i have an anthropology homework. i need small paraghraph as an answer to the questions the directions and requirments are in the file attached
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Late Pleistocene Homo Assignment
For years we have been able to analyze the fossils of extinct humans like those of
Neanderthals. Their bones gave us clues to how they looked, how they lived, and
how they might be related to us. In the last few years, we have been able to get a
better view into these extinct species and their relationship to our species. Thanks to
next generation genomic sequencing technologies, we have been able to obtain
genetic data on Neanderthals, Denisovans and others that have allowed us to make
direct comparisons between our species and theirs. In addition, we have been able to
observe the presence of DNA from these extinct species within our own genomes
which tell us that we had kids with these now extinct humans.
If we take Neanderthal DNA as an example, we find that we share 99.5 percent of our
DNA with them. Which means that we and Neanderthals were separated from each
other for more than 500,000 years. This also means that we were genetically similar
enough to be able to have offspring with each other. We see evidence of this genetic
introgression between us and Neanderthals when we look at our DNA. Interestingly,
if we obtain one thousand DNA samples from Grossmont College students, we
estimate that we would be able to extract at least 20% of the Neanderthal genome
from them. This means that 20% of our collective nucleotide sequences are shared
with Neanderthals but this doesnâ??t mean that 20% of our genes are Neanderthal
specific genes. Of the twenty-one thousand genes that Neanderthals had, only a few
dozen of their genes survive within our genome. The same holds true for
Denisovans. What is more interesting is that older versions of ourselves have a
tendency to have higher levels of DNA from extinct humans compared to
ourselves. In other words, over the course of thousands of years we have been slowly
weeding out the DNA of the other humans from our genome in favor of our genes.
One basic question that we might like to ask is why have we been losing Neanderthal
and Denisovan genes over time? Also, why do we still have a significant amount of
DNA segments that donâ??t seem to be going anywhere? The answer to this has to do
The answer to the first part of the question has to do with the fact that we were not
fully genetically compatible with the other human species to begin with. Basically, to
have had Neanderthal or Denisovan genes in the past meant that an individual’s level
of fitness was reduced. To get rid of their genes in favor of our own would mean that
the relative fitness of individuals would increase overtime.
The answer to the second question has to do with the fact that DNA segments from
Neanderthals and Denisovans that did not code for proteins remained because there
was little selective pressure against them. As far as genes are concerned, the only
Neanderthal and Denisovan genes that remain only exist because they had a selective
advantage or at least have been neutral to our species.
DNA segments that that were neutral or that had a selective advantage, whether
genes or not, simply remained because they were advantages or there was little
selective pressure against them.
Your task for this week is to look for information about one Neanderthal or
Denisovan gene that survive within our species and to tell me what function that
gene has and how that gene may increase the fitness of modern human populations.
In your post, discussONE Neanderthal or Denisovan gene that is currently found
within our species.
o Tell us about the gene and its function. Explain what it does for us. (Make
sure you give a citation.)
o Explain in your own words any possible advantages that your Neanderthal or
Denisovan gene might have. Make sure you give in informed opinion that is
grounded in your research.
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