APA 6th Edition Report Revision

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Running Head: THE IMPACTS OF SOCIAL MEDIA USE ON SLEEP
The Impacts of Social Media Use on Sleep Quality and Quantity: A Study of Undergraduate
Students at CQUniversity, Australia
Name
Instructor
Institutional Affiliation
Date
1
THE IMPACTS OF SOCIAL MEDIA USE ON SLEEP
2
Abstract
This cross-sectional research study aimed to show the impact of social media use on the
sleep quality and quantity among undergraduate students in CQUniversity Australia. A crosssectional study was performed on undergraduate students CQUniversity and data reported. A
multistage stratified sampling technique was adopted for the study population including of 72
students who participated in the study. The study population was composed of 55 female
students representing 76.4% of the total population and 17 male students representing 23.6% of
the total population. The inferential statistics specifically the SPSS program was used for data
analysis. The result of the study was displayed through correlation analysis which compared
social media use operationalised as the total number of separate times social media accounts
were used over a three-day diary period and sleep quality which was operationalised by the score
of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). The correlational analysis indicated that there is a weak
correlation between social media use and sleep quality. There was also a weak positive trend
towards greater daytime sleepiness which was indicated by M=6.49; SD=3.58. Students who
participated in the survey reported no substantial relationship between social media use and
quality of sleep.
THE IMPACTS OF SOCIAL MEDIA USE ON SLEEP
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Introduction
Social media refers a social website or application that enables users to create and share
contents or even participate in social networking. Various research studies indicate that nearly
half adult population in the world use social media. The rise in the use of social media has not
only gained popularity among the adults but also among young people who also account for a
higher proportion of those who use social media platforms. Through innovation in technology,
various social media platforms have emerged with creative and innovative contents. Today,
many young and old populations use multiple social media platforms including Facebook,
Twitter, WhatsApp, Tumblr, Google and many other engaging social media platforms. With the
rise in the use of social media, educators and researchers are concerned about the impact that
social media use may have on the quality and quantity of sleep among college and university
students. The previous research study on the influence of social media use on sleep quality
conducted by Long Xu et al. (2015) on undergraduate students at Chongqing University, in
China indicated a strong association between social media use and sleep quality. Although this
study will be based on other previous studies, it will attempt to verify this association based on
the data collected and analysis conducted.
Based on previous studies, three main factors regulate sleep namely endogenous
circadian factor, homeostatic factor, and behavioural factor. Behavioural factors appear to have a
substantial impact on sleep than the other two factors. In this case, it is essential to have a clear
understanding of the various behaviours that have a negative or positive impact on sleep.
Daytime sleepiness refers to the reduced ability of individuals to stay awake and alert during the
regular hours because of sleep. Cain and Gradisar (2017) in their study â??impact of social media
use on daytime sleepiness� conclude that prolonged social media use especially in bed has a
THE IMPACTS OF SOCIAL MEDIA USE ON SLEEP
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negative impact on tertiary studentâ??s daytime sleepiness. In their study, Cain and Gradisar (2017)
argued that evening use of social media tools such as electronic media, computers, and television
among young people have a strong association with their delayed bedtime and reduction in the
number of hours of sleep. In another study conducted by Brunborg et al. (2017) on the impact
social media usage on daytime sleepiness, they concluded that prolonged social media usage by
young people during the evening while in bed has a negative impact on daytime sleepiness. Choi
et al. (2017) reported that prolonged internet use among adolescent has a strong correlation with
daytime sleepiness. Although Choi et al., (2017) reported a strong association between social
media use and daytime sleepiness among adolescent, in his study there was no explanation on the
reasons why adolescents use social media platforms excessively.
Previous studies have reported a strong association between social media use and daytime
sleepiness. These studies have also indicated a strong association between social media use and
academic performance. In other words, social media has a direct impact on most social activities
conducted by young people including daytime sleepiness. A survey study conducted by Nathan
and Zeitzer (2013) on the relationship between social media use and daytime sleepiness among
high students in California also indicated that there is a strong correlation between mobile phone
use during the evenings and daytime sleepiness. On the same note, Afandi et al., (2013) in their
study indicated that non-users of social media experience better quality sleep that those who use
social media during the night. In the past decade, there has been an influx in the use of social
media due to an increase in the supply of handheld smartphones, tablets, and laptops which
facilitates access to social media sites. This increase in the use of smart gadgets has increased the
use of social media not only among young people but also in adults.
THE IMPACTS OF SOCIAL MEDIA USE ON SLEEP
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Research Question
This study was guided by one research question which aimed to assess the association
between social media use and sleep quality. The following is the research question which guided
this study:
Does social media use impact sleep quality and quantity?
Research Hypothesis
There is a negative correlation between social media use and sleep quality.
Aims and significance of the study
This study aims at examining the relationship between social media usage and sleep
quality among undergraduate students at CQUniversity. Despite the widespread use of social
media use among tertiary students, there has been a limited study to investigate the relationship
between social media usage and sleep quality. This study will thus add to the existing knowledge
regarding social media use and its impact on sleep quality or daytime sleepiness.
THE IMPACTS OF SOCIAL MEDIA USE ON SLEEP
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Methods
Measure
The study employed the use of cross-sectional qualitative research design. In the study, a
survey questionnaire was drafted with a set of questions regarding the participantâ??s demographic
data, the social media sites used, social media usage, sleeping arrangements and sleep quality,
total sleep time, and daytime sleep. Both inferential and descriptive statistics were used in
analysing the research. A correlation analysis was conducted to examine the relationship
between social media use and sleep quality.
Participants
A total of 82 students from CQUniversity Australia were recruited voluntarily and
participated in the study by completing the survey questionnaire. Data from the questionnaire
were collected and checked for completeness. Data from 10 students were excluded from the
study because five out the ten did not answer the question on sleep behaviours while the other
five were excluded because they reported that they are currently taking medication which could
affect their sleeping patterns. The data from the remaining 72 participants were analysed and
results displayed through scatter plots displaying their social media use and daytime sleepiness.
Materials
The survey questionnaire was used to collect data from the 82 participants who were
voluntarily recruited from CQUniversity. Inferential statistics and descriptive statistics were used
to analyse the data using the IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23. The
THE IMPACTS OF SOCIAL MEDIA USE ON SLEEP
results were then displayed using the scatter plot that showed the relationship between social
media use and daytime sleepiness.
Procedure
The university institutional review board approved the research methodology. All the
participants were provided with written informed consent together with survey questionnaire to
complete. The data was collected without involving personal identifiers to guarantee the
confidentiality of the study participants. After sorting for the consent of the participants, they
were given survey questionnaire with a set of questions related to their social media use; there
sleep behaviours, their demographic variables related to their gender, age, income, and
relationship status. The participants were allowed ten minutes to complete the questionnaire
since the questionnaire involved closed-ended questions requiring no in-depth thinking. Data
collected from the study participants were then subjected to standard data entry and quality
control mechanisms for double entry checks, consistency checks, and manual review of an
outlier. A statistical test involving Pearson correlation analysis was used to evaluate different
variables in the study and their relationship to social media usage and daytime sleepiness.
Statistical analysis was conducted using the IBM SPSS version 23. In the result presentation,
statistical significance was set at p<0.05 (two-tailed) for a linear relationship. 7 THE IMPACTS OF SOCIAL MEDIA USE ON SLEEP 8 Results The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between social media use and sleep quality. A correlation analysis was conducted to analyse this association between the social media use and sleep quality based on the identified variables including average hours of sleep at night, number of separate times each social media site was accessed over the three-day period. The total average number of minutes spent on the social media site over the three-day period, and the sleep patterns. A weak positive trend towards greater daytime sleepiness represented by (M = 6.49; SD = 3.58) was recorded for the participants who accessed their social media accounts several times during the day over the three-day diary. This is represented in the form of (M = 55.31; SD = 83.81) in which the mean and the standard deviation of social media use is computed. Descriptive statistics Mean use 55.31 Social media (SMU) Epworth Sleepiness 6.4861 Scale (ESS) Std Deviation 83.81 N 72 3.58 72 Correlation SMU SMU Pearson correlation Significance (Two-tailed) Sum of Squares and Crossproducts Covariance N ESS 1 498659.278 0.224 0.059 4757.306 7023.370 72 67.004 72 THE IMPACTS OF SOCIAL MEDIA USE ON SLEEP 9 Based on the above results, it was evident that there was a weak positive trend towards social media use with ESS scale of 6.49 and standard deviation of 3.58. The data did not show any statistical significance between the time spent on social media use and daytime sleepiness as indicated by the significance of p>0.059. Based on the data provided, there was no statistical
significance between the mean number of times participants spent on the social media and other
variables in the study.
Discussion
The current study examines the relationship between social media use and quality of
sleep by focusing on two critical variables namely social media use and sleepiness among
CQUniversity students. The study showed that Facebook is the most predominantly used social
media platform with highest standard deviation and mean. From the study, there was no
statistical significance between social media use and other variables under investigation.
Compared to other previous studies such as the study by Hargittai (2007) which found a
statistical significance between gender and social media use, in their research, they reported that
female students are more likely to spend more time in social media than any male gender. The
study also found no statistical significance between variables such as gender, income, and age
with the social media use. However, the study indicated a weak positive correlation between
social media use and greater daytime sleepiness. This weak positive correlation was found on
those participants who accessed their social media accounts several times over the three-day
recording period. The theory of addiction can be used to further explain the frequency of social
media use among the young people especially students as compared to the older adults. Although
the theory of addition best describes the frequency and rate of social media use, it does not relate
the use social media and how it impacts on the quality of sleep.
THE IMPACTS OF SOCIAL MEDIA USE ON SLEEP
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In this study, Pearson correlation demonstrated that time spent on social media and the
hours of night sleep have a weak significant correlation to greater daytime sleepiness. Although
the previous study conducted by Long Xu et al. (2015) on undergraduate students at Chongqing
University, China indicated a strong association between social media use and sleep quality, the
current study does not seem to see any strong significant correlation between time spent on
social media and quality of sleep. Chang et al., (2016) in their study demonstrated that the use
portable gadgets for accessing social media has a negative biological impact which may result in
a deficiency of sleep and this may have ultimately adverse effects on health and safety. The
findings of this study inform the psychological understanding of the impacts of social media use
on quality of sleep and other behaviours.
The main strength of this study is that it employs the current data gathered from research
participants to develop results and relates the results with other previously conducted studies to
evaluate the relationship. It also investigates the relationship between using social media at night
impacts the sleep patterns among university students. However, there several limitations of this
study that should be considered when interpreting the results of this study. One of the most
critical limitations is the reliance on the reported data based on the individual memory of the
number of hours he or she uses social media per day for the three-day period. In this case, there
is no objective confirmation of the reported data which may be subject to recall biases. Another
significant limitation is that the study majorly focused on social media usage as the independent
variable that could affect sleep but did not consider other confounding variables that could
potentially affect the quality of sleep among the CQUniversity students. The final limitation of
this study relates to the sample size. A sample size of 82 participants does not reflect a correct
perspective of the entire school.
THE IMPACTS OF SOCIAL MEDIA USE ON SLEEP
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Conclusion
Social media usage was examined as one of the significant variables that could
potentially affect the quality of sleep among university students. The results of the current study
indicate that there a weak positive correlation between social media use and quality of sleep. The
weak relationship is majorly evident among students who spent more time using social media.
To further examine the impacts of social media on sleep quality among students the study
recommends further studies to be conducted with large sample size than the current 82 which
was used by this study. The study should also involve more students from different universities
to ensure there is an appropriate sample that reflects a more representation of many study
participants.
THE IMPACTS OF SOCIAL MEDIA USE ON SLEEP
12
References
Afandi, O., Hawi, H., Mohammed, L., Salim, F., Hameed, A. K., Shaikh, R. B., … & Khan, F. A.
(2013). Sleep quality among university students: Evaluating the impact of smoking,
social media use, and energy drink consumption on sleep quality and anxiety. Inquiries
Journal, 5(06).
Brunborg, G. S., Mentzoni, R. A., Molde, H., Myrseth, H., Skouverøe, K. J. M., Bjorvatn, B., &
Pallesen, S. (2011). The relationship between media use in the bedroom, sleep habits and
symptoms of insomnia. Journal of sleep research, 20(4), 569-575.
Cain, N., & Gradisar, M. (2010). Electronic media use and sleep in school-aged children and
adolescents: A review. Sleep medicine, 11(8), 735-742.
Choi, K., Son, H., Park, M., Han, J., Kim, K., Lee, B., & Gwak, H. (2009). Internet overuse and
excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents. Psychiatry and clinical
neurosciences, 63(4), 455-462.
Johnson, J. G., Cohen, P., Kasen, S., First, M. B., & Brook, J. S. (2004). Association between
television viewing and sleep problems during adolescence and early adulthood. Archives
of pediatrics & adolescent medicine, 158(6), 562-568.
Long Xu, X., Zhu, R. Z., Sharma, M., & Zhao, Y. (2015). The influence of social media on sleep
quality: a study of undergraduate students in Chongqing. China. J Nurs Care, 4(253),
2167-1168.
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Nasirudeen, A. M. A., Lee Chin Adeline, L., Wat Neo Josephine, K., Lay Seng, L., & Wenjie, L.
(2017). Impact of social media usage on daytime sleepiness: A study in a sample of
tertiary students in Singapore. DIGITAL HEALTH, 3, 2055207617699766.
Nathan, N., & Zeitzer, J. (2013). A survey study of the association between mobile phone use
and daytime sleepiness in California high school students. BMC public health, 13(1), 840.
Van den Bulck, J. (2004). Television viewing, computer game playing, and Internet use and selfreported time to bed and time out of bed in secondary-school children. Sleep, 27(1), 101104.
Wolniczak, I., Caceres-DelAguila, J. A., Palma-Ardiles, G., Arroyo, K. J., Solís-Visscher, R.,
Paredes-Yauri, S., … & Bernabe-Ortiz, A. (2013). Association between Facebook
dependence and poor sleep quality: a study in a sample of undergraduate students in
Peru. PloS one, 8(3), e59087.

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