Hello,I have these 2 worksheets I need to answer and submit tomorrow,please answer it on a word document, keep answers clear and simple. please
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Electronic Materials â?? EE Science 1
Electromagnetics Refresher 1 Worksheet.
Consider two positive charges placed a distance r12 apart.
| F ï?¾ï?½
4ï°ï¥ o r122
1) Describe this relation in words.
2) Who is credited with this relation?
Divide both sides by Q2.
3) What is the name of the new relation you obtain?
4) Describe and provide all of the physical units for each relation 1 & 2.
5) If you were to place a free charge a distance r13 from Q1, describe what will
happen and provide a relation for the acceleration it will initially experience. You
will need to assume some thingsâ?¦state these.
6) What alternate units could you provide for the relation in 3, that involve the
Module 1: Electronic Materials Battery Worksheet.
Concept Map: Energy concepts, chemistry, charge flow, terminal designation.
Background: Most of us may recognize a battery as a metal can with terminals at each end
marked â??â? or â??-â??. Our electronic systems inform us how to insert this â??canâ? by showing us in
the holder where to place the â??â?, respectively the â??-â?? ends when we insert the battery. When we
do this we have the situation shown in the figure below. V(t), J/c, is the voltage at this point
equal to the starting potential minus the energy used to
reach this point. If we assume a good conductor (very
low energy loss), an electron, e-, leaving the â??-â?? terminal
â??â? Battery Terminal
of the battery uses all of the energy it received, ï?V, at the
ï? V ~1.5V
negative terminal, just as it reaches the â??â? terminal,
where the energy the electron started with was drained by
â??-â? Battery Terminal
So where/how did the e-â??s get this energy? Ans.
Chemical reactions between electrolyte solution and
electrode surfaces inside the battery. Shown at the left is a
battery with â??-â?? electrode, termed the anode, and â??â?
electrode, termed the cathode, at the right. The anode is
Zn metal and the cathode is Cu metal. Both are
immersed in a H2SO4 (sulfuric acid) / water solution.
Both electrodes have been identified as â?? or -â? by their
action as sources, electrons will come out of the Zn â??-â??
and they will go into or be â??sinkedâ? by the Cu â??â? electrode. Note: mass flow of e- in means
â??positiveâ? current out by convention.
Let us explore reactions in each â??half:â?
At Cu: Cu(2aqï?« ) ï?« 2e ï? ï?« Cu(0s ) , reduction .34V, rel. to SHE.
At Zn: Zn(2aqï?« ) ï?« 2e ï? ï?« Zn(0s ) , oxidation -0.76V, rel. to SHE.
These are known as â??half reactionsâ? and tabulated and written as reductions. The SHE is relative
to a standard hydrogen electrode for each reaction (provides a standard reference).
Overall ï?V 0 ï?½ Vcathode
ï?½ 0.34 ï? (ï?0.76) ï?½ 1.10V . This is independent of the amount of
reactants. The minus sign on the reduction reaction for Zn indicates that this is actually an
So at the cathode reduction occurs. To remember this important fact use the mnemonic RedCat
for reduction occurs at the cathode. The energy process is based on thermodynamics where the
free energy of the system is related to the electrical work, and the latter is shown to be equal to
-nFV, where n is the number of moles of the element, F is Faradayâ??s constant ~96500
coulomb/mole, and V is Joule/coulomb, and the minus gives us a negative Gibbs free energy
which means a spontaneous process. We have electrons in the surface of the Cu0 and Cu2 ions
in solution very near the electrode surface. The Cu and Cu2 ion have very close allowed
electron energy states such that electrons (treating them as particles) may jump or transition from
the metal to a state in the ion. When this is accomplished, the ion becomes an uncharged Cu
atom and â??platesâ? out on the Cu electrode surface, and we measure an electron mass flow into
the cathode terminal (which by convention is a positive current out of the cathode terminal). The
EEE3394.F14.Mod 1 WS 1
oxidation reaction at the Zn electrode in the electrolyte solution involves losing electrons from a
Zn atom on the surface of the electrode and coincident solvation of the new ion that lost the
electrons into the solution as a Zn2 ion. This later process is called an oxidation as the Zn
oxidation state rose from Zn0 to Zn.
1) Find a table for half reactions on the web, pick four half cell reactions and construct two
separate batteries (on paper) indicating their total potential energy normalized per
coulomb or V.
2) Look up Fermi energy in a metal and write a sentence that describes it.
3) Look up the terms LUMO and HOMO and write a sentence that suggests how they relate
to the battery discussion here.
EEE3394.F14.Mod 1 WS 2
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