change and edit final paper

i wrote my final paper but the professor wants me to change some little things in the paper and do more research look what he said to me then edit on the same paper i need you to add and change in the same paper that i will submit at the end under “Fine Research of the three types of Countries” add The United States, Germany, and France as they are rich countries . add India as a poor country. middle income countries countries like Brazil or Turkey. then write for each each the GDP PER CAPITAL , and how rich is the country , what is the population for this country why is it considered as rich or middle or poor , how strict is the environmental law in this country and how much pollution do they have and why .At the start of your conclusion you should have a list of the countries you compare. In the list, say the name of each country, the average income in the country, and the pollution level. This will make for an easy comparison. I advise you to have a friend, or a peer tutor at the writing center, help revise this for grammar.
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Dai mogharbil
May 10, 2018
Air pollution
My research question
Whether wealth affects pollution laws? Air pollution law is something important because if the
air is not clean then it can cause many problems such as daises, some countries in the world
they have a strict air pollution laws and others do not so my research question is going to be
â??Do wealthier countries protect the environment moreâ? ?
Units
are the different countries that I am going to compare, the high â?? income countries or rich
countries are (Singapore, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, the united states, France and
Germany ), middle â??income or middle class countries are(UK, brazil and turkey ), The lowincome or poor countries will include( Nigeria, Kenya, Somalia and Uganda). The testing of the
hypothesis is going to be done by comparing different countries from different classes.
The independent variable
Whether a country is rich, middle, or poor based on the GDP per capita.
The dependent variable
Is going to be the amount of pollution in the country.
The research shows that the three is that the production and changes in the urban industrial
pollution are the main sources of economic growth, but they are also accompanied by air
pollution, (Welsch, 2006). The high-income countries are capable of controlling the air pollution
by ensuring that the mitigation measures are put in place. In the middle class, the industrial
revolution is very high such that the measures put in place make the buffering rate to be very
low, thus more greenhouse gases being released into the atmosphere. In low-income countries,
the industries are not very many, thus the low greenhouse gases release.
Hypothesis:
Which I am giving and educated guess, Rich countries have cleaner air in comparison to poor
countries, and Middle-class countries have more pollution.
Literature Review
According to the WHO (2016), the new air quality model shows that around 92% of the worldâ??s
populace survives in places that have poor worlds. According to the research that is done to
compare the relationship between the pollution and social, economic status of different
countries shows that the poor countries tend to pollute the environment more than the
middle-class countries. Moreover, the urban air pollution levels are very low than in highest
income countries, and lower levels most prevalent, western Pacific region, the Americas and
Europe. The air pollution that is brought up by the small particles and fine particles in the major
environmental risk that leads to health deterioration. The middle class and low-class countries
are capable of utilizing the mitigating measure to reduce the air pollution, but not as good as
the case of high -income countries. The measures that can be utilized to ensure the quality of
air is improved is to reduce the industrial smokestack emissions and increase use of renewable
energy such as solar and wind instead of using firewood and charcoal burning a source of fuel.
The policymakers should also ensure that the transport vehicles use only the pollution free or
less pollutant fuel. The other strategies that can be made include prioritizing rapid transit,
reusing and recycling pollutants among others. When the air pollution reduces the cost of
catering for the diseases brought up by the pollution reduces, (Welsch, 2006).
Nevertheless, the worthiness is measured by ensuring that the air that we breathe is very safe
and doesnâ??t lead to spread disease and some other lungs. The WHO report in the year 2016,
started that the unhealthy breath air is totaling almost 98%, causing more than million deaths
per year- deaths being related to pulmonary cardiovascular and among other uncommunicable
diseases. The number of people who are at risk of being affected by such diseases has increased
by a very high percentage in the entire world.
A recent report released by World Health Organization states 92 percent of people throughout
the world breathe unhealthy air and this results in nearly 3 million deaths a year. The biggest
problem associated with unhealthy air is cardiovascular, pulmonary, and uncommunicable
diseases. The majority of deaths take place in urban areas of low and middle-income countries.
It is important to note that pollution is not limited to just poor countries. Rather it is what the
rich countries do to ensure the safety of the people. In industrialized cities in the United States
or rich European countries, there are laws and regulations. Certain cities have many factories
which end up releasing a lot of pollution into the air. Just because it is a big and powerful
company in a city it does not mean that they can do whatever they want (Bearak 2016). There
are rules and regulations that must be followed to minimize pollution.
Clean Air Act, CAA, is a US federal law that regulates air emission for mobile and stationary
sources. As the name states, Clean Air Act aims to ensure that there is clean air to protect the
public health of people. CAA was established by the EPA, Environmental Protection Agency.
The EPA authorized laws such as National Ambient Air Quality Standards in order to ensure that
CAA is being properly carried out. Since the law was passed in 1970, CAA has been successful in
working to ensure there is clean air for the safety of the general public. Yet, as the United
States has laws and regulations to ensure clean air for its citizens, this is not the case in all
nations. There are many countries throughout the world that do not protect the air.
Every country in the world is out to ensure that it registers economic development, while the
move to grow economically has a direct correlation with environmental pollution. This is
because economic growth involves an increase of industries, automobiles as well as
mechanization which result in the release of global warming gases and which have a negative
effect on the environment. The different nationalities will strive to grow economically while
posing an air pollution effect on the environment until the point when the effects of air
pollution will start to have adverse effects. At such a level, countries start to readjust their
methods of production in the effort to reduce air pollution which results to reduced economic
growth. As result countries will strive to strike a balance between adverse effects of air
pollution and the extent of economic growth through policy. This paper aim at reviewing the
research works of STEPHAN HEICHEL, MARC DEBUS2 and CHRISTOPH KNILU on how political
parties impact the output of environmental policy in 18 OECD nationalities as well as the
research work of Thomas M. Selden research work on whether Kuznets curve for emissions of
air pollution is applicable when it comes to development and environmental quality.
Political Parties Impact on Output of Environmental Policy in 18 OECD nationalities between
1970 and 2000 by STEPHAN HEICHEL, MARC DEBUS2 and
CHRISTOPH KAILUA
It was found that political parties along with international bodies dealing with the environment
were found to influence the kind of environmental policies developed among the 18 OECD
nationalities in-between 1970 and 2000. The effect of political parties is as a result of the fact
that, the issue of policy making involve members of assembly or parliament and who are
politicians and so the issue of political parties must come into play in pushing their members to
pass a particular bill.
Research Question: Did political parties influence environmental policies made in 18 OECD
countries between 1970 and 2000?
Research Hypothesis: Political parties have had no impact on environmental policies made
between 1970 and 2000 in 18 OECD nationalities.
Dependent Variables: Extent of environmental pollution, and the decision of politicians to pass
environmental friendly policies in the OECD countries
Independent Variables: The need for a clean environment and the desire to have economically
stable countries. Observation Unites: Government partiers, GDP, and pollution levels
Kuznets curve for emissions of air pollution applicability in development and environmental
quality. Research question: Can the Kuznets curve be applied in studying interaction
development and environmental quality? .Hypothesis: Kuznets curve is not applicable in
studying the relationship between development and environmental pollution
Taking a look at the EPA in relation to CAA, the EPA is the organization that will make sure that
the CAA is followed out properly. The EPA will do the research to see how peopleâ??s health is
being affected by the pollution. To make sure that the general public is breathing cleaner air the
EPA comes up with different ways to implement clean air. Therefore, the EPA is an important
part of making sure that clean air is achieved in a proper way (Clean Air Act Overview).
Before forcing an administrative technique on the developing nations, we ought to audit the
know-how of the industrialized nations and additionally the rest that have executed marketbased approaches. How wide is the knowledge? What have we realized concerning the
circumstances basic for viable market-based arrangements? How thriving? After that, we will
be set up to think when and in addition wherever these strategies are probably going to work in
the developing nations.
In 1990, Congress required EPA to conduct periodic studies on the benefits and cost of Clean Air
Act. Lockwood takes a look at the laws passed in the 1970s to help the US create clean air. His
hypothesis is about the factors that lead to the Clean Air Act. Lockwood focuses on motivations
that led to clean air. He is considering factors such as though the law was passed over twenty
years ago, Congress wanted to ensure that the law was up to date. There should be an analysis
of the cost and effectiveness. Despite the fact that motivating force based ways to deal with
environmental regulate were being created by financial experts in the mid-1970s when a great
deal of the essential natural directions, and additional regulations, were being composed in the
U.S, none of the early controls and in addition laws used monetary mechanisms. Market-based
mechanisms started to make advances throughout the 1980s when regulators at the U.S
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) realized that they may be helpful in managing
troublesome Clean Air Act execution issues. Each stack at each controlled office had been
presented a release allowed (Lockwood, Alan, 2012). The Environmental Protection Agency
development enabled firms to exchange those grants inside and also remotely with the goal
that costly to regulate sources might transmit more, and also shabby to-regulate sources may
be urged to reduce. Lockwood takes a look at the cost-effectiveness of the act. In a nation
where there are laws about clean air, does it really work if there are no monetary benefits?
At first, Clean Air Act passed with every Senate member in favor of the act. As time went on this
shifted. In Fullerâ??s article, he discusses how clean air is an agenda for the government. He
wants to show that depending on political affiliation it can vary. Variables that he considers our
government and political affiliation. What was once something that all government members
could agree now depends on whether a candidate is Republican or Democrat? Slowly, there
were Senate members that had different views about the Act. Now, there were opposing views
on how the government should be involved in the environment and what things should be
priorities. Fuller (2014) points out that President Nixon made clean air a priority while he was
president. In order to emphasize his point, Fuller uses historical quotes. “As we sign this bill in
this room, we can look back and say, in the Roosevelt Room on the last day of 1970, we signed
a historic piece of legislation that put us far down the road toward a goal that Theodore
Roosevelt, 70 years ago, spoke eloquently about: a goal of clean air, clean water, and open
spaces for the future generations of America� (Fuller 2014). President Bush made the
environment one of the priorities in his campaign. Furthermore, Al Gore discussed problems
with the Ozone layer when he ran for President. In the 2012 elections, Republican candidates
suggested eliminating EPA to their platform. This means that in nearly 4 decades there is a
major shift in the way politicians view clean air in the US. Now, environmental policy is a
partisan issue. In the beginning, the environment was something that the people could agree
on. Yet, over time it has become an issue that the Democrats and Republicans can fight over.
Fuller, makes a note about the transformation of environmental policy throughout the years. It
is not simply what is good for the people rather, what will make the person in a government
position. Fuller focuses on the benefits of the Clean Air Act for the United States. As one of the
richest countries in the world, there are laws placed by the government to ensure that there is
clean air for the people. Fuller, focuses how the U.S. has been able to reach clean air.
As much as the government is involved in making sure there are clean air and way to minimize
the pollution, the people must be involved too. Opschoor hypothesizes if it’s not for the
government than there will not be clean air. People will not do things to be environmentally
conscious. Before going into detail about what the different countries are doing he talks about
how government plays a vital role. Often times it is the government that enforces laws and
regulations that are meant for clean air. Opschoor (1994), discusses the role of economic
instruments involved in the safety of the environment. Numerous European countries have
executed monetary mechanisms like charges on manure, fuel, and in addition other dirtying
inputs. For instance, France, Netherlands, as well as Germany, have gushing charge structures.
These are countries that are aware of the effects of pollution and they have realized that in
order to fix the problem there must be money. The money comes from the people. The
greater part of these developments is gone for increasing income for foundation speculation as
opposed to empowering pollution decrease. Opschoor gives examples of the difference
between rich and poor countries. The difference is that there are government implementations
or taxes that are ways that the people will make the air better for the people.
Amusingly, there are even cases from the countries of the comrade coalition, a large portion of
which used expenses and additionally fines on emanations as essential mechanisms of
environmental insurance. All things considered, contamination charges were paid out of the
delicate spending plans of state ventures and also subsequently had minimal shot affecting
undertaking conduct. At last, they have progressed toward becoming pay-to-contaminate plans
whose incomes bolster government environmental organizations (Opschoor 1994). Hence, the
people are doing things to have a safe environment because they are being forced by the
government. The government is often driven because of economic benefits. Should it matter
what is the reason as long as the environment is being taken care of, to provide a safe place for
the people to live in?
On the other hand, taking a look at a poor country such as India, Pakistan, or Bangladesh,
where nearly 40 percent of deaths are related to the pollution. Beark (2014), focuses on the
pollution problems in poor countries throughout the world. Beck’s point is that the people of
certain countries are living below poverty lines that clean air is not even something they think
about. Bearck hypothesizes that poor countries will not focus on clean air as long as there are
greater problems for the people to worry about. The problem is the people of poor countries
are trying to survive day to day. People who are poor are trying to figure out how to keep a
roof over their heads or find food to eat. Basic and simple necessities to live. Clean air is not on
the top of their priorities. When people are living in poor conditions it means that they are not
focused on pollution. In poor countries, they may not even be aware of the importance of
clean air. It is all neglected to fulfill basic needs. Break does an analysis based on the reason
why poor countries do not focus on getting rid of pollution.
Furthermore, taking a look at political and social changes in Central and Eastern Europe since
1989 it is clear that there was much neglect during to the Soviet rule. Greenspan (1992),
analyzes how socialism impacted the air quality in Central and Eastern Europe. Greenspan
hypothesizes Soviet rule neglected the air quality During the time of socialism, things that
would be for the greater good of the people, such as taking care of the environment were
highly neglected. At the same time, since the government was focused on themselves and not
the people this meant that air quality was not an important factor. Taking a look at the Soviet
Union it was not considered a rich country, rather a poor country. Therefore, when new
politicians came to power they were working strongly to put in new laws, including
environmental laws. There was a great support from the people towards environmental laws.
Living in an era of over 20 years where many basic needs were neglected, the people were
ready to have laws to regulate. At the same time, many foreign companies were interested in
going to work in Central and Eastern Europe. New laws meant new regulations had to be
followed. The companies that have been established in other countries would now be able to
expand. Hence, the financial aspect of this. As much as the people were interested in the laws
and regulations because they were hoping for a better way of life. The government was looking
for the economic aspect, as well as other companies (Greenspan 1992). Greenspan does a
thorough analysis of the reason people were welcoming of laws. Often times there are people
who oppose new laws and regulations because they think it will be more problems for them.
But in this case, the people want the laws because they think it will bring good and new life for
them.
As much as an author looks at rich countries verse poor countries, there is an important factor
to consider: globalization. Tosun hypothesizes that as the world changes and globalization
increases countries will have no choice. Variables that Tosun considers are the world,
globalization, corporations, and impact on the people. According to Tosun (2013), the increase
in environmental protection standards and governments committing to enforce the laws is due
to globalization. With globalization, there are more and more multinational corporations. This
means that they are interested in the financial gains from the environmental laws that are
being passed. In addition, we are living in an era where countries are more and more
connected. The thing is, the air is not limited to just one country. The more pollution that is in
one country the more likely the problems can spread to another country. Tosun states,� this
end, is described in detail changes in the regulation of air, soil, and water pollution and
sketched the adoption of restrictions on the commercial cultivation of GM maize and the SFM
principle in the period between 1990 and 2010.� When there are changes being made first the
laws must be changed. Then a group of people or companies that are able to carry out the
changes will have to start the process.
Taking a look at the various author’s each one has an analysis of the systems in place in
different parts of the world. Yet, the one thing in common is that many of the authors show
that clean air is often pushed by the governments and implemented by the people. Generally,
financial gains are what can push the laws. Does it really matter what is the reason that the
lawmakers are trying to make …
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