Hinduism and Buddhism

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Wat Rong Khun, Thailand
INSTRUCTIONS:
� In the accompanying packet, you will find three Hindu texts and three Buddhist texts.
� For each of the religious systems:
1. Select one of the texts and explain why you have chosen it as most representative of the religious system;
2. Address the reasons why the other two readings were not, in your assessment, as representative. You may use
outside sources to make your case.
� All the information you need to construct your critical apparatus (in-text citations, footnotes and bibliography) are in
the packet. If you need help with this, see me during Office Hours or visit the Center for Teaching and Learning.
FORMATING:
� Calibri 11pt; double-spacing; 2 ENTIRE pages (minimum and maximum).
� Use in-text citations for direct quotes from sacred texts (Book Chapter: Verse; e.g. Jb 38: 4), and Chicago Manual of
Style for all other textual references.
� If not using Answer Sheet: files should be .doc/.docx or .pdf. No .pages files.
EVALUATION:
� See rubric on Canvas.
� In the case no extension was requested, one point will be deducted per day late.
HINDUISM
SOMA
(THE RIG-VEDA: Book VIII, Hymn XLVIII)
1
WISELY have I enjoyed the savoury viand, religious-thoughted, best to find out treasure,
The food to which all Deities and mortals, calling it meath, gather themselves together.
2
Thou shalt be Aditi as thou hast entered within, appeaser of celestial anger.
Indu, enjoying Indra’s friendship, bring usâ??as a swift steed the carâ??forward to riches.
3
We have drunk Soma and become immortal; we have attained the light, the Gods discovered.
Now what may foeman’s malice do to harm us? What, O Immortal, mortal man’s deception?
4
Absorbed into the heart, be sweet, O Indu, as a kind father to his son, O Soma,
As a wise Friend to friend: do thou, wide-ruler, O Soma, lengthen out our days for living.
5
These glorious drops that give me freedom have I drunk. Closely they knit my joints as straps secure a car.
Let them protect my foot from slipping on the way: yea, let the drops I drink preserve me from disease.
6
Make me shine bright like fire produced by friction: give us a clearer sight and make us better.
For in carouse I think of thee, O Soma, Shall I, as a rich man, attain to comfort?
7
May we enjoy with an enlivened spirit the juice thou givest, like ancestral riches.
O Soma, King, prolong thou our existence as SÅ«rya makes the shining days grow longer.
8
King Soma, favour us and make us prosper: we are thy devotees; of this be mindful.
Spirit and power are fresh in us, O Indu give us not up unto our foeman’s pleasure.
9
For thou hast settled in each joint, O Soma, aim of men’s eyes and guardian of our bodies.
When we offend against thine holy statutes, as a kind Friend, God, best of all, be gracious.
10
May I be with the Friend whose heart is tender, who, Lord of Bays! when quaffed will never harm meThis Soma now deposited within me. For this, I pray for longer life to Indra.
11
Our maladies have lost their strength and vanished: they feared, and passed away into the darkness.
Soma hath risen in us, exceeding mighty, and we are come where men prolong existence.
12
Fathers, that Indu which our hearts have drunken, Immortal in himself, hath entered mortals.
So let us serve this Soma with oblation, and rest securely in his grace and favour.
13
Associate with the Fathers thou, O Soma, hast spread thyself abroad through earth and heaven.
So with oblation let us serve thee, Indu, and so let us become the lords of riches,
14
Give us your blessing, O ye Godsâ?? preservers. Never may sleep or idle talk control us.
But evermore may we, as friends of Soma, speak to the synod with brave sons around us.
15
On all sides, Soma, thou art our life-giver: aim of all eyes, light-finder, come within us.
Indu, of one accord with thy protections both from behind and from before preserve us.
BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: (For Chicago Manual of Style citations and bibliography)
Title: The Hymns of the Rigveda, Vol. 3; Translator: Ralph T. H. Griffith; Publisher: E. J. Lazarus and Co.; Location:
Benares; Year: 1891; Page(s): 265-266.
HINDUISM
PURUá¹¢A
(THE RIG-VEDA: Book X, Hymn XC)
1
A THOUSAND heads hath Puruá¹£a, a thousand eyes, a thousand feet.
On every side pervading earth, he fills a space ten fingers wide.
2
This Puruá¹£a is all that yet hath been and all that is to be;
The Lord of Immortality which waxes greater still by food.
3
So mighty is his greatness; yea, greater than this is Puruá¹£a.
All creatures are one-fourth of him, three-fourths eternal life in heaven.
4
With three-fourths Puruá¹£a went up: one-fourth of him again was here.
Thence he strode out to every side over what cats not and what cats.
5
From him Virāj was born; again Puruṣa from Virāj was born.
As soon as he was born he spread eastward and westward oâ??er the earth.
6
When Gods prepared the sacrifice with Puruá¹£a as their offering,
Its oil was spring; the holy gift was autumn; summer was the wood.
7
They balmed as victim on the grass Puruá¹£a born in earliest time.
With him the Deities and all Sādhyas and �ṣis sacrificed.
8
From that great general sacrifice the dripping fat was gathered up.
He formed the creatures of-the air, and animals both wild and tame.
9
From that great general sacrifice �cas and Sāma-hymns were born:
Therefrom were spells and charms produced; the Yajus had its birth from it.
10
From it were horses born, from it all cattle with two rows of teeth:
From it were generated kine, from it the goats and sheep were born.
11
When they divided Puruá¹£a how many portions did they make?
What do they call his mouth, his arms? What do they call his thighs and feet?
12
The Brahman was his mouth, of both his arms was the Rājanya made.
His thighs became the VaiÅ?ya, from his feet the Å?Å«dra was produced.
13
The Moon was gendered from his mind, and from his eye the Sun had birth;
Indra and Agni from his mouth were born, and Vāyu from his breath.
14
Forth from his navel came mid-air the sky was fashioned from his head
Earth from his feet, and from his car the regions. Thus they formed the worlds.
15
Seven fencing-sticks had he, thrice seven layers of fuel were prepared,
When the Gods, offering sacrifice, bound, as their victim, Puruá¹£a.
16
Gods, sacrificing, sacrificed the victim these were the earliest holy ordinances.
The Mighty Ones attained the height of heaven, there where the Sādhyas, Gods of old, are dwelling.
BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: (For Chicago Manual of Style citations and bibliography)
Title: The Hymns of the Rigveda, Vol. 2; Translator: Ralph T. H. Griffith; Publisher: E. J. Lazarus and Co.; Location: Benares;
Year: 1891; Page(s): 517-518.
HINDUISM
THE BHAGAVAD-GITA
(The Mahabarata, Book VI, Chapter XI)
Arjuna said:
1
By the supremely profound words, on the discrimination
of Self, that have been spoken by Thee out of compassion
towards me, this my delusion is gone. 2Of Thee, O lotuseyed, I have heard at length, of the origin and dissolution
of beings, as also Thy inexhaustible greatness. 3So it is, O
Lord Supreme! as Thou hast declared Thyself. (Still) I desire
to see Thy Ishvara-Form, O Purusha Supreme. 4If, O Lord,
Thou thinkest me capable of seeing it, then, O Lord of
Yogis, show me Thy immutable Self.
The Blessed Lord said:
5
Behold, O son of Prithâ, by hundreds and thousands, My
different forms celestial, of various colours and shapes.
6
Behold the Adityas, the Vasus, the Rudras, the twin
Ashvins, and the Maruts; behold, O descendant of Bharata,
many wonders never seen before. 7See now, O Gudâkesha,
in this My body, the whole universe centred in oneâ??
including the moving and the unmovingâ??and all else that
thou desirest to see. 8But thou canst not see Me with these
eyes of thine; I give thee supersensuous sight; behold My
Yoga Power Supreme.
Sanjaya said:
9
Having thus spoken, O King, Hari, the Great Lord of Yoga,
showed unto the son of Prithâ, His Supreme IshvaraFormâ??10With numerous mouths and eyes, with numerous
wondrous sights, with numerous celestial ornaments, with
numerous celestial weapons uplifted; 11Wearing celestial
garlands and apparel, anointed with celestial-scented
unguents, the All-wonderful, Resplendent, Boundless and
All-formed. 12If the splendour of a thousand suns were to
rise up at once in the sky, that would be like the splendour
of that Mighty Being. 13There in the body of the God of
gods, the son of Pându then saw the whole universe resting
in one, with its manifold divisions. 14Then Dhananjaya,
filled with wonder, with his hair standing on end, bending
down his head to the Deva in adoration, spoke with joined
palms.
Arjuna said:
15
I see all the Devas, O Deva, in Thy body, and hosts of all
grades of beings; Brahma, the Lord, seated on the lotus,
and all the Rishis and celestial serpents. 16I see Thee of
boundless form on every side with manifold arms,
stomachs, mouths and eyes; neither the end nor the
middle, nor also the beginning of Thee do I see, O Lord of
the universe, O Universal Form. 17I see Thee with diadem,
club, and discus; a mass of radiance shining everywhere,
very hard to look at, all around blazing like burning fire and
sun, and immeasurable. 18Thou art the Imperishable, the
Supreme Being, the one thing to be known. Thou art the
great Refuge of this universe. Thou art the undying
Guardian of the Eternal Dharma, Thou art the Ancient,
Purusha, I ween. 19I see Thee without beginning, middle or
end, infinite in power, of manifold arms; the sun and the
moon Thine eyes, the burning fire Thy mouth; heating the
whole universe with Thy radiance. 20The space betwixt
heaven and earth and all the quarters are filled by Thee
alone; having seen this, Thy marvellous and awful Form,
the three worlds are trembling with fear, O Great-souled
One. 21Verily, into Thee enter these hosts of Devas; some
extol Thee in fear with joined palms; “May it be well!” thus
saying, bands of great Rishis and Siddhas praise Thee with
splendid hymns. 22The Rudras, Adityas, Vasus, Sâdhyas,
Vishva-Devas, the two Ashvins, Maruts, Ushmapâs, and
hosts of Gandharvas, Yakshas, Asuras, and Siddhasâ??
allthese are looking at Thee, all quite astounded. 23Having
seen Thy immeasurable Formâ??with many mouths and
eyes, O mighty-armed, with many arms, thighs and feet,
with many stomachs, and fearful with many tusksâ??the
worlds are terrified, and so am I. 24On seeing Thee touching
the sky, shining in many a colour, with mouths wide open,
with large fiery eyes, I am terrified at heart, and find no
courage nor peace, O Vishnu. 25Having seen Thy mouths,
fearful with tusks, (blazing) like Pralaya-fires, I know not
the four quarters, nor do I find peace; have mercy, O Lord
of the Devas, O Abode of the universe. 26All these sons of
Dhritarâshtra, with hosts of monarchs, Bhishma, Drona,
and Sutaputra, with the warrior chiefs of ours, enter
precipitately into Thy mouth, terrible with tusks and fearful
to behold. 27Some are found sticking in the interstices of
Thy teeth, with their heads crushed to powder. 28Verily, as
the many torrents of rivers flow towards the ocean, so do
these heroes in the world of men enter Thy fiercely flaming
mouths.29As moths precipitately rush into a blazing fire
only to perish, even so do these creatures also precipitately
rush into Thy mouths only to perish. 30Swallowing all the
worlds on every side with Thy flaming mouths, Thou are
licking Thy lips. Thy fierce rays, filling the whole world with
radiance, are burning, O Vishnu! 31Tell me who Thou art,
fierce in form. Salutation to Thee, O Deva Supreme; have
mercy. I desire to know Thee, O Primeval One. I know not
indeed Thy purpose.
The Blessed Lord said:
32
I am the mighty world-destroying Time, here made
manifest for the purpose of infolding the world. Even
without thee, none of the warriors arrayed in the hostile
armies shall live. 33Therefore do thou arise and acquire
fame. Conquer the enemies, and enjoy the unrivalled
dominion. Verily by Myself have they been already slain; be
thou merely an apparent cause, O Savyasâchin (Arjuna).
34
Drona, Bhishma, Jayadratha, Karna, as well as other brave
warriorsâ??these already killed by Me, do thou kill. Be not
distressed with fear; fight, and thou shalt conquer thy
enemies in battle.
Sanjaya said:
35
Having, heard that speech of Keshava, the diademed one
(Arjuna), with joined palms, trembling, prostrated himself,
and again addressed Krishna in a choked voice, bowing
down, overwhelmed with fear.
Arjuna said:
36
It is meet, O Hrishikesha, that the world is delighted and
rejoices in Thy praise, that Râkshasas fly in fear to all
quarters and all the hosts of Siddhas bow down to Thee in
adoration. 37And why should they not, O Great-souled One,
bow to Thee, greater than, and the Primal Cause of even
Brahmâ, O Infinite Being, O Lord of the Devas, O Abode of
the universe? Thou art the Imperishable, the Being and the
non-Being, (as well as) That which is Beyond (them). 38Thou
art the Primal Deva, the Ancient Purusha; Thou art the
Supreme Refuge of this universe, Thou art the Knower, and
the One Thing to be known; Thou art the Supreme Goal. By
Thee is the universe pervaded, O Boundless Form. 39Thou
art Vâyu, Yama, Agni, Varuna, the Moon, Prajâpati, and the
Great-Grandfather. Salutation, salutation to Thee, a
thousand times, and again and again salutation, salutation
to Thee! 40Salutation to Thee before and behind, salutation
to Thee on every side, O All! Thou, infinite in power and
infinite in prowess, pervadest all; wherefore Thou art All.
41
Whatever I have presumptuously said from carelessness
or love, addressing Thee as, “O Krishna, O Yâdava, O
friend,” regarding Thee merely as a friend, unconscious of
this Thy greatnessâ??42in whatever way I may have been
disrespectful to Thee in fun, while walking, reposing,
sitting, or at meals, when alone (with Thee), O Achyuta, or
in companyâ??I implore Thee, Immeasurable One, to forgive
all this. 43Thou art the Father of the world, moving and
unmoving; the object of its worship; greater than the great.
None there exists who is equal to Thee in the three worlds;
who then can excel Thee, O, Thou of power incomparable?
44
So prostrating my body in adoration, I crave Thy
forgiveness, Lord adorable! As a father forgiveth his son,
friend a dear friend, a beloved one his love, even so
shouldst Thou forgive me, O Deva. 45Overjoyed am I to
have seen what I saw never before; yet my mind is
distracted with terror. Show me, O Deva, only that Form of
Thine. Have mercy, O Lord of Devas, O Abode of the
universe. 46Diademed, bearing a mace and a discus, Thee I
desire to see as before. Assume that same four-armed
Form, O Thou of thousand arms, of universal Form.
The Blessed Lord said:
47
Graciously have I shown to thee, O Arjuna, this Form
supreme, by My own Yoga power, this resplendent,
primeval, infinite, universal Form of Mine, which hath not
been seen before by anyone else. 48Neither by the study of
the Veda and Yajna, nor by gifts, nor by rituals, nor by
severe austerities, am I in such Form seen, in the world of
men, by any other than thee, O great hero of the Kurus.
49
Be not afraid nor bewildered, having beheld this Form of
Mine, so terrific. With thy fears dispelled and with
gladdened heart, now see again this (former) form of Mine.
Sanjaya said:
50
So Vâsudeva, having thus spoken to Arjuna, showed again
His own Form and the Great-souled One, assuming His
gentle Form, pacified him who was terrified.
Arjuna said:
51
Having seen this Thy gentle human Form, O Janârdana,
my thoughts are now composed and I am restored to my
nature.
The Blessed Lord said:
52
Very hard indeed it is to see this Form of Mine which thou
hast seen. Even the Devas ever long to behold this Form.
53
Neither by the Vedas, nor by austerity, nor by gifts, nor
by sacrifice can I be seen as thou hast seen Me. 54But by the
single-minded devotion I may in this Form, be known, O
Arjuna, and seen in reality, and also entered into, O
scorcher of foes. 55He who does work for Me alone and has
Me for his goal, is devoted to Me, is freed from attachment,
and bears enmity towards no creatureâ??he entereth into
Me, O Pândava.
BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: (For Chicago Manual of Style citations and bibliography)
Title: Srimad-Bhagavad-Gita; Translator: Swami Swarupananda; Publisher: Advaita Ashrama; Location: Kolkata; Year:
1967; Page(s): 241-274.
BUDDHISM
THE BEGINNING OF BUDDHA’S PREACHING
(Vin. Mahāv. I: 6, 10ff)
Then the Lord [Buddha]addressed the five brethren:
“These two extremes, brethren, are not to be practised by one who has given up the world. What are the
two? The one, devotion to lusts and pleasures, base, sensual, vulgar, ignoble, and useless, and the other,
devotion to self-mortification, painful, ignoble, and useless. By avoiding these two extremes, brethren,
the Tathāgata has gained perfect knowledge of the middle path, which produces insight and knowledge,
and conduces to tranquillity, to transcendent knowledge, to complete enlightenment, to Nirvana. What
is this middle path, brethren?
It is the Noble Eightfold Path, that is, right views, right aspiration, right speech, right action, right
livelihood, right endeavour, right watchfulness, and right meditation. This, brethren, is the middle path,
of which the Tathāgata has gained perfect knowledge, which produces insight and knowledge, and
conduces to tranquillity, to supernatural faculty, to complete enlightenment, to Nirvana.
This, brethren, is the noble truth of suffering: birth is suffering, old age is suffering, illness is suffering,
death is suffering. Union with unpleasant things is suffering, separation from pleasant things is suffering,
not obtaining what we wish is suffering, in short the fivefold clinging to existence is suffering. And this,
brethren, is the noble truth of the cause of suffering: craving, which causes rebirth, accompanied by
pleasure and lust, and rejoices at finding delight here and there, that is, craving for pleasure, craving for
existence, and craving for prosperity.
And this, brethren, is the noble truth of the destruction of suffering: which is the complete and trackless
destruction of that thirst, its abandonment and relinquishment, liberation, and aversion.
And this, brethren, is the noble truth of the path that leads to the destruction of suffering, that is, right
views, right aspiration, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right endeavour, right watchfulness, and
right meditation.”
BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: (For Chicago Manual of Style citations and bibliography)
Title: Buddhist Scriptures; Translator: E. J. Thomas; Publisher: Pilgrims Publishing; Location: Kathmandu; Year: 2004;
Page(s): 108.
BUDDHISM
CONCERNING THE GREAT SUTRA
(Buddhist Psalms)
49
The Venerable Ananda, rising from his seat, and looking
upwards to the World-Honoured Gautama Buddha, his
eyes being opened, marvelled greatly, seeing the glory of
his Lord so transfigured.
50
The Venerable Ananda asked the Cause of that glory, for
the Lord, shining in the Light that was hitherto unseen of
the world, taught openly, for the first time, that Truth for
which He came into the world. 51In the meditation of the
Great Calm the Buddha whose countenance is glorious,
commendeth the most excellent wisdom of Ananda for
that he asked the way of knowledge, desiring to be
instructed. 52That Buddha that was made flesh in India was
in this world manifested that he might preach the Divine
Promise of Him who is Infinite. Hard is it to see the hidden
blossom of the myriad-century-blooming Lotus, so hard
also is it for a man’s understanding to receive the message
of that Blessed One.
53
Ten Kalpas of Ages have rolled away since He who is
Infinite attained unto the Wisdom, yet before the myriads
of the Kalpas He was. 54He who is of the Light Ineffable,
Holiest Refuge of men, ordaining that His saving grace
should be made manifest, duly considered all the worlds of
the Ten …
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