attached is the discussion instructions as well as the required reading materials (chapters 4,5,and 6). There is also a required article and video which the link is attached in the instructions. please let me know if you have trouble opening the links.
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Read Chapters 4, 5, and 6 of the textbook, Chapter Nine of The Jungle, and watch To Conquer or
Sinclair, U. (1905). Chapter nine. The Jungle. Retrieved from
Wood, S. (Writer & Producer). (2010). To conquer or redeem [Series episode]. In G. Lucas
(Executive producer), Manifest Destiny. Retrieved from
As you learn about American Imperialism and the Progressive Era, think about the relationship
between these two historical developments, comparing and contrasting Progressive policies at
home with their policies abroad.
Consider the areas of American society and economy in need of reform during the first two
decades of the 20th century. Think about the domestic issues on which the Progressive
Movement focused, such as food safety, workerâ??s safety, womenâ??s rights, economic inequality,
and taxes. Evaluate their approach to these issues.
Think about the factors that contributed to American Imperialism and Americaâ??s expanding role
in the world. Consider the importance of the expansion of the Navy, the technological
advancements, the need for markets brought on by the Industrial Revolution, and the experience
of the peoples in Americaâ??s imperial holdings. Take the time to notice President Theodore
Rooseveltâ??s role in promoting American Imperialism. Consider the stances that progressives took
on various issues, were these stances consistent with the practice of imperialism?
After reading Chapters 4, 5, and 6 of the textbook, Chapter Nine of The Jungle, and watching To
Conquer or Redeem ,use these sources and the textbook to address the following questions:
Analyze the areas that were in need of reform in American Society during the period
between 1890 and 1920. Choose one specific issue to focus on.
Describe how progressives tried to resolve this issue. Were they successful? Explain why
or why not.
Examine the approaches progressives took regarding American foreign policy, including
the policy of Imperialism. Explain these approaches.
Explain why the progressive approach to reform at home was or was not consistent with
the practice of imperialism overseas.
Your initial post should be at least 250 words in length. Your post should make reference to the
required materials with in-text citations.
America on the World Stage
This illustration from 1900 shows Uncle Sam standing
between departing American soldiers and American
missionaries who are arriving to Westernize the Filipino
people. The United States annexed the Philippines as
part of the treaty ending the Spanishâ??American War.
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ï»¿American Lives: Liliuokalani
1. U.S. imperialism resulted in the annexation or control of Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and the
2. Though Secretary of State John Hay called the Spanishâ??American War a â??splendid little
warâ? in which the United States won, it resulted in no significant land gains for the
3. The main commodity traded between the United States and Cuba was cotton. T/F
4. The American Anti-Imperialist League managed to prevent the United States from
annexing territory after the Spanishâ??American War. T/F
5. William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer provoked American support for
intervention in Cuba with the publication of sensational newspaper articles about
atrocities in Cuba. T/F
Answers can be found at the end of the chapter.
By the end of this chapter, you should be able to:
Define imperialism and explain its significance in the late 19th century.
Discuss how issues of race influenced how some Americans and Europeans perceived
Understand how the Monroe Doctrine shaped U.S. foreign policy.
Explore the different ways the United States practiced imperialism.
Consider the ways that new technology and means of communication influenced
Explore how American interactions on the world stage changed or developed once the
nation possessed an â??empire.â?
American Lives: Queen Liliuokalani
European explorers had visited Hawaii on numerous occasions during the age of exploration,
discovering a lush paradise and a native population of Polynesian descent. British adventurer
James Cook dubbed the island chain the Sandwich Islands after his sponsor, the Earl of Sandwich, and published multiple accounts of his visits in 1778 and 1779. Early in the 19th century,
American missionaries arrived. They established schools and, working among the local inhabitants, brought Western culture and customs to the nation located about 2,000 miles southwest of
the U.S. mainland. In many ways American cultural imperialism, the policy of extending power
and influence, touched Hawaii long before the age of expansion in the late 19th century.
Americans also held dominant economic and political interests in the islands that evolved into
almost total control by 1890. Starting in the 1840s some saw Hawaii as a natural Pacific outpost
for America, and in 1842 President John Tyler declared that the United States would protect its
independence against foreign threats. Significant production of cane sugar made the islands an
important trading partner. By 1890 nearly all of Hawaiiâ??s exports were bound for the United
States, and more than three fourths of its imported goods originated there (Osborne, 1981).
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ï»¿American Lives: Liliuokalani
A number of American missionaries and business agents, organized into a special legislative
council, became leading advisers to the Hawaiian rulers. Missionaries denigrated Hawaiian culture and even convinced the monarch to denounce the traditional hula dance as â??pagan, sinful,
and a breeding place for lustâ? (Lyons, 2012, p. 35). Many Americans, especially those with economic ties to Hawaii, came to argue that it was only logical that the island nation be annexed to
the United States.
When Liliuokalani, the last sovereign ruler of Hawaii, inherited the crown from her brother in
1891, she faced rapidly expanding American intervention in her nationâ??s affairs. The foreigners
had forced a new national constitution, dubbed the â??Bayonet Constitution,â? on the islands, stripping the monarchy of authority and elevating mostly American businessmen to positions of
power. White residents could vote, but most native Hawaiians lost the franchise. Two years later
American interests launched a revolution to oust Queen Liliuokalani from power and annex
Hawaii to the United States.
Liliuokalaniâ??s brief 2-year reign ended, and after
a bitter struggle Hawaii became a territory of the
United States in 1898 (Osborne, 1981). The annexation of Hawaii was one among many moves undertaken by Americans at the turn of the 20th century
as the nation sought to assert its power beyond its
shores. Although the United States decried the actions
of European nations as they took over significant
parts of Africa and Asia, it engaged in its own form
of imperialism, exercising its influence over foreign
lands through diplomatic or military force.
Liliuokalani, who was born in Honolulu in 1838, grew
up between the two worlds of traditional Hawaii and
modernizing America. As was the custom, showing
goodwill and reinforcing bonds between families, the
advisor to the Hawaiian king and his wife adopted
her. In Hawaiian and other Polynesian cultures, it was
considered a show of great respect to practice hanai,
the adoption of anotherâ??s child. Lydia, as she was
known, attended missionary schools, where she studied the English language and American culture from
an early age. As a youth she spent time at the court
of King Kamehameha IV, where she was groomed to
inherit the crown. Unlike hereditary monarchies, the
Hawaiian leader could be chosen, and the nationâ??s
legislature legitimized the leaderâ??s rule.
Queen Liliuokalani was the last
sovereign ruler of Hawaii. Her nation
was annexed to the United States
As a young woman, Liliuokalani toured the Hawaiian Islands with her American-born husband,
John Owen Dominis, meeting the men and women who would one day be her subjects. The couple
also made several ventures abroad. In 1887 they traveled to London, where they joined in the
celebration of Queen Victoriaâ??s golden jubilee and were received as royalty. Showing the close
association between Hawaii and the United States, Liliuokalani also visited Washington, D.C.,
where she and her husband met with President Grover Cleveland in the White House.
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The New Imperialism
Once she became queen, Liliuokalani tried to use the traditional power of the Hawaiian monarch to implement a new constitution that would restore balance between native islanders and
the newcomers. These efforts failed, and in the midst of an attempted counterrevolution, she was
arrested and convicted of fostering armed rebellion. Initially sentenced to 5 years of hard labor,
she eventually endured 1 year of house arrest. Her confinement paved the way for her opponents
to abolish the monarchy and establish a republic that eventually supported U.S. annexation.
Liliuokalani spent her remaining years in Honolulu, working to preserve traditional Hawaiian culture, writing songs and establishing a special childrenâ??s trust. Reluctantly accepting the
changes that annexation brought, she offered her people a positive role model as she graciously
forgave her enemies and continued to celebrate Hawaiiâ??s traditional past (Garraty & Carnes,
1999). She died in Honolulu in 1917.
For further thought:
1. Why might Americans have held conflicting views on expansion and imperialism?
2. How would you describe the American approach to imperialism?
4.1 The New Imperialism
The industrialization of the last quarter of the 19th century coincided with an era of expansion during which European nations and Japan extended and consolidated their empires.
Known as the new imperialism, and lasting into the first decades of the 20th century, it
was a time marked by the relentless pursuit of overseas territories. Established nations used
new technologies to make their empires more valuable through territorial conquest and the
exploitation of natural resources. Despite many Americansâ?? objections that imperialism was
incompatible with the nationâ??s values, the United States also established an empire in this
era by annexing Hawaii, establishing a permanent presence in Cuba, and taking control of the
Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico.
World Grab for Colonies
Americans watched as one European nation after another expanded its empire. Portugal and
Spain had amassed large empires as early as the 15th and 16th centuries, but by the mid-19th
century Great Britain was the dominant colonial power. The possessor of the worldâ??s largest
navy, Britain also had a long history of colonization, beginning with Ireland and America in
the 16th century. After losing its 13 American colonies, Britain turned toward colonizing
parts of Asia, particularly India, and in the late 19th century its empire expanded across the
African continent as well. In what became known as the â??scramble for Africaâ? other European
nationsâ??including Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, and Portugalâ??joined the
British in carving up the continent between 1881 and 1914 (see Figure 4.1).
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The New Imperialism
Figure 4.1: Colonial claims, 1900
This map outlines the colonial claims in Africa and Asia in 1900. Africa and significant parts of Asia
allowed European empires to grow. Some thought the Americans should also seek to claim new territory.
E M P I R E
C H I N A
I A N
Tropic of Cancer
PH ILIP P IN ES
PA C I F I C
Territory controlled by:
Tropic of Capricorn
in Africa and Asia
The French also expanded into Southeast Asia, gaining control of nations such as Vietnam,
Cambodia, and Laos. The Russians pushed out from their existing borders to extend their
influence in the Middle East and Far East. Even the Japanese, who had historically shied away
from relations with the outside world, began to aggressively pursue the extension of their
borders. Beginning by conquering nearby islands such as Okinawa and the Kurils, by 1894
Japan waged war against China for control of Korea and Taiwan.
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The New Imperialism
The imperial thrust of European and Asian nations reflected patterns and rivalries established
centuries before, such as the many historical conflicts between France and Great Britain. But
there was a novel and urgent dimension to the new imperialism as well, including a turn
toward modernity and especially industrialization. Economic growth and industrial production created dual demands for raw materials and new markets for manufactured goods and
agricultural products. Capitalists invested surplus funds in developing nations and expected
their business interests to be protected there in return. Technology and capital thus contributed to bigger and more effective navies, which in turn required colonial outposts to serve as
fueling stations and bases of operation.
The periodâ??s revival of evangelical religion also drove overseas expansion by Europeans and
Americans. Missionaries often preceded imperial expansion. Seeking to spread Christianity
and to bring education, medical care, and other important services to the people of Asia and
Africa, missionary groups established schools such as the one Liliuokalani attended as a girl
in Hawaii. Missionaries believed their own cultures and ways of life were superior, and most
showed little interest or respect for the institutions and cultures of indigenous people. In
some cases, such as in Hawaii, they criticized existing religions and cultural practices and
encouraged Christian converts to abandon indigenous means of worship, dance, and even
food preparation (Chaudhuri & Strobel, 1992).
Race, Gender, and the Ideology of Expansion
The insensitivity of imperialists spread beyond a disregard for native peoplesâ?? practices and
cultures. Some viewed the darker skinned inhabitants of Asia and Africa as racially and intellectually inferior to Whites, arguing that colonizing less developed areas of the world was
justified because the native inhabitants were weaker and unfit to survive. This inferiority supposedly made it acceptable to seize land and natural resources and to take political control
without consultation. Ideologies like Social Darwinism (see Chapter 2), which played a role
in exacerbating racial tensions in the United States during the late 19th century, were also
linked to worldwide imperialist expansion.
In 1899 British author Rudyard Kipling penned â??The White Manâ??s Burden,â? a poem that
reflected on European imperialism and offered an important message to Americans who
were just then embarking on their own expansionist agenda:
Take up the White Manâ??s burden, Send forth the best ye breed
Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captivesâ?? need;
To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wildâ??
Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child.
(Kipling, 1899, lns. 1-8)
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The New Imperialism
Originally penned for another occasion, upon the U.S. annexation of the Philippines, Kipling
reworked the seven-stanza poem to align with current events. The poem suggests that providing noble service to the inhabitants of the developing world justified the desire for empire.
Viewed as a benevolent enterprise, imperialism also made the domination of another nationâ??s
economic and political structure seem necessary and helpful (Love, 2004).
Notions of race and Social Darwinism fueled the opponents of expansion, or anti-imperialists,
in the United States as well. Many argued that annexing foreign territories, thus adding large
numbers of non-Whites to the nation, would degrade the countryâ??s Anglo-Saxon heritage. In
the late 19th century, the nation was already struggling to assimilate eastern and southern
European immigrants arriving in waves to fill industrial jobs. Jim Crow laws restricted the
rights of African Americans in the South, and customary segregation policies separated the
races in other parts of the country. The anti-imperialists believed that, rather than the nation
lifting colonized people up, these non-White masses would drag the nation down.
Other anti-imperialists, such as those who formed the American Anti-Imperialist League in
1899, decried the forcible subjugation of any nation or people as a violation of American democratic principles. Among league members were prominent Americans from politics, business, and the arts, including Grover Cleveland, Samuel Gompers, Andrew Carnegie, and Mark
Twain (Manning & Wyatt, 2011). The organization formally protested American imperialistic
ideology and actions, and it planned to oppose politically â??all who in the White House or in
Congress betray American liberty in pursuit of un-American endsâ? (American Anti-Imperialist League, 1899, p. 7). The league demanded that American politicians â??support and defend
the Declaration of Independenceâ? (American Anti-Imperialist League, 1899, p. 7), which it
believed imperialism disgraced.
The complex ideologies surrounding American expansion also included an important gender component. Imperialists drew on gender and conceptions of American masculinity to
build a strong political coalition that supported expansion. The idea that imperialism followed a manly course of action to increase American strength around the globe attracted
men from disparate parts of society despite their economic, political, and regional divisions
Many also associated anti-imperialism with militarism and war, long the domain of men.
The American Anti-Imperialist League, for example, welcomed membership, donations,
and other forms of support from women but did not encourage their access to leadership positions. Strong male personalities dominated the ideology of both imperialism and
its opposition. Chicago settlement house worker Jane Addams, for example, was the only
woman associated with the Central Anti-Imperialist League, one of three groups that combined to create the national league. Later, though, women did lead in gender integrated
and all-female peace and anti-imperial organizations. More localized bodiesâ??such as the
Northampton, New Hampshire, leagueâ??even encouraged female officers on its executive
committee (Cullinane, 2012).
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The American Empire
4.2 The American Empire
Manifest Destiny, the idea that the United States had a divine responsibility and right to
spread democratic settlement, temporarily lost momentum once the American frontier filled
in with American settlement. Between 1865 and roughly 1880, the United States took a
largely isolationist, or uninvolved, approach toward the rest of the world. Most American
citizens and policy makers focused inward as the nation industrialized and moved toward the
development of modern institutions.
But in the late 19th century, as they watched their own frontier fade and European nations
and Japan build ever-growing empires, many Americans again clamored for U.S. expansion,
with special emphasis on the Western Hemisphere. A new form of Manifest Destiny with an
undefined frontier came t …
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