Answer the questions with 300-400 words each:Gaining Insights, Exploring New Opportunitiesâ?¢ Making a Decision on the Unknown – When you want to explore the effectiveness of a new venture, product, or opportunity, what is typically your approach as it relates to collecting information and assessment?Motivating EmployeesExperiencing organizational success depends on employee performance in relation to goals set by their managers and employees.â?¢ Referencing the Latham text book, how do you set your own goals for driving high performance?Cite in all posts, preferred method is APA. In addition, please note terms utilized in the Textbooks, please include 2- 3 terms in your weekly posts
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Week 6 â?? Assigning Meaning to Data
When you have collected all of your data (either quantitative or qualitative information), you can begin to assess meaning in the data. You can assess
meaning in the information through descriptive values. For example, numerical data can have a â??level of measurementâ? detailing a relationship between
the values and the attributes of a variable. This is expressed as nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio in the levels of measurement. To note, having levels of
measurement also means there is a hierarchy of measurement with nominal being the lowest and ratios being the most desirable and value adding.
Planning for Data Collection
When you have all of the information that is available, and the quality of information is ensured, you can move to the next step in the Evidenced-based
Management process. This stage of the process is broken down into the following sections:
Determine the Data Collection Method
Determine the Source of the Data
Establish the Sequence and Frequency of the use of Data
Who will run the Data
Who measures and reviews the Data
Week 6 â?? Employeeâ??s Five Needs, Continued
Ensure employees have access to healthy choices for food
Set the expectation for job security and ensure a safe environment
Connect with other team members, building unity, and working on conflict resolution
Celebrate both team wins, and individual success, ensure people feel appreciated
Create action plans for employees to be success, look for ways for employee growth
The Evidence-Based Management Model, continued
1. Define Objectives and
2. Collect the Right
What do we need to know?
What are our most important
Who needs to know what, when,
What data do you need to meet
the information need?
Do you have the data in the right
If not, what is the best way to
obtain the data?
3. Analyze the Data and
How can you turn the data into
How do you best analyze the data
to put it into context?
How do you extract the relevant
information from the data?
IB Infrastructure and
BI Applications as
4. Present and
5. Make Evidence- Based
How can you ensure the available
evidence is used to make the best
How do you create a knowledgeto-action culture?
How can you best present and
communicate the information to
inform decision making?
What are the most effective ways
of reporting and visualizing the
*Figure 2.1, EbM Model
Five Steps to Success with
A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication
This edition ï¬rst published in 2010
Copyright Â© 2010 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ,
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All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
The intelligent company : ï¬ve steps to success with evidence-based management /
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Business intelligence. 2. Business planning. 3. Management. I. Title.
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
Typeset in 11.5 on 15 pt Bembo by Toppan Best-set Premedia Limited
Printed in Great Britain by TJ International Ltd, Padstow, Cornwall.
Life is not measured by the number of breaths we take but
by the moments that take our breath away.
I dedicate this book to the three people who matter the most
to me and who always take my breath away:
Claire, Sophia and James
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
THE DATAâ??KNOWLEDGE CRUNCH
The data and information explosion
The failure to turn data into mission-critical insights
Investment in business intelligence
THE EVIDENCE-BASED MANAGEMENT
The scientiï¬c method
The EbM model explained
IDENTIFYING OBJECTIVES AND
How a police â??SWATâ?? team uses EbM
Step 1 â?? sub-step one: what do we need to know?
Strategic performance management frameworks
A strategy map as a hypothesis
Who needs to know what, when and why?
What are the most important unanswered questions?
Ten steps for creating good KPQs and KAQs
COLLECTING THE RIGHT DATA
Key performance indicators and building evidence
Collecting the right data
What is evidence and what is data?
Data collection methodologies
Quantitative data collection methods
Qualitative data techniques
Using both quantitative and qualitative data
Making data collection part of the job
Engaging people in data collection
Assigning meaning to data
Reliability and validity
Planning the data collection process
The role of IT infrastructure and applications in the
collection of data
ANALYSE THE DATA AND GAIN INSIGHTS
Budgeting and planning
Reporting and consolidation
Role of IT infrastructure and applications in
PRESENT AND COMMUNICATE
How to get the attention of decision makers
Guidance for presenting information
The role of IT infrastructure and applications in
TURNING INFORMATION INTO
Ensure that the available evidence is used to make
the best decisions
Turning knowledge into action
The knowing doing gap
CONCLUSION AND ACTION CHECKLIST
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Bernard Marr is a leading global authority and best-selling author
on organizational performance and business success.
In this capacity he regularly advises leading companies, organizations and governments around the globe, which makes him
an acclaimed and award-winning keynote speaker, researcher,
consultant and teacher. Bernard Marr is acknowledged by the
CEO Journal as one of todayâ??s leading business brains.
Bernard has written a number of seminal books and over 200
high proï¬le reports and articles on managing organizational performance as well as Enterprise Business Intelligence. This includes
the best-sellers Managing and Delivering Performance and Strategic
Performance Management, a number of Gartner Reports and the
worldâ??s largest research studies on the topic.
Organizations he has advised include Accenture, Astra Zeneca,
the Bank of England, Barclays, BP, DHL, Fujitsu, Gartner, HSBC,
Mars, the Ministry of Defence, the Home Ofï¬ce, the NHS, Mars,
Tetley, Royal Air Force and Royal Dutch Shell.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Prior to his role at the Advanced Performance Institute, he
held inï¬?uential positions at the University of Cambridge and at
Cranï¬eld School of Management. Today, he also holds a number
of visiting professorships and serves on the editorial boards of
many leading journals and publications including the Business
Bernardâ??s expert comments on organizational performance
have been published in a range of high-proï¬le publications including the Financial Times, the Sunday Times, Financial Management,
the CFO Magazine and the Wall Street Journal.
Bernard can be contacted via email at:
ABOUT THE API
The Advanced Performance Institute (API) is the worldâ??s leading
independent research and advisory organization specializing in
organizational performance. The institute provides expert knowledge, research, consulting and training on concepts such as Strategic Performance Management, Performance Measurement and
Enterprise Business Intelligence.
The aim of the API is to provide todayâ??s performance focused
organizations with insights, advice and services that help them
deliver superior performance. Customers of the API are wide
ranging and include many of the worldâ??s leading blue chip companies as well as public sector organizations, governments and
not-for-proï¬t organizations around the globe.
Some of the services offered by API are summarized below.
Knowledge and research
The API conducts internationally recognized research with the
aim of understanding and sharing the latest trends and best
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
practices in the ï¬eld of managing, measuring and analysing
A wide selection of case studies, research reports, articles and
management white papers are freely available to download
from the API website.
Audit and reviews
Extensive research and implementation experience across the
world puts the API into a perfect position to assess existing
performance management and business intelligence approaches
and compare them with current global best practice.
Audit and benchmarking solutions help organizations identify
where they can improve their performance and get more value
from their performance management and BI initiatives.
Based on the latest thinking, the institute can deliver a proven
and tested process for designing performance management
frameworks and initiatives.
Perfected through real-life implementation experience across
many industries, the institute is able to facilitate each step of
the design process to ensure clearly articulated strategies, state
of the art strategic maps, meaningful performance indicators
and aligned processes, so that performance information is communicated and used to inform day-to-day decision making and
The API provides training and coaching on any issues related
to performance management and business intelligence. These
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
are offered as either open enrolment training courses, or for
maximum impact, can be delivered in customized workshops
and training sessions within organizations.
For more information, and to download case studies and articles, please visit: www.ap-institute.com.
Bernard Marrâ??s book on The Intelligent Company and evidencebased management at times draws an apt comparison between
business and medicine. The use of evidence as the primary guide
to decisions and actions in business is clearly a similar idea to
â??evidence-based medicine.â?? Yet the idea of using evidence in business decisions may elicit the same reaction I had when I ï¬rst
heard of evidence-based medicine. I thought, â??Evidence-based
medicine sounds great, but just what was medicine based on in
Just as I thought (incorrectly, as it happens) that science,
medical evidence, and data were the primary basis of clinical practice, you may hold the comforting belief that evidence and data
are widely used in making business decisions. Alas, that is often
not the case. Despite the rapidly-growing availability of information from online transaction systems, the internet, point-of-sale
systems, and other sources, our use of evidence-based management
isnâ??t growing at the same pace. Many managers still manage and
decide as if modern computing tools didnâ??t exist.
There are several facets to this problem. First, there is still too
much use of pure intuition in business. Intuition has its place in
decision-making, particularly when itâ??s based on experience reï¬ned
over time. But that place should generally be last, not ï¬rst. If you
canâ??t get data, if you canâ??t do an experiment, and if you canâ??t
access the stored knowledge of your organization, then by all
means use your intuition. But explore those other decision
Secondly, there is just too weak a link between the information that organizations do have available and the decisions that
they make. As with medicine, some of my very intelligent friends
who donâ??t work in businesses often assume that the prevalence of
â??business intelligenceâ?? systems and analytics of various types has to
mean better business decision-making. But this assumption is often
violated. Business intelligence systems generate reports that donâ??t
yield any decision or any action. IT organizations develop data
warehouses with little notion of how they will be applied to decisions. Analytics are generated, but executives ignore them in favor
of intuition or comfortable past practices. Most ï¬rms donâ??t know
what their most important decisions are, and how technology and
information might be used to inform them.
The good news is that this regrettable situation is slowly
improving. My own work on analytical competition suggests that
some ï¬rms have made a strategic capability out of their data and
analytical capabilities. In other ï¬rms, executives are beginning to
look around at their massive investments in information systems
and saying, â??Werenâ??t we supposed to be able to run the business
better as a result of these?â? Many are working to improve particular decision processes; in a recent study I did of 57 companies,
about 90% could identify at least one important decision that they
had tried to improve with data and analysis. Frequently-made
decisions, such as product pricing or loan and policy origination
in ï¬nancial services companies, are increasingly being automated,
with analytical or rule-based criteria embedded into business processes. There is, as Marr suggests, a long way to go, but progress
toward evidence-based management is clearly being made.
Marrâ??s book will clearly be of major beneï¬t to individuals and
organizations wanting to address the problem of insufï¬cient evidence-based management. It ï¬lls a gap in the marketplace of ideas,
in that no previous book has combined both a structured orientation to fact-based decisions, and a focus on using the outputs of
business intelligence systems to make those decisions. While the
book is all about the value of data and analysis, even the most
mathematics-shy executive will not be deterred by the terminology and writing. And it considers not only the process and information for evidence-based management, but also the cultural and
organizational changes necessary to bring it about.
Marr correctly compares the process of business decisionmaking to the scientiï¬c method. The approaches to analyzing and
deciding scientiï¬c data will eventually be adopted in most or all
successful businesses. It may take a while, but the paragons of
evidence-based management already exist, and you will read about
them in this book. However, if you adopt these approaches today
in a widespread and diligent fashion, you will still be able to derive
competitive advantage from their use.
Thomas H. Davenport
Presidentâ??s Distinguished Professor
in Information Technology and Management,
Babson College, Massachusetts, USA
It is impossible to write a book in isolation and therefore I need
to thank everyone who has inï¬?uenced my thinking on The Intelligent
Company. In particular, my role in heading up the Advanced
Performance Institute provides me with all the opportunities I need
to develop and test new ideas, and I am indebted to my colleagues
and the current Fellows of the Advanced Performance Institute:
David Teece, Rob Austin, Dean Spitzer, Bruno Aziza, PÃ©ter
HorvÃ¡th, Klaus Moeller, Frank Buytendijk, Ian Shore, James
Creelman (special thanks for all your help with this book), Leif
Edvinsson, Marc AndrÃ© Marr, Mark Graham Brown and Paul
Niven. Of course, so many other individuals have also inï¬?uenced
my thinking and I hope all of them know who they are and how
much I have valued any input and dialogue over the years.
My work at Cambridge University and Cranï¬eld School of
Management has also laid many foundations of my thinking.
Especially useful were the insights from my doctorate training,
which allowed me to develop my thinking on evidence-based
Of course I must thank the many people in companies and
government agencies with which I have had the pleasure to work.
Without all these organizations and their people it would have
been impossible for me to develop my insights and tools. I therefore would like to thank all the many executives, managers and
employees I have worked with over the years.
Finally, this book would never have been possible without the
support from my wonderful wife Claire. Claire and our children
Sophia and James are my clear priority in life and I am grateful
that they support me. They provide so much inspiration to make
the world a better place â?? and if this means helping organizations
to become more intelligent and successful then this is a very
small and humble, but hopefully worthwhile, step in the right
THE DATA â??KNOWLEDGE
Evidence-based management is a simple idea. It just means ï¬nding
the best evidence that you can, facing those facts, and acting on
Professor Robert I. Sutton, Stanford University
To use a 19th century analogy to begin a book that explains how
to overcome the 21st century challenges of converting everincreasing amounts of data into insights that drive effective decision making might seem odd. But this is exactly what I will do,
and for good reason.
Think of the California gold rush of 1849. People ï¬?ocked en
masse to that US state with the hope of making their fortunes from
unearthing more of the gold that had just been found. A core
tool, or technology, used by these prospectors was a gold pan,
THE INTELLIGENT COMPANY
which would sift out gravel, sand, sediment and so on, but retain
the heavier gold nuggets. By panning the endless tons of worthless
silt, the prospectors hoped to ï¬nd those few precious nuggets of
gold that would make them rich men. A few did indeed become
hugely wealthy, but most returned to their homes having either
expended their investments without an adequate return (if any) or
I now fast forward more than 150 ye …
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