Ethics in Your Thinking

Based on your prior knowledge and Chapter 7 of the ebook (attached), what does it mean to use ethics in your thinking?
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EDITION 1
21ST CENTURY SKILLS
CRITICAL THINKING AND PROBLEM SOLVING
A Grand Canyon University Media Publication
FIND YOUR PURPOSE
21st Century Skills:
Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
Edition 1
A Grand Canyon University Media Publication
CHAPTERS. 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
IMPRINT. ART DIRECTION, PERMISSIONS
Imprint
Contributors
Executive Editor: Declan Joyce
Consulting Editors: Mark Alexander and Nicole Quow-Thomason
Assistant Editor: Alexis DiVincenzo
Copy Editor: Lindsay Harrel
Instructional Designer: Ryan Hughes
Art Direction
Senior Art Director: Miranda Hildebrand
Art Development and Design / Photography: David Pinter
Illustrations: Brian Buckles
Copyright Information
Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, in any form
or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Photography Credits and Illustrations: Grand Canyon University, Copyright © 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
Permissions Contact
Grand Canyon University
3300 W Camelback Rd
Phoenix, AZ 85017
602.639.7500
PAGE iv
CHAPTERS. 1
2
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4
5
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7
INTRODUCTION. ABOUT THIS BOOK
ABOUT THIS
BOOK
The previous two classes you took at Grand Canyon University, UNV103 and UNV-104, were designed to equip you with some of the skills you
will need to succeed in college. So far, you have learned how to manage
your time, take effective notes, build study skills, and search for and
evaluate resources.
In this class, PHI-105, we will continue the process of building your
information literacy by developing your critical thinking and problemsolving skills. At the college level, you must be able to support your
opinions. If you are confronted with problems or challenges, you must
be able to solve them creatively and constructively. This book is designed
to help you develop these skills.
The book also features a number of shorter articles on famous individuals
from different walks of life who have excelled at solving problems or
at approaching them in innovative ways. From George Orwell to Jane
Goodall, from Frederick Douglass to Abraham Lincoln, these individuals
demonstrate what is possible when the human mind is freed to think
critically and solve problems.
PAGE v
CHAPTERS. 1
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7
TABLE OF CONTENTS. CHAPTER ONE
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
CHAPTER ONE. Critical Thinking, Memory, and Forgetting
by Marti Abitheira
TOPICS
The Amazing Brain……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
Whole-Brain Thinking………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2
Memory……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2
Short-Term Memory________________________________________________________________3
Long-Term Memory_________________________________________________________________4
Forgetting……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4
Why We Forget……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
Retrieval Failure______________________________________________________________________5
Interference__________________________________________________________________________5
Failure to Store_______________________________________________________________________6
Motivated Forgetting_________________________________________________________________6
What Defines Critical Thinking?………………………………………………………………………………… 6
Obstacles to Critical Thinking……………………………………………………………………………………. 8
Assumption vs. Fact__________________________________________________________________8
Thinking Superficially_________________________________________________________________8
Jumping to Conclusions_______________________________________________________________8
All-or-None Thinking_________________________________________________________________8
Benefits of Critical Thinking………………………………………………………………………………………. 9
Exercises/Food for Thought……………………………………………………………………………………….. 10
Questions…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10
CRITICAL THINKING SIDEBARS. By Declan Joyce
Problem Solvers: Eratosthenes…………………………………………………………………………………… 4
Critical Thinkers: Jane Goodall…………………………………………………………………………………… 8
PAGE
vi
CHAPTERS. 1
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TABLE OF CONTENTS. CHAPTER ONE, TWO
TABLE OF CONTENTS. CONTINUED
REFERENCES
References…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….11
CHAPTER TWO. Perception, by R. Jacob Aroz
TOPICS
Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….12
Perception…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….13
The Five Senses…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….13
The Deception of the Senses/Misperception……………………………………………………………….16
Prewriting Strategies……………………………………………………………………………………………………17
Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….19
Food for Thought Exercise……………………………………………………………………………………………20
Three Perspectives Brainstorm_______________________________________________________ 20
CRITICAL THINKING SIDEBARS. By Declan Joyce
Altered Perception: Sergei Eisenstein………………………………………………………………………… 14
Problem Solver: John Harrison…………………………………………………………………………………… 20
REFERENCES
References…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….22
PAGE
vii
CHAPTERS. 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
TABLE OF CONTENTS. CHAPTER THREE
TABLE OF CONTENTS. CONTINUED
CHAPTER THREE. Emotion and Emotional Intelligence
by Kristen DiCarlo
TOPICS
Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….23
Opening Questions……………………………………………………………………………………………………….23
Emotional Intelligence and Making Decisions…………………………………………………………….24
Emotional Bias_______________________________________________________________________ 24
Enculturation________________________________________________________________________ 25
Denial and Rationalization__________________________________________________________ 26
Cognitive Distortions……………………………………………………………………………………………………26
Always Being Right__________________________________________________________________ 26
Global Labeling______________________________________________________________________ 27
Emotional Reasoning________________________________________________________________ 27
Shoulds______________________________________________________________________________ 27
Blaming_____________________________________________________________________________ 27
Personalization______________________________________________________________________ 28
Catastrophizing______________________________________________________________________ 28
Overgeneralization__________________________________________________________________ 28
Polarized Thinking___________________________________________________________________ 28
Filtering_____________________________________________________________________________ 28
Developing a Thesis Statement……………………………………………………………………………………29
Exercises……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….31
Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….31
CRITICAL THINKING SIDEBARS. By Declan Joyce
Critical Thinkers: Nellie Bly………………………………………………………………………………………… 25
Altered Perception: Orson Welles………………………………………………………………………………..29
PAGE
viii
CHAPTERS. 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
TABLE OF CONTENTS. CHAPTER THREE, FOUR
TABLE OF CONTENTS. CONTINUED
REFERENCES
References…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….32
CHAPTER FOUR. Fallacies, by Elizabeth Larson, Thomas Dyer, and John Steele
TOPICS
Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….33
Deductive Fallacies……………………………………………………………………………………………………….34
Inductive Fallacies………………………………………………………………………………………………………..35
Reasoning Fallacies………………………………………………………………………………………………………36
Analogical Order…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..36
Analogical Reasoning……………………………………………………………………………………………………36
The Classic Radiation Problem_______________________________________________________ 37
Argument by Analogy…………………………………………………………………………………………………..37
Premise 1____________________________________________________________________________ 38
Premise 2____________________________________________________________________________ 38
Conclusion___________________________________________________________________________ 38
â?¢ Relevance……………………………………………………………………….39
â?¢ Truth………………………………………………………………………………39
â?¢ Number of Instances………………………………………………………..39
â?¢ Differences……………………………………………………………………..39
A Famous Analogy………………………………………………………………………………………………………..40
Persuasive Essay Outline……………………………………………………………………………………………..41
Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………42
Focus Questions……………………………………………………………………………………………………………43
The Scientific Method…………………………………………………………………………………………………..44
PAGE ix
CHAPTERS. 1
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TABLE OF CONTENTS. CHAPTER FOUR, FIVE
TABLE OF CONTENTS. CONTINUED
Scientific Method in Everyday Life………………………………………………………………………………45
Argument 1__________________________________________________________________________ 46
Argument 2__________________________________________________________________________ 46
Argument 3__________________________________________________________________________ 46
Key Points to Remember………………………………………………………………………………………………46
CRITICAL THINKING SIDEBARS. By Declan Joyce
Problem Solvers: Carl Jones……………………………………………………………………………………….. 37
Great Persuaders: Frederick Douglass……………………………………………………………………….. 42
REFERENCES
References…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….47
CHAPTER FIVE. Thinking and Language, by Elizabeth Larson
TOPICS
Opening Questions……………………………………………………………………………………………………….48
Relationship Between Thinking and Language……………………………………………………………49
The Innateness of Language…………………………………………………………………………………………49
The Acquisition of Language………………………………………………………………………………………..50
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis/Linguistic Relativity…………………………………………………………….50
Does the Language We Speak Impact Our Perception?______________________________ 53
PAGE x
CHAPTERS. 1
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TABLE OF CONTENTS. CHAPTER FIVE
TABLE OF CONTENTS. CONTINUED
Figurative Language……………………………………………………………………………………………………..54
Similes_______________________________________________________________________________ 54
Metaphors___________________________________________________________________________ 54
Idioms_______________________________________________________________________________ 54
Symbolism…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….54
Language in a Cultural Context……………………………………………………………………………………55
Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning………………………………………………………………………………55
Deductive Reasoning________________________________________________________________ 56
â?¢ Major Premise……………………………………………………………….. 56
â?¢ Minor Premise……………………………………………………………….. 56
â?¢ Conclusion…………………………………………………………………….. 56
Inductive Reasoning…………………………………………………………………………………………………….57
Generalizations______________________________________________________________________ 58
Cause and Effect_____________________________________________________________________ 58
Analogies____________________________________________________________________________ 58
First Draft……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..59
One Final Thought………………………………………………………………………………………………………..60
Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………61
CRITICAL THINKING SIDEBARS. By Declan Joyce
Critical Thinkers: George Orwell………………………………………………………………………………….51
Altered Perception: The AIDA Model…………………………………………………………………………..58
REFERENCES
References…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….62
PAGE
xi
CHAPTERS. 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
TABLE OF CONTENTS. CHAPTER SIX, SEVEN
TABLE OF CONTENTS. CONTINUED
CHAPTER SIX. Communication and Persuasion, by Thomas Dyer
TOPICS
Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….63
The Art of Persuasion…………………………………………………………………………………………………..64
Ethics in Persuasion……………………………………………………………………………………………………..65
Manipulation………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..65
Avoiding Bias………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..66
Informative, Explanatory, and Persuasive Writing……………………………………………………..67
Assessing a Persuasive Argument………………………………………………………………………………..68
Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………72
CRITICAL THINKING SIDEBARS. By Declan Joyce
Great Persuaders: Abraham Lincoln…………………………………………………………………………….69
Altered Perception: Political Advertising…………………………………………………………………….71
REFERENCES
References…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….72
CHAPTER SEVEN. Creative Thinking, by John Steele
TOPICS
Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….73
Writing Process Recap………………………………………………………………………………………………….75
PAGE xii
CHAPTERS. 1
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TABLE OF CONTENTS. CHAPTER SEVEN, APPENDIX A
TABLE OF CONTENTS. CONTINUED
Thesis 1_____________________________________________________________________________ 75
Thesis 2_____________________________________________________________________________ 75
Thesis 3_____________________________________________________________________________ 75
Persuasive Writing Final Draft Checklist…………………………………………………………………….78
A Final Word…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………80
Key Points to Remember………………………………………………………………………………………………81
CRITICAL THINKING SIDEBARS. By Declan Joyce
Critical Thinkers: Jean-Francois Champollion…………………………………………………………….76
Problem Solvers: Humphry Davy…………………………………………………………………………………80
REFERENCES
References…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….82
APPENDIX A. Supplemental Notes and Information
SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION
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