I ATTACHED THE OUTLINE, AS WELL AS THE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY!The pIrimary goal of your final assignment is to critically analyze the specific topic you have chosen regarding American national government.You have been preparing for this final assignment each week by constructing an Annotated Bibliography (Week 2) and a detailed outline of the Final Paperâ??s main points (Week 3) in which you focused on the following:Historical and constitutional basis for the American Governmentâ??s structureThe system of checks and balancesThe various roles (e., public opinion, media, special interest groups, etc.) concerning public policy and electionsThe voting system and election process.In addition, you have read the course text and course readings, reviewed videos, and researched additional material for each weekâ??s assignments and this paper. This week, you will put all of those outlines, readings, reviews, and research together to evaluate policymaking and government program administration into one Final Paper.As we wrap up our course, reflect on what you have learned about the key structures, systems, roles, and processes that embody our national government. Think about the strengths and weaknesses, advantages and disadvantages, and positive and negative impacts of these aspects of our democracy. Use what you have learned so far to evaluate a specific policy of our national government and recommend ways to enhance what works and repair what is not working well. It is important that your Final Paper utilizes your previous research and assignments, including the feedback that you received from the Ashford Writing Center in Week 4. The assignment should also showcase what you have learned in the course. While your previous assignments will serve as a strong base for this assignment, it is very important that you implement feedback from your instructor and the Ashford Writing Center, as well as further expand on the material. Appropriate transitions and headings are needed to ensure a cohesive Final Paper.The Final Paper should utilize the POL201 Final Paper template and be at least six pages in length (not including title page and references) and based on your previously submitted assignments. It is important to utilize APA Style Elements (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.headings for major sections of your paper in order to ensure that the paper is easy to follow.Scaffold your paper around the following outline:Title page (see Introduction to APA (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.)Introduction (half page) (see Introductions & Conclusions (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.)Describe the paperâ??s overall thesis.Provide an overview of main points.First Main Point (one to one and a half pages) describes the historical and Constitutional basis of American governmentâ??s structure and how this relates to the policy.Describe the main point.Support the main point with research.Second Main Point (one to one and a half pages) explains how the policy is involved within the process of checks and balances.Describe the main point.Support the main point with research.Third Main Point (one to one and a half pages) describes how the policy relates to public policy and elections and how the policy is portrayed by the media.Describe the main point.Support the main point with research.Fourth Main Point (one to one and a half pages) explains how the policy impacts voting and the election process.Describe the main point.Support the main point with research.Conclusion (see Introductions & Conclusions (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.)Review your main points.Review your overall thesis.References page (see Formatting Your References List (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.)The Final Paper AssignmentMust be at least six double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA Style (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..Must include a separate title page with the following:Title of paperStudentâ??s nameCourse name and numberInstructorâ??s nameDate submittedMust use at least eight scholarly sources in addition to the course text. A minimum of five of the resources must be from peer-reviewed scholarly sources from the Ashford University Library.The Scholarly, Peer Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your instructor. Your instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source for a particular assignment.Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
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Week 3 Final Research Paper Outline Worksheet
REMINDER: Please be sure you have critically read the instructions for BOTH the
Week 3 Final Paper Outline Assignment, and the Week 5 Final Research Paper.
Final Paper Outline
Higher Education Act (1965- reauthorized 2008) espouses the definitions of
Americaâ??s educational resources with respect to human and financial capital
needs (Derek, 2015). State and federal policies have historically been the driving
gear supporting the strengths embedded in higher education (Derek, 2015).
Essentially, the constructs defined in the US constitution focusing on HEA and
education matters for an important government arm. The state government
oversees the functionality of education, particularly public institutions of higher
learning. In addition, the education finance structure is elaborated with respect to
state commendations with finances sourced from the state, private and local
2. Thesis Statement
While higher education faces diverse challenges, the HEA enumerates of diverse
education strengths with considerations of the position of higher education in
shaping the constitutional basis of the government structure, elaborating on
policy checks and balances, and explicating the relationship between higher
education and public policy, electioneering process and public media.
3. Higher Education Policy, and the Historical and Constitutional Basis of
American Governmentâ??s Structure
In the past, the federal government exerted little influence on education in the
US. Reforms of education policy since mid-20th century brought into focus the
need to include laws that directly influence education, including the safeguarding
of constitutional rights for students and teachers, and the equal access to
education bills (Manna and McGuinn, 2013). The constitutional definition of
higher education does not consider education as a right but requires
constitutional protection as a societal need. HEA provides all education
stakeholders against all forms of discrimination with respect to gender, race,
ethnicity, physical abilities, or religion as stipulated in the 14th Amendment
(American Federation of Teachers, 2015).
4. Higher Education Policy: Checks and Balances Process
Checks and balances illuminate the foundations of sustainability of the rule of law
by demarcating different aspects of power and ensuring accountability. In the
US, the constitution defines and enforces accountability by referencing the
challenges emanating from law implementation and constitutional execution of
different policies. Essentially, control of power is necessary for the three
government arms, including the legislative policies, judicial policies and executive
policies (Portnoi and Bagley, 2014). The legal platforms and drivers that
accentuate accountability and separation of policy are embedded within the
precincts of outputs of HEA. Higher education policy establishes the eligibility of
institutions of higher learning to differentiated levels of increased independence
following an agreement to meet pre-defined performance targets that meet
educational needs of a state and strategic planning.
5. The relationship between Higher Education Policy and Public Policy and
In the past, public policy has been the tool for actuating various transitions that
have molded modern higher education standards in the US. Such transitions
include the development of institutions of higher learning following the creation of
universityâ??s land grant, such as the American research university, and the
development of community learning institutions. Furthermore, public policy has
instigated the expansion of access and acquisition of specialized training in
higher education institutions. In essence, the implementation of public policy
surmounts the furnishing of HEA in 2008 reauthorization (McGuinn, 2016). The
rationale of a flawless education system is the development of educated citizenry
for better economic, political, and social growth of a country. Elections of the US
are molded partly by the HEA in the espousal of education performance record
and accountability in understanding education facets requiring change (Maples,
6. The portrayal of Higher Education Policy by the Media
The media misrepresents HEA in different aspects of education and economy.
There is a poor caricature in media treatment of academics with institutions of
higher learning harboring exemplary policies and ideas that never reach the
market for inclusion into public policy. Poor media marketing identifies how
complex policy topics are covered in colleges and universities, which are later
brought to the public domain.
7. How Higher Education Policy Affects the Voting and Election Process
Political institutions are directly implanted in the governance of institutions of
higher learning in different states (Maples, 2014). Senior state officials,
particularly governors, exercise their authority over higher education systems
influencing appointment process. The culminating effect has a direct influence in
the state election process.
Public policy influences various aspects of higher education policy. HEA elicits a
relation to the constitutional basis of the US government in view of the
implemented public policy ensuring that there is the protection of educational
needs for all people. It also influences an election with consideration of the
influence of political leaders on the governance of learning institutions.
Moreover, the media is shown to elicit negative representation of the policy by
hampering espousal of policies from reaching the market to public policy.
9. Reference List
American Federation of Teachers. (2015). Every Student Succeeds Act: A New Day in
Public Education. December 10. Retrieved May 15, 2018, from
Derek B. W. (2015). Federalizing education by waiver. Vanderbilt Law Review, 68 (3),
Manna, P. & McGuinn, P. (2013). Education Governance for the Twenty-First Century:
Overcoming the Structural Barriers to School Reform. New York:
Brookings Institution Press.
Maples, R. (2014). The Legacy of Desegregation: The Struggle for Equality in Higher
Education. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
McGuinn P. (2016). From no child left behind to the every student succeeds act:
Federalism and the education legacy of the Obama administration. The
Journal of Federalism, 46 (3), 392â??415.
Portnoi, L. M. & Bagley, S. S. (2014). Critical Perspectives on Global Competition in
Higher Education: New Directions for Higher Education. New York:
Week Two Annotated Bibliography Worksheet
Reminders: Each of the four sources here, will need to be peer-reviewed scholarly
sources obtained through the AU Library Databases. Before you begin, be sure
you have critically read ALL of the instructions and that you have watched the video
tutorial for creating an APA formatted Annotated Bibliography and reviewed the Model
APA formatted Annotated Bibliography example .
Every Student Succeeds Act (2015)
In a minimum of 5 sentences, write a paragraph here that explains the topic
and/or policy you will focus on in the final research paper, AND directly address why it is
important. Be sure to utilize the Week 2 Discussion Question and Final Paper Policy
Annotated Bibliography Sources (Title of Source 1 goes here):
Source 1 Related to the Historical and Constitutional Basis of the
American Governmentâ??s Structure (American Federation of Teachers. 2015. Every
Student Succeeds Act: A New Day in Public Education. December 10. Retrieved
January 10 from http://www.aft.org/sites/default/files/essa_faq.pdf.).
The website American Federation of Teachers (2015), as per the US
Department of Education, “The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) was marked
by President Obama on December 10, 2015, and speaks to uplifting news for our
country’s schools. This bipartisan measure reauthorizes the 50-year-old
Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), the country’s national
instruction law and longstanding responsibility regarding rise to open door for all
understudies. The new law expands on enter regions of advance as of late,
attempted conceivable by the endeavors of instructors, groups, guardians, and
understudies the nation over.” This source clarifies the historical backdrop of the
arrangement. The source additionally clarifies regarding why they stepped
forward from the past approach, No Child Left Behind.
Annotated Bibliography Sources (Title of Source 2 goes here):
1. Atkins Deanna. 2016. AASA ESSA call to action. AASA.org, April 11,
Congress is ready to vote on the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) as
right on time as Wednesday, December 2. Thusly, AASA is issuing this invitation to take
action to guarantee that individuals from Congress have the voice of school
administrators on record. With regards to promotion on this proposition and the related
enactment, we buy in to ‘better safe than sorry. We firmly urge you to contact the
aggregate of your Congressional appointment (your Representative and the two
Senators) to ask them to help the gathering proposition to reauthorize ESEA.
Annotated Bibliography Sources (Title of Source 3 goes here):
Black Derek W. 2015. Federalizing education by waiver. Vanderbilt
Law Review 68 3: 607â??680. McGuinn Patrick.. 2016. From no child
left behind to the every student succeeds act: Federalism and the
education legacy of the Obama administration. Publius: The Journal
of Federalism 46 3: 392â??415
The article written by Black Derek (2015), in the fall of 2012, the United
States Secretary of Education told states he would utilize his statutory energy to
postpone infringement of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), however just on the
condition that they receive his new instruction approaches arrangements that had just
flopped in Congress. Most states had no genuine decision yet to concur on the grounds
that 80% of their schools was looked with statutory endorses and reserve end.
Therefore, the Secretary was successfully ready to federalize two center parts of
government funded training throughout the following year. Out of the blue, school
educational modules and the terms of educator assessment and maintenance went
under the impact and control of the government.
Annotated Bibliography Sources (Title of Source 4 goes here):
David Mitchell, 2010. Education that fits: Review of international
trends in the education of students with special educational needs,
PhD – College of Education, University of Canterbury, for the Ministry
The reason for this review is to layout global patterns in the education of
students with exceptional special needs, with the point of illuminating the Ministry of
Education’s present survey of special education.
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