Answer the following questions using the attached resources. Cite the resources in responses. 300 to 400 wordsWhat are the strengths and weaknesses of these standards?Can administrators following these competencies make a difference in their schools?If you had written these competencies, what would you have included? What would you have left out?
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14 PARAMETERS OF LITERACY LEADERSHIP
Parameters 1-13 from Sharratt, L., & Fullan, M. (2009) 13 Parameters: A Literacy Leadership Toolkit. Pearson.
Parameter 14 from Sharratt, L., & Fullan, M. (2009). Realization. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
1. Shared Beliefs and Understandings Among All Staff
2. Designated Staff Member for Literacy
a) All students can achieve high standards given the
a) Literacy teachers have time scheduled to
right time and support
work with classroom teachers to support
b) All teachers can teach to high standards given
focused literacy instruction e.g. during
the right assistance
c) High expectations and early intervention are
b) They are lead learners and team builders
c) Literacy teachers are knowledgeable about
d) Teachers need to be able to articulate what they
literacy instruction and assessment, and
do and why they teach the way they do
about the management of change
d) Literacy teachers work alongside classroom
teachers, modeling successful literacy
e) They plan and facilitate professional learning
3. Daily, Sustained, Focused Literacy Instruction
4. Principal as Literacy Leader
a) At the elementary level, a Literacy block of at
a) Such principals use data to inform
least 100 uninterrupted minutes per day is
instruction and school planning
b) They acquire a deep understanding of
b) Strong literacy practices require focused time on
effective literacy practices in the classroom
balanced literacy assessment and instruction.
c) They take part, with their literacy
c) Balanced literacy is an instructional framework
leadership teams, in regional learning
designed to teach all students how to make
meaning and communicate effectively. Focused
d) They strive to develop sustainable
lessons occur using the following components:
professional learning communities in
read/write aloud; shared reading/writing;
guided reading/writing; independent
d) Literacy instruction is free from all
distractions and interruptions
e) The Literacy teacherâ??s timetable aligns
with the Literacy block at the elementary
level with teachers and students most
in need of support at the secondary level
5. Early and Ongoing Intervention
6. A Case Management Approach to
a) Individual student need is determined
Monitoring Student Progress
through the ongoing examination of a
a) This approach requires teachers in a
range of assessment data
school to work as a group to analyze
b) Teachers must be skilled at using effective
student data and make decisions on
Instructional strategies matched to student need
differentiating instruction and selecting
c) A collective effort by all teachers–resources
classroom, special education, English
b) A common understanding and use of
language learner, and literacyâ??is
diagnostic and formative assessment tools
necessary to design and deliver programs
support the monitoring of data
that support all students
c) Data are gathered and displayed in such
d) District and school administrators support
a way that they become the focus of
teachers in building capacity in literacy
problem-solving dialogue among teachers
Instruction and assessment, and also in
involved in each studentâ??s case
how to use collaborative structures
d) Data collected help plan next steps to
meet the needs of each student and to
meet the professional development needs
of the school and district
7. Job-Embedded Professional Learning
8. In-School Grade or Subject Team
a) Job-embedded professional learning
a) Teams meet regularly to discuss the
focused on literacy takes place with
Literacy achievement of individual
teachers and with staff when they meet as
a whole group; it is responsive to the schoolâ??s
b) Teachers assess student work
collaboratively, using common assessment
b) District leadership and school staff
tools and exemplars
meetings are key forums for focused
c) Analysis of student work supports the
discussions that promote professional
development of a common understanding
learning about literacy
of the expected standards across a grade
c) Sessions include a balance of theory and
or course; it also serves to support
practice, and are informed by current
consistent practice between classrooms in
d) Teachers share leadership in planning and
designing their professional learning
9. Shared Literacy Resources in a
Designed Area of the School
a) Resources that support differentiated
Instruction are compiled and organized in a
book room or resource centre.
b) Resources meet a range of abilities and
needs and address a range of interests
11. Staff Commitment to Learning and
a) Action research is one example of jobembedded professional learning that
involves a structured process of teacher
b) Teachers work collaboratively to design a
specifically focused question that pertains
to literacy issues and student achievement
as identified in school and classroom
c) The district supports the work of school
teams by providing funds and by offering
professional development sessions focused
in collaboration and research skills
d) At the end of the research cycle, action
research teams produce reports that
document their learning journeys and
13. Appropriate Literacy Instruction in
All Areas of the Curriculum
a) The components of balanced literacy
instruction allow teachers to support
students in developing meaning-making skills
in all subject areas
b) Assessment data determine what literacy
skills students will need to develop in order
to access the subjectâ??s content
c) Teachers in all content areas can further
studentsâ?? achievement in literacy by
modeling the skills, sharing in the making of
meaning, guiding students toward
independence, and monitoring their
10. Commitment of School Budget to
Acquiring Literacy Resources
a) Administrators allocate budget for literacy
resources that address instructional
needs revealed by school and classroom
b) High-quality resources are purchased to
support student learning (leveled text,
rich literature ) and teacher learning
(common resource for book study,
researched â??based pedagogic books)
c) In-school and cross-school dialogue
leads to a deeper understanding of what
constitutes a high-quality literacy
12. Parental Involvement in Supporting Literacy
a) Literacy leadership teams work toward
establishing strong community-homeschool relationships
b) Schools build strong relationships with
parents by keeping them informed about
their childrenâ??s progress and about their
approach to the teaching of
c) These relationships are supported in
schools where parents understand how
they can sup[port their children and
where schools invite parents to help them
understand how the schools can support
14. Shared Responsibility and Accountability
(Realization, pg. 105)
a) Triangulation of data informs the professional
learning needed in districts and schools
b) Ongoing use of formative data provides
descriptive feedback for students, differentiates
instruction, and impacts the selection of
c) The district disaggregates and delivers data to
administratorsâ?? and teachersâ?? desktops to put
individual faces on the data and assists in the
development of improvement plans to
collaboratively take action
d) Administrators and teachers can name at-risk
students individually and clearly articulate what
they are doing for each one
e) School staffs work on finding results of action
research question based on schoolsâ?? data
f) The district hosts an evidence-based Literacy
Learning Fair for all school teams to share
student improvement and learn from other
g) Schools host their own Literacy Learning Fairs for
parents and the community
â??Within schools, we may define literacy as the development of a continuum of skills,
knowledge, and attitudes that prepare all learners in a changing world community. It
begins with the fundamental acquisition of skills in reading, writing, listening,
speaking, viewing, representing, responding and mathematics. It becomes the ability
to understand, think, apply, and communicate effectively in all subject and program
areas in a variety of ways and for a variety of purpose.â?
13 Parameters: A Literacy Leadership Toolkit, Facilitatorâ??s Resource, pg. ix, 2009.
School Reading Plan
Office of Early Learning and Literacy
Division of College and Career Readiness
South Carolina Department of Education
Updated January 14, 2016
NARRATIVE DESCRIPTION OF SCHOOL PLAN COMPONENTS
The goal of Read to Succeed is to improve student reading achievement for all students, prekindergarten
through twelfth grade. Pursuant to the Read to Succeed, Act 284 legislation, all districts are required to
annually submit a District Reading Plan, which supports evidence-based reading instruction. The School
Reading Plan, aligned to the District Reading Plan, must accurately depict and detail the role of school
leadership in support of assessment; curriculum, instruction, and intervention; professional learning;
parent and family involvement; and school community partnerships in support of increased student
achievement in reading, writing, speaking, listening, and inquiring.
The School Reading Plan must include a focus on:
leadership to guide and support evidence-based reading research practices aligned with state
and district policies;
clear and measurable student achievement goals;
professional learning opportunities for educators and other partners in support of reading and
systemic reading and writing assessment and instruction plans for all students including
intensive interventions for students who are not proficient in comprehending grade-level text;
a system for helping parents and families understand how they can support their child as a
reader and writer at home; and
a strategic plan for developing partnerships with county libraries, state and local arts
organizations, volunteers, social service organizations, school library media specialists and
others to promote reading and writing.
The School Reading Plan must address the following:
1. A leadership plan to guide and support evidence-based reading research practices aligned
with state and district policies is developed.
The School Reading Plan must detail who will serve as the school leader to support evidence-based
reading practices aligned with district and state policies, specifically Read to Succeed and the school
leaderâ??s role, including specific responsibilities to improve student achievement school-wide.
Guiding questions: Who will serve as the school leader to support evidence-based reading practices?
How will stakeholders be informed regarding the School Reading Plan? How will the School Literacy
Leadership Team support evidence-based reading practices and effective writing instruction aligned to
district and state policies, specifically Read to Succeed?
Updated January 14, 2016
The roles and responsibilities of the School Literacy Leadership Team include:
developing and implementing a school plan including the establishment of student
providing information regarding Read to Succeed legislation and guidance for
providing evidence-based instructional resources and support;
ensuring coordination among all program areas, including federal programs (i.e., Title I,
Title III, IDEA), special education and others as appropriate;
establishing, leading, and supporting educators in becoming more effective practitioners
ensuring the literacy practices of all are effective in helping students move toward
demonstration of grade-level proficiency;
defining the role of the school-based reading coach as a full-time professional
development resource for teachers and explaining clearly that the reading coach is not
used as a reading resource teacher, a substitute, an administrator, an interventionist, or
in any other capacity that takes them away from their primary role;
facilitating evidence-based professional learning opportunities which focus on effective
literacy practices through the establishment of collaborative professional learning
communities and study groups;
developing a school-wide system which ensures the use of text-based assessment;
engaging staff in identifying, collecting, monitoring, and responding to a variety of data
on a regular basis and supporting staff in using data to inform instruction and
determining a process for monitoring, evaluating, and providing feedback on the
implementation of the school reading plan to all stakeholders specifically teachers,
students, and parents;
providing updates to the District Literacy Leadership Team, the School Improvement
Council, the PTA, the community, and other stakeholders regarding the implementation
successes, challenges, and progress toward meeting student achievement goals; and
establishing a plan to increase parental, family, and community involvement in the
Updated January 14, 2016
2. Clear and measurable student achievement goals are established.
Clear and measurable student achievement goals for literacy should be set for each grade level and are
necessary to drive instruction, improve achievement, and to evaluate overall effectiveness and student
growth. Early literacy goals should be set for prekindergarten. Measureable student achievement goals
must be established using state and local assessment results. If certain grade levels do not have state
accountability measures, local assessments should be used to set student achievement goals. Action
steps for obtaining goals by the end of each year should be clearly articulated and monitored frequently
for each grade level.
Guiding questions: Using state assessment data, what are the student achievement goals for each grade
level within your building? If state assessment data is not available for specific grade levels, what local
assessment data will be used to set student achievement goals? What were the steps taken to establish
goals for each grade level?
3. Systemic professional learning opportunities for educators and other partners in literacy are
Professional learning is the vehicle used to provide educators and other partners with the support,
knowledge, skills, and instructional practices they need to deliver effective instruction school-wide.
Effective professional learning opportunities are job-embedded and include five critical characteristics:
1) collaborative learning; 2) links between curriculum, assessment, and standards; 3) active learning; 4)
deepening of content knowledge and how to teach it; and 5) are sustained over time. Ongoing support,
offered through different delivery models, helps everyone master their craft so that every student can
demonstrate or make significant progress toward grade-level proficiency.
School level professional learning opportunities should focus on utilizing data to inform instruction; be
differentiated based on classroom data, include the establishment of model classrooms within the
school; and be based on research and best practices.
Guiding questions: How will the school provide systemic professional learning opportunities for
educators and other partners in the area of evidence-based reading instruction, discipline-specific
literacy, and intervention? How will the school provide professional learning opportunities to support the
use of assessment data to target instruction and intervention based on student needs? How will the
school utilize reading coaches to provide job-embedded professional learning opportunities? How will
professional learning opportunities be targeted to meet individual teacher needs, as determined by an
analysis of student performance data? What delivery models will be used to ensure all educators have
access to the professional learning opportunities provided?
Updated January 14, 2016
4. A comprehensive assessment system is established.
Reading and writing assessments take many forms including formative and summative assessments and
serve as the basis for delivering data-driven instruction. Educators must use assessments to identify
students who are at risk academically in order to adjust instruction to meet each studentâ??s individual
needs. Assessment systems should assess all research-based reading components including phonological
awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension, and be used to regularly monitor student
progress. Progress monitoring is a practice that assists educators in using student data to continually
evaluate the effectiveness of their teaching in order to make informed instructional decisions to meet
individual student needs.
Guiding questions: What are the formative and summative assessments used as part of the schoolâ??s
comprehensive assessment system? How will assessment be utilized to enable teachers to measure
student progress in reading and writing to better inform instructional and intervention decisions? How
will assessment results be used to evaluate the schoolâ??s overall literacy program for all students? How
will the school ensure assessment results are clearly communicated and provided to parents and families
in a timely manner?
5. Exemplary literacy classrooms for all students, Prek-12, are established.
There are five critical elements of exemplary literacy classrooms.
Significant time devoted to actual reading and writing.
Research is clear that in order to support and challenge students to reach proficient and advanced levels
of literacy growth, the time students are expected to read and write for authentic purposes must
dramatically increase during the school day. (Allington, 2012, Brozo et al, 2008, Cipielewski & Stanovich,
1992). When teachers increase the number of minutes students spend reading during the school day,
studentsâ?? standardized reading achievement test scores improve. It is therefore imperative that students
spend time reading in school. The Read to Succeed legislation requires ninety minutes of daily reading
and writing instruction for all students in kindergarten through grade five and thirty minutes of
additional daily supplemental intervention for all students who do not yet demonstrate grade-level
proficiency. Students in grades four through twelve must receive thirty minutes supplemental
instruction daily until the student can comprehend and write at grade-level independently. It is critical
that the students spend the majority of this time reading and writing. As noted in the State Reading
Plan, â??Guthrie (2004) clearly showed that teachers who consistently help all of their students reach high
levels of reading achievement do so by fully engaging students in reading and writing text.â? In the
successful classrooms he studied, students spent â??75% to 90% of instructional time reading and writing
connected texts. Teachers routinely had students reading forty to forty-five minutes of each hour with
only five to ten minutes preparing students to read and only five to ten minutes engaging students in
activities after reading.â?
Updated January 14, 2016
Guiding questions: How much time is devoted to daily, authentic reading and writing in all classrooms?
The Read to Succeed legislation requires ninety minutes of daily reading and writing instruction for all
students in kindergarten through grade five, and an additional thirty minutes of targeted instruction on a
daily basis for identified students. Schools should work toward optimizing instructional time, working
toward a ninety minute block of reading and writing instruction, in grades four through twelve. How
much time does the school allocate for uninterrupted reading and writing ins …
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