Final exam – Help

hello ,as I told you before I need you help to give me some example of what I should to write so I can pass,no profissonal , just a clear one,thanks.* I’m uploading the vedios, they will be ready in like 1 or 2 hours,here’s the links


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Unit Review
Dr Xiaohui Zhao (BEng, MEng, PhD)
Systems Project and Quality Management
(7173, 6678G)
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â?¢ Section A – 30/100 marks
â?¢ 15 Multiple Choice Questions
â?? Review online quiz
â?¢ Section B â?? 70/100 marks
â?? Long Answer Questions
â?? 15 marks to 20 marks each
â?? Based on a case, check â??exam preparationâ? for
sample case and questions
â?¢ Exam time 2 hours
â?¢ Allowed materials: dictionary, calculator
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What is a Project?
â?¢ Temporary
â?¢ Unique Goal
â?¢ Budget
– A temporary endeavour that has a unique
goal and a budget
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What is Project Management?
What problem are you solving?
How to solve the problem?
What is the plan?
How to end the project?
How well did the project go?
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PMBoK Knowledge Areas
â?¢ Another way of arranging the activities is by the type of
activity – managing people, communicating with stakeholders
and so on.
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PMBoK Process Groups
â?¢ One arrangement looks at the activities undertaken by
Project Managers in the order (roughly) in which they occur
in a project.
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Process Groups: the Basic PMBoK
â?¢ The fundamental concept in PMBoK is that of
the Process Group.
â?¢ A Process Group is a set of Project
Management activities (or Processes) which
Project Managers carry out when managing
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Matrix structure
â?¢ Each activity falls into both a Knowledge Area
and a Process Group (PMI 2013 p 61)
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Initiating Process Group
â?¢ Develop Project Charter
â?? The Charter is the key document used to initiate a
â?¢ Identify Stakeholders
â?? The project team identifies all people impacted by
the project, documenting their interests in the
project, their involvement and their impact on the
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Planning Process Group
â?¢ Develop Project Management Plan
â?? Creates the document that is the major tool used to
manage the project: planning, executing, monitoring &
controlling and closing
â?¢ Plan Scope Management
â?? Involves planning the way in which scope will be managed
in this project
â?¢ Collect Requirements
â?? Involves collecting and documenting stakeholders’
requirements necessary to meet the goals of the project
â?¢ Define Scope
â?? The Scope Statement describes in detail all the products to
be produced by the project along with any documents to
be delivered to the clients
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Planning Process Group
â?¢ Create WBS
â?? A Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) divides the
work to be done by the project into small
manageable packages (called Work Packages)
â?? The description of the work is arranged into a
hierarchical structure with the â??Projectâ? being the
highest level and the individual packages at the
lowest level
â?? Each work package is described in detail in a WBS
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Planning Process Group
â?¢ Plan Schedule Management
â?? Involves planning the way in which the schedule will be
managed in this project
â?¢ Define Activities
â?? Based on the WBS, this process defines the activities that go
into the project schedule
â?¢ Sequence Activities
â?? The activities in the activities list are put in the order in which
they must be completed.
â?¢ Estimate Activity Resources
â?? The resources required to complete each activity are now
â?? Who will do the task?
â?? How long will it take?
â?? What materials are needed?
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Planning Process Group
â?¢ Estimate Activity Duration
â?? Work out how long each package will take to
complete given the resources available
â?¢ Develop Schedule
â?? Develop a Gantt chart showing the start date and end
date of each package in the WBS
â?? Ensure that all packages are included in the schedule
â?? Also ensure that human resources are scheduled
when they are available and that no person is
scheduled to more than one task at any time
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Planning Process Group
â?¢ Plan Cost Management
â?? This process involves planning the way in which the budget
will be managed in this project
â?¢ Estimate Costs
â?? Based on the WBS and the Schedule assign a cost to each
work package.
â?? This cost estimate forms the basis of the project budget
â?¢ Determine Budget
â?? The budget is created by collecting the costs of all work
packages together
â?? Projects using Earned Value Analysis (EVA) should create a
time-phased budget showing, not only the total cost of the
project but, the estimated cost of the project for each
period in the project (weekly, monthly)
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Planning Process Group
â?¢ Plan Quality Management
â?? Quality management helps the project team deliver
products that meet the clientâ??s expectation and which
are fit for the purpose for which they were designed
â?¢ Plan Human Resource Management
â?? Human resources are the key resources in most
â?? The HR plan identifies the roles, responsibilities, skills
and reporting relationships required for the project
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Planning Process Group
â?¢ Plan Communications Management
â?? Communication is, perhaps, the most important component of
good Project Management.
â?? A communications plan will identify stakeholdersâ?? information
needs and what communications are required for them to
contribute to the project
â?¢ Plan Risk Management.
â?? Risk management allows the project team to anticipate
problems and opportunities in advance of events
â?¢ Identify Risks
â?? Part of risk management is to identify the problems and
opportunities that might arise during the project
â?¢ Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis
â?? The analysis involves putting risks in priority order according the
eventâ??s likelihood and impact
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Planning Process Group
â?¢ Plan Risk Responses
â?? Planning to respond to risks that have been identified,
particularly high priority risks, helps to reduce
disruptions to schedule, increased costs and helps
make the most of opportunities
â?¢ Plan Procurement Management
â?? Procurement planning documents planning decisions,
deciding on purchasing methods and identifying
potential vendors
â?¢ Plan Stakeholder Management
â?? Management of stakeholders is one of the most
important activities in project management
â?? Stakeholders can make or break projects
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What is Scope?
â?¢ Scope defines what is and what is not to be done
in a project. In other words scope answers the
question: â??What are we trying to do?â?
â?¢ Scope management is a very important issue
when proposals are being written.
â?¢ Mistakes have lead to project management
disasters in the past.
â?¢ Scope has a huge influence on what resources are
needed for the project, how much time is needed
and how much money is needed.
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Work Breakdown Structure
â?¢ WBS stands for â??Work Breakdown Structureâ?
â?¢ It describes all the work that has to be done to
deliver the project
â?¢ It places all the activities (work) in a logical
hierarchical structure
â?¢ It shows how the work is to be organised
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Example: Tabular WBS organised by
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Example: Tabular WBS organised by
â?¢-0.0 EC Bank Project
â?¢.0 Conceptualise and Initialise Project
â?¢.0 Develop Charter and Plan
â?¢.0 Analysis
â?¢.0 Design
â?¢.0 Construction
â?¢-6.0 Testing
â?¢.1 Planning Test
â?¢-6.2 Conducting Test
â?¢6.2.1 Review test plan with client
â?¢6.2.2 Carry out test plan
â?¢6.2.3 Analyse results
â?¢6.2.4 Prepare test result report and presentation
â?¢6.2.5 Present test result to client
â?¢6.2.6 Address any software issues or problems
â?¢6.2.7 Deliverable: Test Result Report
â?¢6.2.8 Milestone: Client signs off test results
â?¢.3 Milestone: testing completed
â?¢.0 Implementation
â?¢ Phase
Milestoneâ??deliverable completion
Milestone â?? Phase completion
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Approaches to Developing WBS
â?¢ Guidelines: Some organizations provide
guidelines for preparing WBSs
â?¢ Analogy approach: Review WBSs of similar
projects and tailor to your project
â?¢ Top-down approach: Start with the largest items
of the project and break them down
â?¢ Bottom-up approach: Start with the specific tasks
and roll them up
â?¢ Mind-mapping approach: Write tasks in a nonlinear, branching format and then create the WBS
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Gantt Charts
â?¢ Gantt charts provide a standard format for
displaying project schedule information by listing
project activities and their corresponding start
and finish dates in a calendar format.
â?¢ Symbols include:
â?? Thick black bars: Summary tasks
â?? Lighter horizontal bars: Durations of tasks
â?? Arrows: Dependencies between tasks
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Gantt Chart for Intranet Project
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Task Dependency Types
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Project Scope Checklist
Project scope statements
Technical requirements
Limits and exclusions
Reviews with customers
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Critical Path Method
â?¢ CPM is a network diagramming technique used to predict
total project duration.
â?¢ A critical path for a project is the series of activities that
determines the earliest time by which the project can be
â?¢ The critical path is the longest path through the network
diagram and has the least amount of slack or float.
â?? Slack or float is the amount of time an activity can be delayed
without delaying a succeeding activity or the project finish date.
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Critical Path Method
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Program Evaluation and Review
â?¢ The key technique is not to ask the Activity team
for one estimate.
â?¢ Rather ask for three:
â?? The optimistic estimate
â?¢ How long would this activity take to complete if everything
went without any issues or problems?
â?? The pessimistic estimate
â?¢ How long would this activity take if quite a few issues arose
and quite a bit went wrong?
â?? The most likely estimate
â?¢ How long, being realistic, is this activity likely to take to
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Developing the Project Budget
1. Define what resources will be needed to perform
the work
2. Determine the quantity of resources that are
3. Define the cost of using each resource
4. Calculate the cost of the task or activity
5. Ensure that the resources are leveled, that is,
not over allocated. An example of over
allocation is assigning a project team member
to two tasks scheduled at the same time.
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Types of Costs
â?¢ Direct Costs
â?? The direct cost of labor or other resources
â?¢ Indirect Costs
â?? The cost for covering such things as rent, utilities, insurance, etc.
â?¢ Sunk Costs
â?? Costs incurred prior to the project, such as a project that has been
restarted after a failed attempt
â?¢ Learning Curve
â?? Often have to â??Build one and throw it awayâ? to understand a problem or a
new technology
â?¢ Prorated Costs
â?? The idea that there is a cost associated with using a resource
â?¢ Reserves
â?? Contingency funds to be used at the discretion of the project manager
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Cost Estimating
Top Down
(Grass Roots)
Time to
-25% to %
Top Down
-10% to %
Bottom Up
-5% to %
WBS levrel 1
* Rough Order of Magnitude
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What is Quality
â?¢ Different people have different definitions
â?¢ The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) defines
quality as â??the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfils
requirements� (ISO9000:2000).
â?¢ Other experts define quality as:
â?? Conformance to requirements: The projectâ??s processes and products
meet written specifications.
â?? Fitness for use: A product can be used as it was intended.
For projects: success is measured against a [quality] benchmark
â?? Time / Cost (especially for Type I projects)
â?? Clientâ??s agreed needs (especially for Type IV projects)
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PMBOK® â?? Project Quality
Management Processes
â?¢ Quality planning
â?? Determining which quality standards are important to the project
and deciding how these standards will be met.
â?¢ Quality assurance
â?? Evaluating overall project performance regularly to ensure that the
project team is meeting the specified quality standards.
â?¢ Quality control
â?? Monitoring the activities and results of the project to ensure that
the project complies with the quality standards. In addition, the
project organization as a whole should use this information to
eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance and implement
new processes and techniques to improve project quality
throughout the project organization.
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Project Quality Management
Information Technology Project Management, Sixth Edition
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Project Quality Metrics
â?? Control the defects introduced by the processes required to create the
project deliverables
â?? Can be used to improve software development or maintenance
â?? Should focus on the effectiveness of identifying and removing defects or
â?? Focuses on the intrinsic quality of the deliverables and satisfaction of the
customer, client, or sponsor with these deliverables
â?? Attempt to describe the characteristics of the projectâ??s deliverables and
final product
â?? Focus on the control of the project management processes to ensure that
the project meets its overall goal as well as its scope, schedule, and
budget objectives
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What is Risk?
â?¢ Risk
â?? An uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs,
has a positive or negative effective on a project
objectives (PMBOK, 2000 edition).
â?? The possibility of loss, damage or any other
undesirable event
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What is Risk?
â?¢ An EVENT that will occur in the future
noting the:
uncertainty of
Note: not only about Threats, but Opportunities as well!
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Systemic approach to Risk
The goal of project risk management is to
minimize potential risks while maximizing
potential opportunities.
Major processes include:
1. Risk identification: determining which risks are likely to
affect a project
2. Risk quantification: evaluating risks to assess the range of
possible project outcomes
3. Risk response development: taking steps to enhance
opportunities and developing responses to threats
4. Risk response control: responding to risks over the course
of the project
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Treating risks
â?¢ Identify treatment options
Avoid: Risk not accepted, seek alternatives
Control: Aware of the risk and attempt to mitigate its occurrence and impact
Assume: Conscious decision to accept the consequences
Transfer: Risk is transferred to a more capable party
Share: Risk is shared with other parties
â?¢ Assess the treatment options
â?¢ Prepare treatment options (incl contingency
â?¢ Implement treatment options
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Treating risks
Probability: How likely is this event?
Consequence: What will happen if this event occurs?
â?¢ Can the probability be reduced (â??treatedâ?)
Can the impact be minimised?
Can it be sold? Can it be transferred? Treatment costs?
At what cost? Is it worth the expense?
Unlimited risks Vs limited budget
Insurance Vs Reaction costs
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Project Changes
â?¢ Any modification to the expected outcomes or
management of a project.
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Scope changes
â?¢ Internal Deliverables
â?? MOM – Change in Method/Operation/Measure
â?? Change in staff and skills
â?¢ External Deliverables
â?? More, less, sooner, laterâ?¦
â?¢ Change Model Classes?
â?? Extreme, Major, Medium, Minor
â?¢ Impacts
â?? Earlier changes are easier
â?? Later changes capture higher cost.
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Change Control Process for Handling a
Change Request from the Client
Request for
Problem report
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Project Implementation
â?¢ Focuses on installing or delivering the
projectâ??s major deliverable â?? the information
system that was built or purchased
â?¢ Three general tactical implementation plans:
â?? Direct cutover
â?? Parallel
â?? Phased
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Project Implementation
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Project Implementation
Direct Cutover
Implementation can be Provides a safety net or
backup in case problems are
encountered during
Allows an organisation to
implement system modules in
different departments or
geographical locations
Can be risky if system is Can increase confidence in
not fully tested
the new system when the
output of old system and
new system is compared
Experience with early
implementations make later
ones go more smoothly
Places more pressure
on the project team
Takes longer and may cost
more than direct cutover
Takes longer and may cost more
than the direct cutover
Places more pressure on the
users of the system
Problems encountered during
early phases can impact the
overall implementation
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Transition Planning
â?¢ Transition planning is to layout the tasks/activities
that need to take place to efficiently deliver a
project from the development or pilot
environment to the production, operations and
maintenance environment.
â?¢ A transition plan consists of
Transition team
Transition strategy (cutover, parallel, or phased)
Impact of the transition
Schedule of the transition
Contingency planning and risk mitigation
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Transition schedule
â?¢ A detailed schedule for the selected transition strategy should
consider the following points:
â?? Logical work breakdown, key milestones and dependencies during
transition and deployment.
â?? Testing and verification activities.
â?? Specific (training) activities related to new and/or existing equipment
and/or software, including roles and responsibilities of external
vendors and internal resources.
â?? Systems and/or data back-up(s), conversion plans, etc.
â?? Hand-off(s) between developers, vendors, operational staff, and/or
technical support.
â?? Communication(s) to client and end-users: timing related to
unavailability, periodic status updates, and notification of
completion/system availability.
â?? Transition review to assess and document results of the transition,
defects found, correction actions to be taken, work-around(s) to be
implemented, etc.
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â?¢ Review the online quiz
â?¢ Critical path calculation exercise
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Final Exam
2 hours, paper based, closed book, 100 marks in total
No answer booklet, write down your answer on the exam paper.
Section A (30/100 marks)
15 multiple choice questions
Each question has only one correct answer
You can use the online quiz as a practice for Section A.
Section B (70/100 marks)
A less than one page long case describing a simple project.
A sample case is given below for reference purpose.
You have identified that there is an opportunity to open a Cyber-café in a vacant shop
located in the Kaleen mini-mall. You have a family member who can provide the required
finance, but they want to see a business case. Your accountant will prepare most of the
business case documentation, but they need to see a Project Proposal document for the IT
setup, which you have to prepare.
Your sister has the skills to run the Café area, and you will manage the computing section.
There will be low-level partitions between the food area and the computers, and separate
sections …
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