you want to give readers a general sense of a sourceâ??s
position on an issue.
When you summarize information, you do not include your own
opinions, but you do use your own words and phrasing, not those of your
source. If you want to use a particularly distinctive word or phrase from
your source, you may do soâ??but you must always place such words in
quotation marks and document them. If you do not, you will be committing plagiarism. (See Chapter 10 for information on documenting sources;
see Chapter 11 for information on avoiding plagiarism.)
The following paragraph is from a newspaper opinion essay.
ORIGINAL SOURCE
When everyone has a blog, a MySpace page, or Facebook entry,
everyone is a publisher. When everyone has a cellphone with a camera
in it, everyone is a paparazzo. When everyone can upload video on
YouTube, everyone is a filmmaker. When everyone is a publisher,
paparazzo, or filmmaker, everyone else is a public figure. Weâ??re all public
figures now. The blogosphere has made the global discussion so much
richerâ??and each of us so much more transparent. (â??The Whole World Is
Watching,� Thomas L. Friedman, New York Times, June 27, 2007, 23)
The following effective summary conveys a general but accurate sense of the
original paragraph without using the sourceâ??s phrasing or including the writerâ??s
own opinions. (One distinctive and hard-to-reword phrase is placed in quotation
marks.) Parenthetical documentation indicates the source of the material.
EFFECTIVE SUMMARY
The popularity of blogs, social-networking sites, cell phone cameras,
and YouTube has enhanced the â??global discussionâ? but made it very
hard for people to remain anonymous (Friedman 23).
Notice that this summary is much shorter than the original passage and
that it does not include all the originalâ??s examples. Still, it accurately communicates a general sense of the sourceâ??s main idea.
Chapter 9
Summarizing, Paraphrasing, Quoting, and Synthesizing Sources
The following summary is not acceptable because it uses the sourceâ??s
exact words without putting them in quotation marks or providing documentation. (This constitutes plagiarism.) The summary also expresses the
student writerâ??s opinion.
UNACCEPTABLE SUMMARY
It seems to me that blogs, social-networking sites, cell phone
cameras, and YouTube are everywhere, and what this means is that
weâ??re all public figures now.
SUMMARIZING SOURCES
Do
â? 
Convey the main idea of the original passage.
â? 
Be concise.
â? 
Use your own original words and phrasing.
â? 
Place any words from your source in quotation marks.
â? 
Include documentation.
Do not
â? 
Include your own analysis or opinions.
â? 
Include digressions.
â? 
Argue with your source.
â? 
Use your sourceâ??s syntax or phrasing.
EXERCISE 9.1
Write a two-sentence summary of the following passage. Then, edit your
summary so that it is only one sentence long. Be sure your summary
conveys the main idea of the original passage and includes proper
documentation.
Weâ??re living at a time when attention is the new currency: with hundreds of TV channels, billions of Web sites, podcasts, radio shows, music
downloads, and social networking, our attention is more fragmented than
ever before.
Those who insert themselves into as many channels as possible look
set to capture the most value. Theyâ??ll be the richest, the most successful, the
most connected, capable, and influential among us. Weâ??re all publishers
now, and the more we publish, the more valuable connections weâ??ll make.
315
Í
316
Part 4
Using Sources to Support Your Argument
Twitter, Facebook, Flickr, Foursquare, Fitbit, and the SenseCam give
us a simple choice: participate or fade into a lonely obscurity. (Pete Cashmore, â??Privacy Is Dead, and Social Media Hold Smoking Gun,â? CNN.com,
October 28, 2009)
Paraphrasing Sources
A paraphrase is different from a summary. While a summary gives a general overview of the original, a paraphrase presents the sourceâ??s ideas in
detail, including its main idea, its key supporting points, and perhaps even
its examples. For this reason, a paraphrase is longer than a summary. In
fact, it may be as long as the original.
WHEN TO PARAPHRASE
Paraphrase when you want readers to understand a sourceâ??s key points
in specific terms.
Like a summary, a paraphrase uses your own words and phrasing, not
the language and syntax of the original. Any words or phrases from your
source must be placed in quotation marks. When you paraphrase, you may
not always follow the order of the original sourceâ??s ideas, but you should
try to convey the writerâ??s emphasis and most important points.
The following paragraph is from an editorial that appeared in a student
newspaper.
ORIGINAL SOURCE
Additionally, as graduates retain their Facebook accounts, employers
are increasingly able to use Facebook as an evaluation tool when
making hiring decisions. Just as companies sometimes incorporate social functions into their interview process to see if potential
hires can handle themselves responsibly, they may also check out
a studentâ??s Facebook account to see how the student chooses to
present him or herself. This may seem shady and underhanded,
but one must understand that social networks are not anonymous;
whatever one chooses to post will be available to all. Even if someone goes to great pains to keep an employer-friendly profile, his or
her friends may still tag pictures of him or her which will be available
to whoever wants to see them. Not only can unexpected Facebook
members get information by viewing oneâ??s profile, but a userâ??s personal information can also leak out by merely registering for the service. Both the user agreement and the privacy policy indicate that
Facebook can give information to third parties and can supplement
Chapter 9
Summarizing, Paraphrasing, Quoting, and Synthesizing Sources
its data with information from newspapers, blogs and instant messages. (â??Beware What You Post on Facebook,â? The Tiger, Clemson
University, August 4, 2006)
The following paraphrase reflects the original paragraphâ??s emphasis
and communicates its key points.
EFFECTIVE PARAPHRASE
Because students keep their accounts at social-networking sites
after they graduate, potential employers can use the information
they find there to help them evaluate candidatesâ?? qualifications. This
process is comparable to the way a company might evaluate an
applicant in person in a social situation. Some people may see the
practice of employers checking applicantsâ?? Facebook pages as
â??shady and underhanded,â? but these sites are not intended to be
anonymous or private. For example, a person may try to maintain a
profile that will be appropriate for employers, but friends may post
inappropriate pictures. Also, people can reveal personal information
not only in profiles but also simply by registering with Facebook.
Finally, as Facebook states in its membership information, it can
supply information to others as well as provide data from other
sources. (â??Bewareâ?)
Notice that this paraphrase includes many of the details presented in the
original passage and quotes a key phrase, but its style and sentence structure are different from those of the original.
The following paraphrase is not acceptable because its phrasing and
sentence structure are too close to the original. It also borrows words and
phrases from the source without attribution or documentation.
UNACCEPTABLE PARAPHRASE
As more and more college graduates keep their Facebook
accounts, employers are increasingly able to use them as evaluation
tools when they decide whom to hire. Companies sometimes set up
social functions during the interview process to see how potential
hires handle themselves; in the same way, they can consult a Facebook page to see how an applicant presents himself or herself. This
may seem underhanded, but after all, Facebook is not anonymous;
its information is available to all. Many people try to keep their profiles employer friendly, but their friends sometimes tag pictures of
them that employers will be able to see. Besides, studentsâ?? personal
information is available not just on their profiles but also in the form
they fill out when they register. Finally, according to their user agreement and their privacy policy, Facebook can give information to third
parties and also add data from other sources.
317
Using Sources to Support Your Argument
PARAPHRASING SOURCES
Do
â? 
Convey the sourceâ??s ideas fully and accurately.
â? 
Use your own words and phrasing.
â? 
Convey the emphasis of the original.
â? 
Put any words borrowed from the source in quotation marks.
â? 
Include documentation.
Do not
â? 
Use the exact words or phrasing of your source (unless you are quoting).
â? 
Include your own analysis or opinions.
â? 
Argue with or contradict your source.
â? 
Wander from the topic of the source.
EXERCISE 9.2
Write a paraphrase of the passage you summarized in Exercise 9.1. How
is your paraphrase different from your summary?
Í
Part 4
Í
318
EXERCISE 9.3
The following paragraph is from the same Clemson University student
newspaper article that was excerpted on pages 316â??317. Read the
paragraph, and then write a paraphrase that communicates its key ideas.
Before you begin, circle any distinctive word and phrases that might be
difficult to paraphrase, and consider whether you should quote them. Be
sure to include documentation.
All these factors make clear the importance of two principles: Responsibility and caveat emptor. First, people should be responsible about how
they portray themselves and their friends, and employers, authorities, and
the owners must approach this information responsibly and fairly. Second,
â??let the buyer bewareâ? applies to all parties involved. Facebook users need to
understand the potential consequences of the information they share, and
outside viewers need to understand that the material on Facebook is often
only a humorous, lighthearted presentation of one aspect of a person.
Facebook is an incredibly valuable communications tool that will link the
college generation more tightly than any before it, but users have to understand that, like anything good in life, they have to be aware of the downsides.
Chapter 9
Summarizing, Paraphrasing, Quoting, and Synthesizing Sources
Quoting Sources
When you quote words from a source, be sure that you are quoting
accuratelyâ??that is, that every word and every punctuation mark in your quotation matches the source exactly. You also need to be sure that your quotation
conveys the meaning its author intended and that you are not distorting the
meaning by quoting out of context or by omitting a key part of the quotation.
WHEN TO QUOTE
Quote a sourceâ??s words only in the following situations:
â? 
Quote when your sourceâ??s words are distinctive or memorable.
â? 
Quote when your sourceâ??s words are so direct and concise that a paraphrase would be awkward or wordy.
â? 
Quote when your sourceâ??s words add authority or credibility to your
argument (for example, when your source is a well-known expert on
your topic).
â? 
Quote an opposing point when you will go on to refute it.
Remember, quoting from a source adds interest to your paperâ??but only
when the writerâ??s words are compelling. Too many quotationsâ??especially
long quotationsâ??distract readers and make it difficult for them to follow
your discussion. Quote only when you must. If you include too many quotations, your paper will be a patchwork of other peopleâ??s words, not an original,
unified whole.
QUOTING SOURCES
Do
â? 
Enclose borrowed words in quotation marks.
â? 
Quote accurately.
â? 
Include documentation.
Do not
â? 
Quote out of context.
â? 
Distort the sourceâ??s meaning.
â? 
Include too many quotations.
319
Using Sources to Support Your Argument
EXERCISE 9.4
Read the following paragraphs from an essay that appeared in New Scientist.
(The full text of this article begins below in Exercise 9.5.) If you were going to
use these paragraphs as source material for an argumentative essay, which
particular words or phrases do you think you might want to quote? Why?
Cols likes a smoke and has tried many different drugs. He has three piercings and is in the process of tattooing his arm. He earns between $75,000
and $100,000 a year and doesnâ??t see his dad.
I know all about Cols even though I have never met him and probably
never shall. Five years ago only a close friend of his would have known
such personal details about him. Yet thanks to his profile on the social
networking website MySpace, I even know the first thing he thinks about
in the morning.
Thereâ??s nothing unusual about this. Millions of people share some of
their most personal details with total strangers on the Internet via sites such
as MySpace, Friendster, and Facebook. The dangers this can pose to children
are well publicized, but it also has powerful if less well known implications
for us all. The sheer volume of personal information that people are publishing onlineâ??and the fact that some of it could remain visible permanentlyâ??
is changing the nature of personal privacy. Is this a good thing, or will
the â??MySpace generationâ? live to regret it? (Alison George, â??Things You
Wouldnâ??t Tell Your Mother,â? New Scientist, September 16, 2006)
Í
Part 4
Í
320
EXERCISE 9.5
Read the essay that follows, and highlight it to identify its most important
ideas. (For information on highlighting, see Chapter 2.) Then, write a summary
of one paragraph and a paraphrase of another paragraph. Assume that this
essay is a source for a paper you are writing on the topic, â??Do SocialNetworking Sites Threaten Our Privacy?â? Be sure to include documentation.
This essay is from New Scientist, where it appeared on
September 16, 2006.
THINGS YOU WOULDNâ??T
TELL YOUR MOTHER
ALISON GEORGE
Cols likes a smoke and has tried many different drugs. He has three piercings
and is in the process of tattooing his arm. He earns between $75,000 and
$100,000 a year and doesnâ??t see his dad.
1
Chapter 9
Summarizing, Paraphrasing, Quoting, and Synthesizing Sources
I know all about Cols even though I
â??I know all about
have never met him and probably never
Cols even though I
shall. Five years ago only a close friend of
his would have known such personal
have never met him.�
details about him. Yet thanks to his profile
on the social networking website MySpace, I even know the first thing he
thinks about in the morning.
Thereâ??s nothing unusual about this. Millions of people share some of their
most personal details with total strangers on the Internet via sites such as
MySpace, Friendster, and Facebook. The dangers this can pose to children are
well publicized, but it also has powerful if less well known implications for us
all. The sheer volume of personal information that people are publishing
onlineâ??and the fact that some of it could remain visible permanentlyâ??is
changing the nature of personal privacy. Is this a good thing, or will the
â??MySpace generationâ? live to regret it?
The change has been made possible by the way social networking sites are
structured. They allow users to create a profile of themselves for others to
peruse, and to build networks with hundreds or thousands of people who share
their interests or just like the look of their page. Itâ??s an opportunity to present
yourself in a way you want others to see you. Many people reveal everything
from their musical tastes and political and sexual orientation to their drinking
and drug habits and their inner thoughts and feelings. And itâ??s a very recent
phenomenon. â??There is no real-world parallel. You donâ??t go walking round the
mall telling people whether you are straight or gay,� says Fred Stutzman, a
researcher at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill who studies identity
and social networks.
Whatâ??s more, people can end up having multiple identities online. The
picture you present of yourself on the dating site Match.com, for instance, will
likely be different to the one you give on Facebook, restricted mainly to universities and high schools. This can be confusing if someone is trying to find out
more about you by searching on Googleâ??if theyâ??re thinking of employing
you, for example, or dating you. In recognition of this online identity crisis,
Stutzman and his colleague Terrell Russell have set up a service called ClaimID
(claimid.com) that allows you to track, verify, annotate, and prioritize the
information that appears about you online, so that when someone searches
you they get representative information.
Such a service could prove increasingly useful for people entering the
workforce with a few years of social networking behind them. Tasteless injokes are fine within the network, says Stutzman. â??But when youâ??re going for
that job interview, they can really come back and bite people.� A survey by the
U.S. National Association of Colleges and Employers published in July found
that 27 percent of employers have Googled their job candidates or checked
their profiles on social networking sites. It is not just employers who are interested in your online revelations. U.S. college athletes who posted pictures of
themselves behaving badly on their social networking profiles unwittingly
2
3
4
5
6
321
322
Part 4
Using Sources to Support Your Argument
found themselves on Bob Renoâ??s badjocks.com site, which publishes stories
about scandals in sport.
How does this happen? Offline, it is easy to compartmentalize the different
aspects of your lifeâ??professional, personal, familyâ??but online, where social
networks are so much larger and looser, the distinctions become blurred.
These issues have not gone unnoticed by social network providers. They are
reluctant to offer too much privacy because this makes it harder for users to
communicate with people they donâ??t know. Yet too little privacy means that
users lose control over the information they post. â??There is a fine balance
between protecting and revealingâ??for users as well as providers,â? says Alessandro Acquisti of Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, who
researches privacy and information security and is looking at the difference
between online and offline behavior.
In everyday life, says Acquisti, we are better equipped to manage our
privacyâ??we are unlikely to give strangers our phone number and date of
birth. So why …
Purchase answer to see full
attachment

GradeAcers
Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Work with Us

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.

Professional and Experienced Academic Writers

We have a team of professional writers with experience in academic and business writing. Many are native speakers and able to perform any task for which you need help.

Free Unlimited Revisions

If you think we missed something, send your order for a free revision. You have 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support.

Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.

Original & Confidential

We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.

24/7 Customer Support

Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:
$0.00

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.

Essays

Essay Writing Service

No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.

Admissions

Admission Essays & Business Writing Help

An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.

Reviews

Editing Support

Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.

Reviews

Revision Support

If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.

Order your essay today and save 15% with the discount code DISCOUNT15