Group Project

Here is the topic of the group project: “Our group project is going to be on the company Under Armour. The product we are trying to bring to market, high quality construction boots made with leather, steel toe, and hard rubber solesThe Document call “group project marketing” will have the description and the step for the group project, I only need to finish Analyze the companies using following criteria: Competitor Analysis: how many companies offer similar products/services, prices etc. Give examples of competitors and what they offer. Customer Analysis: identify who are their consumers or a target market using age, gender, characteristics, income, demographic, and psychographic. So don’t need to care about other part, that is other group member’s job. This essay need to be APA format, and there is a APA format sample pdf, please follow the format as the pdf. The minimum page is 4. Feel free to ask me question if you have any confused.
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Group Project
Objectives: This project gives an opportunity for students to exhibit the understanding of marketing
concepts and critically look at a companyâ??s marketing mix and to identify their strengths,
weaknesses, and future opportunities through multiple analyses.
Choose a company with existing products. Imagining youâ??re hired by a company to expand its
product line. Itâ??s your responsibility to come up with a new product/service while provide all
necessary analyses to support your proposal.
Company Analyses
â?¢ Introduction and short company and productâ??s bios.
â?¢ SWOT Analysis for the company (provide at least 3 points for each S W O T)
â?¢ Analyze the companies using following criteria:
o Competitor Analysis: how many companies offer similar products/services, prices etc.
Give examples of competitors and what they offer.
o Customer Analysis: identify who are their consumers or a target market using age, gender,
characteristics, income, demographic, and psychographic.
Product Analysis
â?¢ Marketing Mix analysis: Identify 4Ps for the new product.
o Product: Create a product including detailed information and packaging (it could be in a
physical or digital form).
o Price: How much is this product and why, what price strategy you are going to use etc.
o Promotion: How youâ??re going to promote this product. Provide a promotional plan.
o Place: What would be distributional channels for this product (where consumers can buy
this product and why).
â?¢ Point of difference: what make this product unique relative to competitors.
â?¢ Positioning: what is the position of this product in a consumerâ??s mind
â?¢ Recommendations (Can be written based on your previous analyses)
â?¢ Summary
1
Running head: VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION
1
Green text boxes
contain explanations
of APA style
guidelines.
The title
should
summarize
the paperâ??s
main idea and
identify the
variables
under
discussion
and the
relationship
between
them.
Blue boxes contain
directions for writing
and citing in APA
style.
Varying Definitions of Online Communication and
Their Effects on Relationship Research
The title
should be
centered on
the page,
typed in 12point Times
New Roman
Font. It
should not be
bolded,
underlined, or
italicized.
Elizabeth L. Angeli
The authorâ??s
name and
institution
should be
doublespaced and
centered.
State University
Author Note
Elizabeth L. Angeli, Department of Psychology, State University.
Elizabeth Angeli is now at Department of English, Purdue University.
This research was supported in part by a grant from the Sample Grant
Program.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Elizabeth
Angeli, Department of English, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 55555.
Contact: author@boiler.edu
The author note should appear on printed articles and identifies each authorâ??s
department and institution affiliation and any changes in affiliation, contains
acknowledgements and any financial support received, and provides contact
information. For more information, see the APA manual, 2.03, page 24-25.
Note: An author note is optional for students writing class papers, theses, and
dissertations..
An author note should appear as follows:
First paragraph: Complete departmental and institutional affiliation
Second paragraph: Changes in affiliation (if any)
Third paragraph: Acknowledgments, funding sources, special circumstances
Fourth paragraph: Contact information (mailing address and e-mail)
The running
head is a
shortened
version of the
paperâ??s full title,
and it is used to
help readers
identify the
titles for
published
articles (even if
your paper is
not intended for
publication, your
paper should
still have a
running head).
The running
head cannot
exceed 50
characters,
including spaces
and
punctuation.
The running
headâ??s title
should be in
capital letters.
The running
head should be
flush left, and
page numbers
should be flush
right. On the
title page, the
running head
should include
the words
â??Running head.â?
For pages
following the
title page,
repeat the
running head in
all caps without
â??Running head.â?
VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION
2
Abstract
The
abstract is
a brief
summary of
the paper,
allowing
readers to
quickly
review the
main points
and
purpose of
the paper.
The
abstract
should be
between
150-250
words.
Abbreviations and
acronyms
used in the
paper
should be
defined in
the
abstract.
This paper explores four published articles that report on results from research conducted
on online (Internet) and offline (non-Internet) relationships and their relationship to
computer-mediated communication (CMC). The articles, however, vary in their
definitions and uses of CMC. Butler and Kraut (2002) suggest that face-to-face (FtF)
interactions are more effective than CMC, defined and used as â??email,â? in creating
feelings of closeness or intimacy. Other articles define CMC differently and, therefore,
offer different results. This paper examines Cummings, Butler, and Krautâ??s (2002)
research in relation to three other research articles to suggest that all forms of CMC
should be studied in order to fully understand how CMC influences online and offline
relationships.
Keywords: computer-mediated communication, face-to-face communication
The word
â??Abstractâ?
should be
centered
and typed
in 12 point
Times New
Roman. Do
not indent
the first
line of the
abstract
paragraph.
All other
paragraphs
in the
paper
should be
indented.
The title
should be
centered on
the page,
typed in 12point Times
New Roman
Font. It
should not be
bolded,
underlined, or
italicized.
The introduction presents
the problem
that the
paper
addresses.
See the OWL
resources on
introductions:
http://owl.en
glish.purdue.e
du/owl/resou
rce/724/01/
VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION
3
Varying Definitions of Online Communication and
Their Effects on Relationship Research
Numerous studies have been conducted on various facets of Internet relationships,
focusing on the levels of intimacy, closeness, different communication modalities, and
the frequency of use of computer-mediated communication (CMC). However,
contradictory results are suggested within this research because only certain aspects of
CMC are investigated, for example, email only. Cummings, Butler, and Kraut (2002)
suggest that face-to-face (FtF) interactions are more effective than CMC (read: email) in
creating feelings of closeness or intimacy, while other studies suggest the opposite. To
understand how both online (Internet) and offline (non-Internet) relationships are affected
by CMC, all forms of CMC should be studied. This paper examines Cummings et al.â??s
research against other CMC research to propose that additional research be conducted to
In-text
citations
that are
direct
quotes
should
include the
authorâ??s/
authorsâ??
name/s,
the
publication
year, and
page
number/s.
If you are
paraphrasing a
source,
APA
encourages
you to
include
page
numbers:
(Smith,
2009, p.
76).
The title of
the paper is
centered
and not
bolded.
better understand how online communication affects relationships.
If an article
has three
to five
authors,
write out all
of the
authorsâ??
names the
first time
they
appear.
Then use
the first
authorâ??s
last name
followed by
â??et al.â?
Literature Review
In Cummings et al.â??s (2002) summary article reviewing three empirical studies on
online social relationships, it was found that CMC, especially email, was less effective
than FtF contact in creating and maintaining close social relationships. Two of the three
reviewed studies focusing on communication in non-Internet and Internet relationships
mediated by FtF, phone, or email modalities found that the frequency of each modalityâ??s
use was significantly linked to the strength of the particular relationship (Cummings et
al., 2002). The strength of the relationship was predicted best by FtF and phone
APA
requires
you to
include the
publication
year
because
APA users
are
concerned
with the
date of the
article (the
more
current the
better).
VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION
4
communication, as participants rated email as an inferior means of maintaining personal
Use an
appendix to
provide
brief
content
that
supplement
s your
paper but is
not directly
related to
your text.
relationships as compared to FtF and phone contacts (Cummings et al., 2002).
If you are
including an
appendix,
refer to it
in the body
of your
paper.
found that participants corresponded less frequently with their Internet partner (5.2 times
Cummings et al. (2002) reviewed an additional study conducted in 1999 by the
HomeNet project (see Appendix A for more information on the HomeNet project). In
this project, Kraut, Mukhopadhyay, Szczypula, Kiesler, and Scherlis (1999) compared
the value of using CMC and non-CMC to maintain relationships with partners. They
per month) than with their non-Internet partner (7.2 times per month) (as cited in
Cummings et al., 2002). This difference does not seem significant, as it is only two times
less per month. However, in additional self-report surveys, participants responded
feeling more distant, or less intimate, towards their Internet partner than their nonInternet partner. This finding may be attributed to participantsâ?? beliefs that email is an
inferior mode of personal relationship communication.
Intimacy is necessary in the creation and maintenance of relationships, as it is
defined as the sharing of a personâ??s innermost being with another person, i.e., selfdisclosure (Hu, Wood, Smith, & Westbrook, 2004). Relationships are facilitated by the
reciprocal self-disclosing between partners, regardless of non-CMC or CMC. Cummings
et al.â??s (2002) reviewed results contradict other studies that research the connection
between intimacy and relationships through CMC.
Hu et al. (2004) studied the relationship between the frequency of Instant
Messenger (IM) use and the degree of perceived intimacy among friends. The use of IM
instead of email as a CMC modality was studied because IM supports a non-professional
VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION
5
environment favoring intimate exchanges (Hu et al., 2004). Their results suggest that a
positive relationship exists between the frequency of IM use and intimacy, demonstrating
that participants feel closer to their Internet partner as time progresses through this CMC
modality.
Similarly, Underwood and Findlay (2004) studied the effect of Internet
relationships on primary, specifically non-Internet relationships and the perceived
intimacy of both. In this study, self-disclosure, or intimacy, was measured in terms of
shared secrets through the discussion of personal problems. Participants reported a
significantly higher level of self-disclosure in their Internet relationship as compared to
their primary relationship. In contrast, the participantsâ?? primary relationships were
reported as highly self-disclosed in the past, but the current level of disclosure was
perceived to be lower (Underwood & Findlay, 2004). This result suggests participants
turned to the Internet in order to fulfill the need for intimacy in their lives.
In further support of this finding, Tidwell and Walther (2002) hypothesized CMC
participants employ deeper self-disclosures than FtF participants in order to overcome the
limitations of CMC, e.g., the reliance on nonverbal cues. It was found that CMC partners
engaged in more frequent intimate questions and disclosures than FtF partners in order to
overcome the barriers of CMC. In their 2002 study, Tidwell and Walther measured the
perception of a relationshipâ??s intimacy by the partner of each participant in both the CMC
and FtF conditions. The researchers found that the participantsâ?? partners stated their
CMC partner was more effective in employing more intimate exchanges than their FtF
VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION
6
partner, and both participants and their partners rated their CMC relationship as more
intimate than their FtF relationship.
Discussion
In 2002, Cummings et al. stated that the evidence from their research conflicted
with other data examining the effectiveness of online social relationships. This statement
is supported by the aforementioned discussion of other research. There may be a few
possible theoretical explanations for these discrepancies.
Limitations of These Studies
A Level 2
heading
should be
flush with
the left
margin,
bolded, and
title case.
The discrepancies identified may result from a number of limitations found in the
materials reviewed by Cummings et al. These limitations can result from technological
constraints, demographic factors, or issues of modality. Each of these limitations will be
examined in further detail below.
Technological limitations. First, one reviewed study by Cummings et al. (2002)
A Level 3
heading
should
indented
0.5� from
the left
margin,
bolded, and
lower case
(except for
the first
word). Text
should
follow
immediately
after. If you
use more
than three
levels of
headings,
consult
section 3.02
of the APA
manual
(6th ed.) or
the OWL
resource on
APA
headings:
http://owl.en
glish.purdue.
edu/owl/reso
urce/560/16
/
examined only email correspondence for their CMC modality. Therefore, the study is
limited to only one mode of communication among other alternatives, e.g., IM as studied
by Hu et al. (2004). Because of its many personalized features, IM provides more
personal CMC. For example, it is in real time without delay, voice-chat and video
features are available for many IM programs, and text boxes can be personalized with the
userâ??s picture, favorite colors and text, and a wide variety of emoticons, e.g., :). These
options allow for both an increase in self-expression and the ability to overcompensate
for the barriers of CMC through customizable features, as stated in Tidwell and Walther
A Level 1
heading
should be
centered,
bolded, and
uppercase
and lower
case (also
referred to
as title
case).
Because all
research
has its
limitations,
it is
important
to discuss
the
limitations
of articles
under
examination
.
VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION
7
(2002). Self-disclosure and intimacy may result from IMâ??s individualized features,
which are not as personalized in email correspondence.
Demographic limitations. In addition to the limitations of email, Cummings et
al. (2002) reviewed studies that focused on international bank employees and college
students (see Appendix B for demographic information). It is possible the participantsâ??
CMC through email was used primarily for business, professional, and school matters
and not for relationship creation or maintenance. In this case, personal self-disclosure
and intimacy levels are expected to be lower for non-relationship interactions, as this
communication is primarily between boss and employee or student and professor.
Intimacy is not required, or even desired, for these professional relationships.
Modality limitations. Instead of professional correspondence, however,
Cummings et al.â??s (2002) review of the HomeNet project focused on already established
relationships and CMCâ??s effect on relationship maintenance. The HomeNet researchersâ??
sole dependence on email communication as CMC may have contributed to the lower
levels of intimacy and closeness among Internet relationships as compared to nonInternet relationships (as cited in Cummings et al., 2002). The barriers of non-personal
communication in email could be a factor in this project, and this could lead to less
intimacy among these Internet partners. If alternate modalities of CMC were studied in
both already established and professional relationships, perhaps these results would have
resembled those of the previously mentioned research.
VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION
8
Conclusions and Future Study
In order to gain a complete understanding of CMCâ??s true effect on both online
and offline relationships, it is necessary to conduct a study that examines all aspects of
CMC. This includes, but is not limited to, email, IM, voice-chat, video-chat, online
journals and diaries, online social groups with message boards, and chat rooms. The
effects on relationships of each modality may be different, and this is demonstrated by
the discrepancies in intimacy between email and IM correspondence. As each mode of
communication becomes more prevalent in individualsâ?? lives, it is important to examine
the impact of all modes of CMC on online and offline relationship formation,
maintenance, and even termination.
The
conclusion
restates
the
problem
the paper
addresses
and can
offer areas
for further
research.
See the
OWL
resource on
conclusions:
http://owl.
english.pur
due.edu/ow
l/resource/
724/04/
VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION
References
Cummings, J. N., Butler, B., & Kraut, R. (2002). The quality of online social
relationships. Communications of the ACM, 45(7), 103-108.
Hu, Y., Wood, J. F., Smith, V., & Westbrook, N. (2004). Friendships through IM:
Examining the relationship between instant messaging and intimacy. Journal of
Computer-Mediated Communication, 10, 38-48.
Tidwell, L. C., & Walther, J. B. (2002). Computer-mediated communication effects on
disclosure, impressions, and interpersonal evaluations: Getting to know one
another a bit at a time. Human Communication Research, 28, 317-348.
Underwood, H., & Findlay, B. (2004). Internet relationships and their impact on primary
relationships. Behaviour Change, 21(2), 127-140.
Start the reference list on a new page, center the title â??References,â? and
alphabetize the entries. Do not underline or italicize the title. Double-space all
entries. Every source mentioned in the paper should have an entry.
9
VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION
10
Appendix A
The HomeNet Project
The first
paragraph
of the
appendix
should flush
with the
left margin.
Additional
paragraphs
should be
indented.
Started at Carnegie Mellon University in 1995, the HomeNet research project has
involved a number of studies intended to look at home Internet usage. Researchers began
this project because the Internet was originally designed as a tool for scientific and
corporate use. Home usage of the Internet was an unexpected phenomenon worthy of
extended study.
Each of HomeNetâ??s studies has explored a different facet of home Internet usage,
such as chatting, playing games, or reading the news. Within the past few years, the
explosion of social networking has also proven to be an area deserving of additional
research. Refer to Table A1 for a more detailed description of HomeNet studies.
Table A1
Label tables
and figures
in the
appendix as
you would
in the text
of your
manuscript,
using the
letter A
before the
number to
clarify that
the table or
figure
belongs to
the
appendix.
Description of HomeNet Studies by Year
Year  of  Study  
1995-­�1996  
1997-­�1999  
1998-­�1999  
2000-­�2002  
Contents  of  Study  
93 families in Pittsburgh involved in school
or community organizations
25 families with home businesses
151 Pittsburgh households
National survey
Begin each
appendix
on a new
page., with
the word
appendix in
the top
center. Use
an
identifying
capital
letter (e.g.,
Appendix
A,
Appendix B,
etc.) if you
have more
than one
appendix. If
you are
referring to
more than
one
appendix in
your text,
use the
plural
appendices
(APA only).
VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION
Appendix B
Demographic Information for Cummings et al. (2002)â??s Review
If an
appendix
consists
entirely of
a table or
figure, the
title of the
table or
figure
should
serve as
the title of
the
appendix.
11

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