Evidence-based leadership- KPQs/KAQs

Identifying Objectives & Information Needs1. Example how KPQs/KAQs improve reporting?2. From a communications standpoint, how does KPQs/KAQs affect information flow from leaders to employees?Week 1-4 Reflection3. What have you learned in LDR 3400 in the past 4 weeks that has been the most meaningful to you and your current role, (or future role)?Cite in all posts, preferred method is APA. In addition, please note terms utilized in the Textbooks, please include 2- 3 terms in your weekly posts
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Week 4 – Strategic Performance Management Frameworks
In Week 4, we will discuss strategic performance management frameworks, as well as take a moment to review what you have learned in the first 4
weeks of the course.
Google is a wonderful example of an organization driven by its leaders to continuously ask questions. They strategize by asking questions, and through
questions they begin to innovate.
What are the most important unanswered questions?
These unanswered questions are important to your evidenced based management (EbM) process and will be represented in your scorecard as Key
Performance Questions (KPQs) and Key Analytics Questions (KAQs). Similar in nature, however KPQs details what an organization needs to know to
execute on their objectives, and KAQs work to understand what is gained or loss, and what are the trends towards the strategic initiatives of the
organization.
Letâ??s take a moment to reflect on these past 4 weeks. You have learned to crunch data through EbM, develop and train high performing employees and
teams, and think strategically about performance measurement in your scorecard reporting. Well done! But we have only started, in the coming week
we will start thinking about â??collecting the right dataâ? while motivating employees in Week 5
Reading, Text: Marr, Chapter 3, and Latham, Chapter 3
By the end of Week 4, you will have the opportunity to:
â?¢ Create good KPQs and KAQs through a 10-step process
â?¢ Reflect on activities in Week 1 through 4
Instructor: Steven Soares
Northeastern University
1
Week 4 â?? Discussion Board
Strategic Performance Management Frameworks
Please answer the following questions – With your initial Post to the Discussion Board by Thursday, 5/31 (extra day due to Memorial Day) and Responses by
6/2.
Identifying Objectives & Information Needs
1.
Example how KPQs/KAQs improve reporting?
2.
From a communications standpoint, how does KPQs/KAQs affect information flow from leaders to employees?
Week 1-4 Reflection
3. What have you learned in LDR 3400 in the past 4 weeks that has been the most meaningful to you and your current role, (or future role)?
Cite in all posts, preferred method is APA. In addition, please note terms utilized in the Textbooks, please include 2- 3 terms in your weekly posts
Instructor: Steven Soares
Northeastern University
2
Week 4 â?? Learning Activity #2, Due: 6/3
Imagine that you could go back in time and â??redoâ? the decision-making method used to select Léo Apotheker as CEO of HP back in 2010.
Read this New York Times story for reference, https://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/22/business/voting-to-hire-a-chief-without-meetinghim.html?pagewanted=1&_r=0&ref=business
In a 1-page paper (APA Format), answer the following:
â?¢ What would you do differently?
â?¢ What types of questions would you ask in search of a new chief executive for HP?
Submit your paper through the â??Assignment â?? folder.
Cite your work, preferred method is APA. Using terms utilized in the Textbooks, please include at a minimum 2- 3 terms.
Instructor: Steven Soares
Northeastern University
3
Week 4 â?? Strategic Performance Management Frameworks, Continued
The Balanced Scorecard
Financial Perspective
Improve Productivity
Shareholder Value
Revenue Growth
Client Perspective
Client Satisfaction
Gain Market Share
Improve Reputation
Internal Processes
Manage Operations
Manage Client &
Innovate
Manage Social Process
Learning & Growth (Individual, Team)
Grow Human Capital
*Figure 3.2 Balance Scorecard template (adapted
from Kaplan and Norton, 2004)
Improve Information
Instructor: Steven Soares
Northeastern University
Build Operational Capital
4
Week 4 â?? The Evidence-Based Management Model, continued
1. Define Objectives and
Information Needs
2. Collect the Right
Information
â?¢
â?¢
â?¢
â?¢
What do we need to know?
What are our most important
unanswered questions?
Who needs to know what, when,
and why?
â?¢
â?¢
What data do you need to meet
the information need?
Do you have the data in the right
format?
If not, what is the best way to
obtain the data?
3. Analyze the Data and
Gain Insights
â?¢
â?¢
â?¢
How can you turn the data into
relevant insight?
How do you best analyze the data
to put it into context?
How do you extract the relevant
information from the data?
IB Infrastructure and
BI Applications as
Enablers
4. Present and
Communicate the
Information
5. Make Evidence- Based
Decisions
Business Strategy
â?¢
â?¢
â?¢
*Figure 2.1, EbM Model
How can you ensure the available
evidence is used to make the best
decision?
How do you create a knowledgeto-action culture?
Instructor: Steven Soares
Northeastern University
â?¢
How can you best present and
communicate the information to
inform decision making?
What are the most effective ways
of reporting and visualizing the
information?
5
THE INTELLIGENT
COMPANY
THE INTELLIGENT
COMPANY
Five Steps to Success with
Evidence-Based Management
Bernard Marr
A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication
This edition first published in 2010
Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Registered office
John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ,
United Kingdom
For details of our global editorial offices, for customer services and for information about
how to apply for permission to reuse the copyright material in this book please see our
website at www.wiley.com
The right of the author to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in
accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act
1988, without the prior permission of the publisher.
Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears
in print may not be available in electronic books.
Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as
trademarks. All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service
marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not
associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. This publication is designed
to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered.
It is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional
services. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a
competent professional should be sought.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Marr, Bernard.
The intelligent company : five steps to success with evidence-based management /
Bernard Marr.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-470-68595-2
1. Business intelligence. 2. Business planning. 3. Management. I. Title.
HD38.7.M3658 2010
658.4â?²01â??dc22
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
Typeset in 11.5 on 15 pt Bembo by Toppan Best-set Premedia Limited
Printed in Great Britain by TJ International Ltd, Padstow, Cornwall.
Life is not measured by the number of breaths we take but
by the moments that take our breath away.
I dedicate this book to the three people who matter the most
to me and who always take my breath away:
Claire, Sophia and James
CONTENTS
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
xi
FOREWORD
xv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
xix
1
2
THE DATAâ??KNOWLEDGE CRUNCH
1
Introduction
The data and information explosion
The failure to turn data into mission-critical insights
Investment in business intelligence
Evidence-based management
Conclusions
1
2
3
6
9
12
THE EVIDENCE-BASED MANAGEMENT
MODEL
13
Introduction
Evidence-based medicine
13
15
viii
CONTENTS
3
4
The scientific method
The EbM model explained
Conclusions
15
16
20
IDENTIFYING OBJECTIVES AND
INFORMATION NEEDS
21
Introduction
How a police â??SWATâ?? team uses EbM
Step 1 â?? sub-step one: what do we need to know?
Strategic performance management frameworks
A strategy map as a hypothesis
Who needs to know what, when and why?
What are the most important unanswered questions?
Ten steps for creating good KPQs and KAQs
Conclusions
21
22
25
30
50
52
54
58
63
COLLECTING THE RIGHT DATA
65
Introduction
Key performance indicators and building evidence
Collecting the right data
What is evidence and what is data?
Data collection methodologies
Quantitative data collection methods
Qualitative data techniques
Using both quantitative and qualitative data
Making data collection part of the job
Engaging people in data collection
Assigning meaning to data
Reliability and validity
Planning the data collection process
65
67
69
70
71
72
78
83
84
87
89
93
94
CONTENTS
5
6
The role of IT infrastructure and applications in the
collection of data
Conclusions
96
100
ANALYSE THE DATA AND GAIN INSIGHTS
101
Introduction
Data analysis
Budgeting and planning
Reporting and consolidation
Value-driver modelling
Experimentation
Role of IT infrastructure and applications in
analysing data
Conclusions
101
104
112
113
113
117
129
132
PRESENT AND COMMUNICATE
THE INFORMATION
135
Introduction
How to get the attention of decision makers
Publishing analogies
Guidance for presenting information
The role of IT infrastructure and applications in
presenting information
Conclusions
7
TURNING INFORMATION INTO
ACTIONABLE KNOWLEDGE
Introduction
Ensure that the available evidence is used to make
the best decisions
Turning knowledge into action
135
137
138
144
151
160
163
163
167
172
ix
x
CONTENTS
8
The knowing doing gap
Conclusions
173
188
CONCLUSION AND ACTION CHECKLIST
189
Introduction
Action checklist
Final words
189
193
207
REFERENCES
209
INDEX
213
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Bernard Marr is a leading global authority and best-selling author
on organizational performance and business success.
In this capacity he regularly advises leading companies, organizations and governments around the globe, which makes him
an acclaimed and award-winning keynote speaker, researcher,
consultant and teacher. Bernard Marr is acknowledged by the
CEO Journal as one of todayâ??s leading business brains.
Bernard has written a number of seminal books and over 200
high profile reports and articles on managing organizational performance as well as Enterprise Business Intelligence. This includes
the best-sellers Managing and Delivering Performance and Strategic
Performance Management, a number of Gartner Reports and the
worldâ??s largest research studies on the topic.
Organizations he has advised include Accenture, Astra Zeneca,
the Bank of England, Barclays, BP, DHL, Fujitsu, Gartner, HSBC,
Mars, the Ministry of Defence, the Home Office, the NHS, Mars,
Tetley, Royal Air Force and Royal Dutch Shell.
xii
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Prior to his role at the Advanced Performance Institute, he
held in�uential positions at the University of Cambridge and at
Cranfield School of Management. Today, he also holds a number
of visiting professorships and serves on the editorial boards of
many leading journals and publications including the Business
Strategy Series.
Bernardâ??s expert comments on organizational performance
have been published in a range of high-profile publications including the Financial Times, the Sunday Times, Financial Management,
the CFO Magazine and the Wall Street Journal.
Bernard can be contacted via email at:
bernard.marr@ap-institute.com.
ABOUT THE API
The Advanced Performance Institute (API) is the worldâ??s leading
independent research and advisory organization specializing in
organizational performance. The institute provides expert knowledge, research, consulting and training on concepts such as Strategic Performance Management, Performance Measurement and
Enterprise Business Intelligence.
The aim of the API is to provide todayâ??s performance focused
organizations with insights, advice and services that help them
deliver superior performance. Customers of the API are wide
ranging and include many of the worldâ??s leading blue chip companies as well as public sector organizations, governments and
not-for-profit organizations around the globe.
Some of the services offered by API are summarized below.
Knowledge and research
�
The API conducts internationally recognized research with the
aim of understanding and sharing the latest trends and best
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
�
practices in the field of managing, measuring and analysing
organizational performance.
A wide selection of case studies, research reports, articles and
management white papers are freely available to download
from the API website.
Audit and reviews
�
�
Extensive research and implementation experience across the
world puts the API into a perfect position to assess existing
performance management and business intelligence approaches
and compare them with current global best practice.
Audit and benchmarking solutions help organizations identify
where they can improve their performance and get more value
from their performance management and BI initiatives.
Consulting
�
�
Based on the latest thinking, the institute can deliver a proven
and tested process for designing performance management
frameworks and initiatives.
Perfected through real-life implementation experience across
many industries, the institute is able to facilitate each step of
the design process to ensure clearly articulated strategies, state
of the art strategic maps, meaningful performance indicators
and aligned processes, so that performance information is communicated and used to inform day-to-day decision making and
learning.
Training
�
The API provides training and coaching on any issues related
to performance management and business intelligence. These
xiii
xiv
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
are offered as either open enrolment training courses, or for
maximum impact, can be delivered in customized workshops
and training sessions within organizations.
For more information, and to download case studies and articles, please visit: www.ap-institute.com.
FOREWORD
Bernard Marrâ??s book on The Intelligent Company and evidencebased management at times draws an apt comparison between
business and medicine. The use of evidence as the primary guide
to decisions and actions in business is clearly a similar idea to
â??evidence-based medicine.â?? Yet the idea of using evidence in business decisions may elicit the same reaction I had when I first
heard of evidence-based medicine. I thought, â??Evidence-based
medicine sounds great, but just what was medicine based on in
the past?�
Just as I thought (incorrectly, as it happens) that science,
medical evidence, and data were the primary basis of clinical practice, you may hold the comforting belief that evidence and data
are widely used in making business decisions. Alas, that is often
not the case. Despite the rapidly-growing availability of information from online transaction systems, the internet, point-of-sale
systems, and other sources, our use of evidence-based management
xvi
FOREWORD
isnâ??t growing at the same pace. Many managers still manage and
decide as if modern computing tools didnâ??t exist.
There are several facets to this problem. First, there is still too
much use of pure intuition in business. Intuition has its place in
decision-making, particularly when itâ??s based on experience refined
over time. But that place should generally be last, not first. If you
canâ??t get data, if you canâ??t do an experiment, and if you canâ??t
access the stored knowledge of your organization, then by all
means use your intuition. But explore those other decision
resources first.
Secondly, there is just too weak a link between the information that organizations do have available and the decisions that
they make. As with medicine, some of my very intelligent friends
who donâ??t work in businesses often assume that the prevalence of
â??business intelligenceâ?? systems and analytics of various types has to
mean better business decision-making. But this assumption is often
violated. Business intelligence systems generate reports that donâ??t
yield any decision or any action. IT organizations develop data
warehouses with little notion of how they will be applied to decisions. Analytics are generated, but executives ignore them in favor
of intuition or comfortable past practices. Most firms donâ??t know
what their most important decisions are, and how technology and
information might be used to inform them.
The good news is that this regrettable situation is slowly
improving. My own work on analytical competition suggests that
some firms have made a strategic capability out of their data and
analytical capabilities. In other firms, executives are beginning to
look around at their massive investments in information systems
and saying, â??Werenâ??t we supposed to be able to run the business
better as a result of these?� Many are working to improve particular decision processes; in a recent study I did of 57 companies,
about 90% could identify at least one important decision that they
had tried to improve with data and analysis. Frequently-made
decisions, such as product pricing or loan and policy origination
FOREWORD
in financial services companies, are increasingly being automated,
with analytical or rule-based criteria embedded into business processes. There is, as Marr suggests, a long way to go, but progress
toward evidence-based management is clearly being made.
Marrâ??s book will clearly be of major benefit to individuals and
organizations wanting to address the problem of insufficient evidence-based management. It fills a gap in the marketplace of ideas,
in that no previous book has combined both a structured orientation to fact-based decisions, and a focus on using the outputs of
business intelligence systems to make those decisions. While the
book is all about the value of data and analysis, even the most
mathematics-shy executive will not be deterred by the terminology and writing. And it considers not only the process and information for evidence-based management, but also the cultural and
organizational changes necessary to bring it about.
Marr correctly compares the process of business decisionmaking to the scientific method. The approaches to analyzing and
deciding scientific data will eventually be adopted in most or all
successful businesses. It may take a while, but the paragons of
evidence-based management already exist, and you will read about
them in this book. However, if you adopt these approaches today
in a widespread and diligent fashion, you will still be able to derive
competitive advantage from their use.
Thomas H. Davenport
Presidentâ??s Distinguished Professor
in Information Technology and Management,
Babson College, Massachusetts, USA
xvii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
It is impossible to write a book in isolation and therefore I need
to thank everyone who has in�uenced my thinking on The Intelligent
Company. In particular, my role in heading up the Advanced
Performance Institute provides me with all the opportunities I need
to develop and test new ideas, and I am indebted to my colleagues
and the current Fellows of the Advanced Performance Institute:
David Teece, Rob Austin, Dean Spitzer, Bruno Aziza, Péter
Horváth, Klaus Moeller, Frank Buytendijk, Ian Shore, James
Creelman (special thanks for all your help with this book), Leif
Edvinsson, Marc André Marr, Mark Graham Brown and Paul
Niven. Of course, so many other individuals have also in�uenced
my thinking and I hope all of them know who they are and how
much I have valued any input and dialogue over the years.
My work at Cambridge University and Cranfield School of
Management has also laid many foundations of my thinking.
Especially useful were the insights from my doctorate training,
xx
ACKNOWLEDG …
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