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Chapter 13â??s lessons will present information on setting up and maintaining an access control system, using badges and identification cards. The lesson for Chapter 14 will present standards and material specifications for perimeter fencing and design features and consideration for determining the best fencing type for a facility. Chapter 15 will present information on the different stages of fire, alarms, and other fire safety procedures, as well as planning and managing a fire safety program.What are the qualifications for biometrics to be used for sustained identification purposes?Why does an access control system need to be established and maintained?What are some access control procedures recommended to preserve the integrity of a card/badge ID system?What are the stages of fire?What are the phases of a fire safety inspection?
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Effective Physical Security
Fourth Edition
Chapter 14
Fence Standards
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
1
â?¼
Chain-link fence functions:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
14 Fence Standards
Recommendations
Gives notice of legal boundary/outermost limits
Assists in controlling/screening entries into a secured
area
Provides a zone for installing intrusion detection
equipment and CCTV
Deters casual intruders
Shows intent of intruder who tries to gain entry despite
the fence
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
2
Recommendations
â?¼
Chain-link fence functions (conâ??t)
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Delays access to facility
Psychological deterrent
Reduces number of security guards needed
Enhances detection capabilities
Demonstrates corporate concern for security
Cost-effective method of protecting facilities
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
3
Security Planning
â?¼
In-depth security planning focuses on:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Mission and function
Environmental concerns
Threats
Local area of facility to be secured
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
4
Security Planning
â?¼
A-B-C-D method to
show values of chainlink fencing in security
plan
â?¼
â?¼
AIDS to securityâ??
assists in use of other
security equipment
placement
BARRIERSâ??for
security (buildings,
walls, fences, etc.)
â?¼
â?¼
CONTROLSâ??support
physical security, tied
into vehicle gates and
pedestrian portals, etc.
DETERRENTSâ??
chain-link fence,
guards, lighting,
checkpoint control
procedures
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
5
Security Planning
â?¼
A-B-C-D method aspects reinforce and
support each other.
â?¼
â?¼
Sufficient obstacles to prevent an intruder
Chain link fence common denominator of
system
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Reduces overall risk
Secures environment
Reduces security costs
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
6
Material Specifications
â?¼
Listed in:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Chain-Link Fence Manufacturers Institute
Product Manual (CLFMI)
American Society of Testing Materials
(ASTM), volume 01.06
Federal Specification RR-F-191 K/GEN, May
14, 1990
ASTM F 1553, â??The Standard Guide for
Specifying Chain-Link Fence�
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
7
Framework
â?¼
Consists of:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Line posts
End posts
Corner posts
Gateposts
Top, mid, bottom, or brace rail
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
8
Framework
â?¼
Federal Specification and the CLFMI
â??Wind Load Guide for the Selection of Line
Post Spacing and Size� provides:
â?¼
Recommends, for various fence heights:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Choices of line post types
Post sizes
Spacing
Fabric sizes for wind loads
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
9
Recommendations for Chain-Link Fabric
â?¼
CLFMI Product Manual, ASTM, Federal
have specifications
â?¼
â?¼
Choices govern desired security level
Coating choices govern corrosion resistance
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
10
Recommendations for Chain-Link Fabric
â?¼
Gauge of wire in fabric offering security:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
11 gauge (0.120 in. diameter)â??minimum
break strength of 850 lbf
9 gauge (0.148 in. diameter)â??minimum
break strength of 1,290 lbf
6 gauge (0.192 in. diameter)â??minimum
break strength of 2,170 lbf
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
11
Recommendations for Chain-Link Fabric
â?¼
Mesh sizes considered:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
2-inch mesh
1-inch mesh
3/8-inch mesh
Consider:
â?¼
â?¼
Smaller the mesh size, more difficult to climb
Heavier the gauge wire, more difficult to cut
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
12
Recommendations for Chain-Link Fabric
â?¼
Mesh sizes available, in order of
penetration resistance/security:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Extremely high: 3/8-in. mesh 11 gauge
Very high: 1-in. mesh 9 gauge
High: 1-in. mesh 11 gauge
Greater: 2-in. mesh 6 gauge
Normal industrial: 2-in. mesh 9 gauge
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
13
Gates
â?¼
Only moveable part of a fence
â?¼
â?¼
Should be properly constructed and fitted
Chain-link gate specifications listed in:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
CLFMI Product Manual
ASTM
Federal Specifications
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
14
Gates
â?¼
Limit open size to:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Increase vehicular
security
Reduce possibility of
one vehicle passing
another
Reduces open-close
cycle time
â?¼
Cantilever slide gate
most effective for
vehicular security
â?¼
â?¼
Especially if electrically
operated and tied to
access control system
High-speed operators
available for some
applications
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
15
Gates
â?¼
Pedestrian/personnel gates can use:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Basic padlock
Electrical/mechanical lock
Keypad/card key system
Pre-hung pedestrian gates independent of
fence available to isolate gate from fence
lines.
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
16
Design Features and Considerations
â?¼
Basic design features
that enhance security:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Height
Eliminating top rail
Adding barbwire
Bolt or rivet barbwire
arms to post
Adding barbed tape
Adding bottom rail
Bury chain-link fabric
Signage
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Colored chain-link
fabric
Double row of security
fencing
Clear zone
Internal security
fencing
Peen all bolts
Sensor system
addition
Lighting addition
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
17
Installation
â?¼
Depends on:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Security level needed
Site conditions
Geographical location
Soil and weather
conditions
â?¼
Best documents to
assist process:
â?¼
â?¼
ASTM F 567:
â??Standard Practice for
Installation of ChainLink Fence�
CLFMI: â??Wind Load
Guide for the Selection
of Line Post Spacing
and Size.�
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
18
Project Inspection
â?¼
Important to verify project materials are in
compliance with contract specifications
â?¼
â?¼
Consider mandatory requirements and shop
drawings before starting the project
Ensure that proper products installed and
installation guidelines are provided
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
19
Project Inspection
â?¼
Fence specifications information can be
obtained from:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Chain-Link Manufacturers Institute
Standardization Documents Order Desk
ASTM
Construction Specifications Institute
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
20
Effective Physical Security
Fourth Edition
Chapter 13
Access Control and Badges
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
1
â?¼
Must be established and maintained to preclude
unauthorized entry
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Prevent introduction of harmful devices/materials
Minimize misappropriate or materials/information
compromise
Contributing to access control system:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
13 Access Control and Badges
Access Control
Access control rosters
Personnel recognition
ID cards
Badge exchange procedures
Personnel escorts
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
2
Designated Restricted Areas
â?¼
Installation commander responsible for
establishing restricted areas for:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Enforcement of security measures
Exclusions of unauthorized personnel
Intensified controls in areas requiring special
protection
Protection of classified information/critical
equipment/materials
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
3
Degree of Security
â?¼
â?¼
Depends on nature,
sensitivity or
importance of security
interest.
Restricted areas
classified as:
â?¼
Controlledâ??usually
near or surrounding
limited area; entry only
for personnel with
need of access
â?¼
â?¼
Limitedâ??within close
proximity of security
interest; escorts and
other internal
restrictions
Exclusionâ??restricted
area containing the
security interest
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
4
Access Control
â?¼
Security protection of restricted area:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Subversive-activity controlâ??protection against
actions adversely affecting national defense
Not applicable against common pilferage
Must be designated in writing by management
Must have warning signs
Installation may have varying degrees of
security.
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
5
Considerations
â?¼
Restricted area consideration include:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Survey and analysis of installation, missions,
security interests
Size and nature of interest being protected
How sensitive and compromising interest is
Evaluate security interest according to
importance.
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
6
Restricted Area Access Control
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Parking areas for privately owned vehicles
established outside of restricted area
Minimum number of vehicle entrances
Physical protective measures (fences,
gates, window bars) to be installed
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
7
Employee Screening
â?¼
Personnel screenings must be part of
standard personnel policies.
â?¼
â?¼
Security questionnaire
Careful investigation:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Character
Associations
Suitability for employment
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
8
Employee Screening
â?¼
Sources for employment investigative data
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
State and local police
Former employers
Public records
Credit agencies
Schools
References
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
9
Identification System
â?¼
Provides for:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Personal recognition
Security ID cards/badges
Standard ID cards for unrestricted areas
â?¼
Security ID card/badge for restricted areas
â?¼
For shifts with 30 or more employees
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
10
ID Methods
â?¼
Most common access control ID systems:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Personal-recognition
Single card/badge system
Card/badge-exchange
Multiple-card/-badge
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
11
Personal-Recognition System
â?¼
Entry granted based on:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Individual being recognized
Need to enter established
Listed on access control roster
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
12
Single-Card/Badge System
â?¼
Badge depicts specific letters, numbers,
colors to show permission to enter certain
areas
â?¼
â?¼
Not recommended for high-security areas
ID cards/badges often remain in bearerâ??s
possession in off hours
â?¼
Opportunity to alter or duplicate
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
13
Card/Badge-Exchange System
â?¼
Two cards/badges with identical photos
â?¼
â?¼
Each has different background color, or one
badge has overprint
One presented at entrance to specific area,
exchanged for second
â?¼
â?¼
Possession of second badge only in that area
Greater degree of security
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
14
Multiple-Card/Badge System
â?¼
Greatest degree of security
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Cards exchange at entrance of each security
area
Card/badge info identical, can compare
Maintained at each area only for those with
access to that area
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
15
Mechanized/Automated Systems
â?¼
Building card-access systems, biometricaccess readers, including:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Coded device (keypad or combination lock)
Credential device (magnetic strip, proximity
card readers)
Biometric device (fingerprint reader, retina
scanner)
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
16
Mechanized/Automated Systems
â?¼
Ideal for highly
sensitive situations
â?¼
â?¼
Controlled process in
controlled environment
One techniqueâ??
dimension
comparisons
â?¼
Dimension of full hand
compared to previously
stored data
â?¼
â?¼
Reinforces security
through rapid change
capability
Wide range of
systems to consider:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Environment
Security needs
Planning
Cost
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
17
Card/Badge Specifications
â?¼
Card/badge authorization info, including:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Designation of areas where badge is required
Limitations placed on bearer
Required presentation when entering/leaving
How card/badge should be worn or carried
What to do in case of loss/damage to card
Disposition of card/badge on termination
Prerequisites for reissuing card/badge
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
18
Visitor Identification/Control
â?¼
Implement procedures to ID visitors
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Must stay with assigned escort
Ensure visitors stay in areas related to visit
Approval at least 24 hours in advance
Where needed, prepare agenda and escort
Measures to recover visitor card/badge
Physical security precautions
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
19
Visitor Identification/Control
â?¼
Visitor categories:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Persons with whom every installation/facility
has business
Visiting for personal or education purposes
Visitors sponsored by government (i.e.,
foreign nationals)
Guided tours to select parts of facility
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
20
Visitor Identification/Control
â?¼
Visitor ID/control mechanisms include:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Establishing authority for admitting visitors
and creating limitations
Positive ID of visitors; contact to validate visit
Visitor registration forms
Visitor ID cards/badges
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
21
Visitors
â?¼
Before allowing visitor into restricted area:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Contact person being visited
Verify visitorâ??s identity
Issue badge
Complete registration forms
Assign escort
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
22
Very Important Persons
â?¼
Procedures for
admitting VIPs into
restricted areas
Special
consideration/coordin
ation with protocol
office
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Civilians working
under govt contract:
â?¼
â?¼
Coordinate with
procurement office
Identify movementcontrol procedures
24-hour advanced
notice desirable
Agenda if appropriate
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
23
Others
â?¼
Cleaning Teams
â?¼
â?¼
Get technical advice
from physical-security
office on internal
controls for each
building
May include providing
escorts
â?¼
DOD Employees after
Normal Operating
Hours
â?¼
â?¼
Coordinate with
security manager
Notify security of:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Workerâ??s presence
Type of work
Duration of work
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
24
Enforcement Measures
â?¼
Enforcement most vulnerable link in ID
system
â?¼
â?¼
Security forces must be proactive.
Need positive enforcement measures,
including access control
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
25
Access Control
â?¼
Measures may include:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Designating alert security personnel at entry
control points
Ensuring quick perception and good judgment
Frequent irregular checks of assigned areas
Uniform method of handling or wearing
security ID cards/badges
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
26
Access Control
â?¼
Measures may include (conâ??t):
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Designating entry and exit control points of
restricted areas
Lighting at control points
Educating security forces and employees on
access control measures, including reporting
unauthorized individuals
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
27
Access Control
â?¼
Measures may include (conâ??t):
â?¼
â?¼
Positioning ID card/badge racks or containers
at entry control points so they are accessible
to guard personnel only
Appointing custodian to accomplish control
procedures of cards/badges
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
28
Access Control
â?¼
Control procedures in
ID system include:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Accurate written
record or log listing of
all cards/badges
Authentication of
records and logs
Periodic inventory of
records by manager
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Prompt invalidation of
lost cards/badges
Controls within
restricted areas to
determine number of
persons
Two-person rule
Procedures to control
visitor movement
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
29
Sign/Countersign, Duress Code
â?¼
â?¼
Method of verifying
identity primarily used
in tactical
environment
According to local
SOP
â?¼
Sign/countersign or
code-word procedures
should be changed
immediately if
compromised.
â?¼
Duress Code
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Simple word or phrase
to alert other security
personnel to alert that
the person is under
duress.
Need planning and
rehearsal
Code changed
frequently
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
30
Access Control Rosters
â?¼
Personnel admission to restricted areas to
those listed on the roster
â?¼
Maintained at access control points
â?¼
â?¼
Current, verified, accounted for by manager
Admission by anyone not on the list subject to
specific approval by security or other manager
â?¼
May require escort
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
31
Control Methodsâ??Escorts
â?¼
Escorts chosen because:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Ability to accomplish tasks
Knowledge of area
May be guard-force or from area visited
Local regulations and SOPs
Personnel on access list may be admitted
without an escort.
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
32
Control Methodâ??Two-Person Rule
â?¼
Prohibits access by a lone individual
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Can watch the other for incorrect or
unauthorized procedures
Team present for any applicable safety and
security requirements
To be enforced constantly by team
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
33
Control Methodâ??Two-Person Rule
â?¼
Used in other aspects of physical security:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
To controlled access to vital equipment and
material
To control access to funds and possibility of
falsification of accounts
To control delivery or receipt for materials to
stop pilferage
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
34
Security Controls of Packages, Personal
Property, and Vehicles
â?¼
Package-control system to prevent:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Pilferage
Sabotage
Espionage
Package checking system at entrance gate
â?¼
â?¼
If possible, inspect all outgoing packages
except those properly authorized
If not, frequent unnannouced spot checks
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
35
Security Controls of Packages, Personal
Property, and Vehicles
â?¼
Includes control of anything that can be
used to hide property/material
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Searches only according to local SOP
Installation POVs registered with PM or
physical security office
Temporary decal or ID tag for visitor vehicles
â?¼
Distinct from permanent personnel
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
36
Security Controls of Packages, Personal
Property, and Vehicles
â?¼
Systematic search when entering/exiting a
restricted area:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Vehicle interior
Engine compartment
Top and undercarriage of vehicle
Battery and cargo compartments
External air breathers
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
37
Security Controls of Packages, Personal
Property, and Vehicles
â?¼
Trucks and railroad cars in restricted areas
should be supervised and inspected.
â?¼
Entrances controlled by locked gates
â?¼
â?¼
Manned by security personnel when unlocked
ID cards/badges used
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
38
Security Controls of Packages, Personal
Property, and Vehicles
â?¼
â?¼
All vehicles entering/leaving protected area
pass through gate with security forces
Examine drivers, passengers, vehicles:
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
â?¼
Appropriate entries in security log
Check of operatorâ??s license
Verification of seal number with shipping
document
Examination of seal for tampering
Copyright © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
39
Security Controls of Packages, Personal
Property, and Vehicles
â?¼
Assign escorts for incoming tr …
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