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Socio-economic factors underlying trending youth risk behaviour
in Tshwane
1
Table of Contents
CHAPTER ONE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3
1. INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
1.0 INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3
1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5
1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5
1.6 RATIONALE OF THE STUDY……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
1.7. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6
2. CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW ……………………………………………………………………………….. 6
2.0. INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
2.1. LITERATURE REVIEW ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6
2.2. MARRIAGE AND DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
2.3. UNEMPLOYMENT ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
3. CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY …………………………………………………………………. 6
3.0. INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
3.1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7
3.2.1 Study setting …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7
3.2.2 Study participants/target population …………………………………………………………………… 7
3.3 SAMPLING ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
3.4 DATA COLLECTION ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7
3.5 DATA ANALYSIS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
3.6 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
3.6.1. Informed Consent and informed assent ……………………………………………………………….. 8
3.6.2. Confidentiality ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
3.6.3. Anonymity …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
3.6.4. Acknowledgment ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 8
REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
2
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of Study
High-risk behaviour among youth has become a significant public health and social problem
in many parts of the world. Guzman & Bosch (2007) regard risk behaviours as those that can
hinder youth well-being and future growth and development successes and can also impact
on relations with those around them. Examples of youth risk behaviour include violent or
aggressive engagements such as fights; a smoking; alcohol and other substance abuse; and
use illicit drugs. Early sexual and debut, another example of youth risk behaviour, has been
associated with later delinquency among young people, lower academic achievement, and
early childbearing (Peltzer, Pengpid & Mashego 2006). Similarly teenage pregnancy is has
been shown to result in young girls having lower educational achievements, limited social
relationships with other peers, and lower academic achievement (Wheeler, 2010, Lohman &
Billing, 2010). .
Common risk behaviors patterns in South African youth include sexual misconduct, drug
abuse as well as alcohol abuse amongst others. The World Health Organization (WHO) noted
alcoholism as a concern among South African youth. All that was contemplating and having
a negative impact on the economic and social standards resulting in increased accrued social
costs like crime, domestic violence as well as sexual offenses against mainly women and
children that are killing the morals existing in the society and hence the increased poverty and
levels of deadly diseases (Pollin 2007). Such risky behavior also poses a greater health hazard
to the youth themselves and may shorten their livelihood and lifespan. Females are
commonly led to sexual misconducts as compared to their male peer who becomes more
exposed to drug abuse, both falling victims of peer pressure and wanting to fit in and belong
as a result of identity crises phase.
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There are also some emerging high-risk behaviors among the youth that have been paid
relatively little attention. In South Africa, these behaviors, which are being brought to the
fore by anecdotal and media report include â??mavusoâ?, â??blesser-blesseeâ? relationships, and the
â??Bluetoothâ? practice. Mavuso is a Zulu word which directly translates “to the waking up
process”. In township dialect, however, it refers to money given to a woman the morning
after she spent a night with a man. The process is that young women volunteer to attend
social gatherings known as Mavuso Stokvels where they can be picked by males from that
gathering for sexual pleasure in exchange for a standard fee determined by the host of that
particular Stokvel. The attendance, cherry-picking of partners and intimate deeds are
consensual with a clear understanding for both parties that there will be no strings attached
during and after the transaction. “Blesser-blessee” relationships, on the other hand, can be
referred to as intergenerational affairs between young women and much older men (known as
blessers). The men are the main financial or material providers the young women (known as
blesses), who in return afford their company and sexual favors for their blessers. It is clear
that in both mavuso practices and blesser-blessee relations, gender power dynamics can be
identified with males dominating material financial power over economically disadvantaged
females (Kalipeni, Flynn & Pope 2009).
Among young men, one of the emerging risky behaviours is the â??bluetoothâ? practice which
entails the transfusion of blood between two or more drug users. The commonly used drug is
Nyaope, a concoction of powder said to be mixed with rat-poison, heroin, antiretroviral
(ARV) drugs and marijuana/dagga. A single doseâ??s average street value is about R30.00 and
is easily accessible from street corners and taverns around Tshwane townships. The blood is
drawn by using a syringe from someone who is high on nyaope drug to another drug user
with the belief of acquiring the drug content and be high too. The self-injection process of
sharing intoxicated blood is set to be a cost-effective measure of keeping more than one user
high with only a single dose.
With a focus on the Mavuso and Bluetooth practices, the objective of this study is to explore
the social and economic factors underlying the foregoing high-risk behaviors among young
men and women in Tshwane.
4
1.3 Problem statement
As stated above the prevalence of many of the emerging high-risk behaviours among young
people have been highlighted by t anecdotal evidence and popular media outltes such as the a
TV programme Checkpoint, and newspapers such as The Daily Sun and the Citizen. This
media exposure also opened a platform for social media discussions that reflected different
opinions on underlying factors. The main concern seem to be on the health, social, economic
as well as crime-related implications of these behaviours. The researcherâ??s observations are
that these-risk behaviours are prevalent in the community of Tshwane, hence the focus on the
capital city.
1.4 Research question
The main research question that will guide this study is: What are the main social and
economic factors that underlie the increasing prevalence of trending high-risk behaviours
among young people in Tshwane.
1.5 Objectives of the study
The broad objective of the study is to explore the main social and economic factors that
underlie the increasing prevalence of trending high-risk behaviours among young people in
Tshwane with a particular focus on mavuso and â??Bluetoothâ? practices. The specific
objectives are to:
1. To explore the processes and characteristics of the mavuso and â??Bluetoothâ? practices
2. To explore the characteristics of young people involved in these practices
3. To understand the social and economic factors underlying these practice
4. To explore the implications of these practices on the lives of the young people and
their families
5. To explore possible strategies to address these behaviours.
1.6 Rationale of the study
Apart from social media platforms and television interviews, little academic research has
been conducted on emerging high-risk behaviours among young people. However given the
5
potential of these behaviours to impact the lives of youth and society, it is important to
understand the risk factors of these factors and to explore possible strategies to abate or
prevent those risks. In doing this, the study will be in line with the call made in some
national policies such as the Integrated Youth Development Strategy (IYDS) (2011) that
pushes for the mandate of ensuring health and wellbeing of the youth, social cohesion and
national youth services in South Africa.
1.7. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
To achieve its objectives, the study will draw on the framework used in their study of unsafe
sexual behaviour in South African youth. The framework, which is closely aligned to
Bronfenbrenner’s social ecological theory posits that the factors that promote risk behaviours
or create barriers to safer practices are structured according to three domains: personal
factors; the proximal environment (including interpersonal factors, and the immediate living
environment); and the broader social context (including structural and cultural factors).
Personal risk factors include knowledge, beliefs, perceptions of being at risk.
Proximal factors are those linking to family or peer’s practices, beliefs, and expectations.
Distal factors can be linked to proximal poverty.
2.1. LITERATURE REVIEW
3.1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research design
This study will adopt an exploratory design using qualitative methodologies. Explain here
what an exploratory design is. Qualitative research methodology is a method of social inquiry
that is case-oriented, in-depth and involves ways to enquire and find information about social
phenomena using small numbers of populations.
in an interaction or society in exposure to risky behaviours among the youth
6
3.2.1 Study setting
The study will be conducted in the City of Tshwane, which is the capital city of South Africa,
in the Gauteng province. . The area is chosen because of the prevalence of risky behaviour
among the youth. Explain exactly which parts of Tshwane you will target and why. See how
Azande explained why she chose Brooklyn and Sunnyside
3.2.2 Study participants/target population
The target population will be youth, aged between 18 and 34 years, residing in the City of
Tshwane State more criteria apart from the age, what other characteristics will you expect
your study participants to have and why? Are you only going to interview youth or key
informants as well? Go back to your specific objectives and do the exercise we did in class:
From whom/where will you get the best information to fulfil each objective and then decide
the best data collection method for that.
3.3 Selection of study particpants
Purposive sampling will be used Purposive sampling is a form of non-probability sampling
where participants are chosen based on ethnography, a study of people in their specialized or
cultural environment. It helps to understand and get a holistic view of people’s perceptions,
behaviors, and experiences. In this case, participants will be chosen for their knowledge and
participation in bluetooth and mavuso sexual activity. The sample size
3.4 Data collection
3.5 Data analysis
Inductive approach will be used to analyse qualitative evaluation data which will help to
summarise raw data in brief format. An inductive analysis will also help in framework
development of experiences that reflect on raw data and can give reliable and effective
results. It will provide simplified, reliable findings of the focused evaluation.
Analysis of data will be done by coding responses from the data collection tool into different
categories from the variables that will be explored, such as clustering responses according to
socio-demographic characteristics of respondents, age, parity, sexual behaviours and attitudes
plus risk perceptions. Audiotapes and other material used will be transcribed.
Youth and Employee Thematic Discussions and Analysis
7
3.6 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
The study is done as part of the University of Pretoriaâ??s academic requirement therefore the
Universityâ??s ethics committee will have to check that the institutionâ??s ethics committee
regulations will be adhered to, Universityâ??s ethical clearance is fundamental. Four main basic
ethical elements will be considered i.e. protection from harm, informed consent, the right to
privacy and honestly with professional colleagues. Since this study will be about human
beings, zero tolerance against any form of harmful exposure be it physical, emotional,
psychological, etc. will be ensured. Participants will be identified through the purposive
sampling as indicated in section 3.3. Participants will be entering as volunteers and will be
made aware that they can withdraw at any point when they feel any form of discomfort or
pressure.
Confidentiality is also guaranteed and no participantâ??s real name will be exposed during and
after the completion of the study and report writing. Plagiarism will also be avoided as per
Universityâ??s Research code of conduct.
3.6.1. Informed Consent
All participation in the study will be fully voluntary, and no one will be coaxed to participate.
They will be given consent forms to sign before the beginning of sessions. To ensure that the
participants understand well, a letter indicating that the study is done as an academic exercise
for the University of Pretoria will be shown to any of the participants and community leaders.
Interviews will be conducted anonymously, no name required from participants.
3.6.2. Confidentiality
All the information collected in the study will be treated as confidential, and no person other
than the researcher and the University authorities will get access to the information. To
comply with accepted ethical standards, the researcher will have to take the following
measures: no names of individuals will be recorded in the report and to ensure
confidentiality, data will be transcribed, typed and analyzed by the researcher (myself).
3.6.3. Anonymity
Participants’ names will not appear anywhere in the reports, or conference papers.
Pseudonyms will be used, and no descriptions will be used that can lead to easy identification
of the research participant by anyone.
8
References
Banerjee, A. V. 2007. Why has unemployment risen in the new South Africa. Cambridge,
MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Chimanikire, D. P., & Codesria. 2009. Youth and higher education in Africa: The cases of
Cameroon, South Africa, Eritrea and Zimbabwe. Dakar: Council for the
Development of Social Science Research in Africa.
Fairlamb, C. D. 1990. Economic factors affecting human fertility in the developing areas of
South Africa. Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal.
Kalipeni, E., Flynn, K. C. & Pope, C. 2009. Strong women, dangerous times: Gender and
HIV/AIDS in Africa. New York: Nova Science Publishers.
Kundu, A. 2012. Sociological theory. New Dehli: Dorling Kindersley.
Mwiturubani, D. A. 2009. Youth, HIV/AIDS and social transformations in Africa. Dakar,
Senegal: Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa.
Nattrass, N. 2004. The moral economy of AIDS in South Africa. Cambridge [England:
Cambridge University Press.
Nattrass, N. 2004. The moral economy of AIDS in South Africa. Cambridge [England:
Cambridge University Press.
Nattrass, N., & University of Cape Town. 2008. Sex, poverty and HIV. Cape Town, South
Africa: Centre for Social Science Research, University of Cape Town.
Nur, L. K., & International Islamic University Malaysia. 2014. An exploration on the
decision-making process in youths engaging in risky behaviours: The case of
premarital sex. Kuala Lumpur: Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and
Human Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia.
Obi, A. 2011. Institutional constraints to small farmer development in Southern Africa.
Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers.
Peltzer, K., Pengpid, S., & Mashego, T. -A. 2006. Youth sexuality in the context of
HIV/AIDS in South Africa. New York: Nova Science Publishers.
Pollin, R. 2007. An employment-targeted economic program for South Africa. Cheltenham,
UK: Edward Elgar.
Thornton, A. C. 2012. Urban agriculture in South Africa: A study of the Eastern Cape
Province.
9
World Health Organization. 2005. Alcohol use and sexual risk behaviour: A cross-cultural
study in eight countries. Geneva: Author.
Zhou, D. 2011. Determinants of risky sexual behaviour among young adults of South Africa.
University of the Witwatersrand.
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