attached is the instructions and required reading material. There is also an article that is required to be read which i have provided the link to in the instructions. let me know if you have any questions.
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Read Chapters 1, 2, and 3 of your textbook.
Read the Irish Stereotype. article thoroughly.
Choose the group that you plan to focus on during this course and in your Final Project.
You must choose from the groups listed below:
o African Americans
o Native Americans/American Indians
Link to Irish stereotype article:
Walfred, M. (2014). Irish stereotype. Retrieved from https://thomasnastcartoons.com/irishcatholic-cartoons/irish-stereotype/
Reflect on the restrictions and beliefs based on race, gender, ethnicity, and national origin
that were common in American society during the last half of the 1800s.
Think about the changes (both positive and negative) that came about as a result of the
industrial revolution and westward expansion.
Think about how discrimination shaped the experiences of each group. What particular
challenges and opportunities did each group confront during this period?
How did your chosen group impact the history of this period?
Include your chosen group in your discussion title. Based on the chapters in your textbook and
the required exhibit, answer the following:
What are some of the ways that restrictions and beliefs based on race, ethnicity, gender,
and national origin shaped American society in the latter half of the 1800s?
Assess how these restrictions shaped your chosen groupâ??s experience of the industrial
revolution and/or westward expansion.
Explain the changes that members of your chosen group made possible during this
Your initial post should be at least 250 words in length. Your post should make reference to the
required materials with in-text citations.
The Expanding West
Art Resource, NY
Appearing in western travel guidebooks, this
lithograph of John Gastâ??s painting American Progress
depicts the press of westward settlement and the
passage of time. It embodies the themes in Frederick
Jackson Turnerâ??s essay outlining the importance of the
frontier in American history.
12/15/14 8:22 AM
American Lives: Sitting Bull and the American West
1. The Transcontinental Railroad followed a path along the southern United States to link
east and west in 1869. T/F
2. Buffalo hunting was one of the ways that westward migrants from the United States
destroyed Native American culture. T/F
3. The Apache wars with Geronimo were the culminating conflicts between Native
Americans and the United States that took place between 1878 and 1886. T/F
4. Chinese immigrants provided much-needed labor in California mining communities and
the construction of the Transcontinental Railroad. T/F
5. Open range ranching, in which cattle grazed at their own pace over thousands of open
acres, lasted well into the 20th century. T/F
Answers can be found at the end of the chapter.
By the end of this chapter, you should be able to:
Compare and contrast the diversity of settlement across the Great Plains and Southwest.
Explain how the growth of the western economy and technologies such as the railroad
affected business opportunities and settlersâ?? livelihoods.
Describe the source of settler and Native American conflicts and explain why the
encroachment of White settlement was so devastating to Native American cultures.
Explain the ways that the concept of the western frontier has figured into American
American Lives: Sitting Bull and the American West
Sitting Bull was born on the northern Great Plains (in present-day South Dakota) in about 1831.
He distinguished himself as an accomplished buffalo hunter and warrior among the Hunkpapa,
part of the seven-tribe confederacy that made up the Western Sioux, or Lakota, and his brave
record and high rank among his people led to his designation as a war chief. Also a holy man
responsible for his peopleâ??s spiritual well-being, Sitting Bull initially encouraged the Lakota to
interact with White Americans who sought to trade and barter with Native Americans at various trading posts established along the Missouri River.
However, as increasingly more White traders, and the U.S. Army, moved into the region, relations
between the Lakota and the Americans worsened. Discovery of gold in the Dakota Territory and
western Montana in 1874, and the gold rush that followed, led to a series of battles that resulted
in the cession of many Native American lands and the confinement of Native Americans onto
designated reservations on the Great Plains. Sitting Bull emerged as the leader of all the tribes
and bands who refused to sign treaties with the U.S. government. He became a symbol of Native
Americansâ?? final resistance to the encroachment of White settlement.
12/15/14 8:22 AM
American Lives: Sitting Bull and the American West
Sitting Bull and his followers adopted a defensive
strategy and experienced significant victories in
keeping the army at bay. In June 1876 he oversaw the
warriors who decimated Lt. Col. George Armstrong
Custer and his cavalry regiment at the Battle of Little Big Horn, in eastern Montana territory, in which
Custer and 262 of his men died. In the aftermath,
however, the army gained the upper hand in the conflict. Sitting Bull fled to Canada with many of his followers, but when he returned to the United States, he
was arrested and jailed for 2 years.
Universal Images Group/SuperStock
Hunkpapa Lakota spiritual and war
leader Sitting Bull is best remembered
for his role overseeing the defeat of
the U.S. Army at the Battle of Little
Big Horn in 1876. An advocate of the
peaceful Ghost Dance movement, he
nevertheless came to symbolize
hostility in the eyes of Whites.
Upon his release, Sitting Bull tried to comply with
the governmentâ??s assimilation program by briefly
becoming a farmer. The arid plains environment
made farming without irrigation nearly impossible,
however, and his crops failed. Despondent that the
traditional Native American lifestyle was no longer
an option, Sitting Bull grasped for any opportunity to
earn a living. He traveled for a season as a performer
in Buffalo Bill Codyâ??s Wild West Show, reenacting his
peoplesâ?? defeat for White audiences in the eastern
United States and Europe. Although the experience
proved painful and humiliating, he endured multiple
performances before crowds who came to see an
authentic Native American.
When a new religious movement known as the Ghost
Dance gained popularity among the Lakota, Sitting
Bull once again became a target of government concern. Officials saw him as an apostle of the movement, which envisioned Native American sovereignty and prosperity and strove for the decline
of White control, and they issued orders for his arrest. On December 15, 1890, a conflict erupted
between police and Sitting Bullâ??s supporters, resulting in the death of one of the arresting officers and Sitting Bull himself (Anderson, 1996).
Sitting Bullâ??s death signaled that Native American resistance was near its end. The lands that
Sitting Bull and other Native American tribes sought to defend embodied â??the West,â? that vast
space in which industrialization, adventurism, discrimination, and technology coalesced to forever change the United States.
For further thought:
1. Why did some among the Lakota continue to resist the incursion of Americans in the
West even after many of their people had moved to reservations?
2. Why did the American government perceive Sitting Bull as a threat?
1/9/15 9:00 AM
1.1 Western Settlement
When European settlement began on the Atlantic coast in the 17th and 18th centuries, the
western frontier was Ohio and the Old Northwest. For the Spanish explorers arriving in the
South and West, the frontier was not the west but the northern region of Native American
cultures and French and English settlement. Beyond the colonial period, as American settlement moved to fill up the land beyond the Atlantic coast, the West moved as well. The Old
Northwest became the Midwest and the frontier pushed on to the Great Plains, to the lands
that Sitting Bull and other Native Americans called home.
Urged forward by new technologies such as the railroad, mechanized farming equipment, and
barbed wire, and supported by entrepreneurs and industrialists, Americans filled in the frontier, that region of territory stretching west of the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, by the
end of the 19th century. The Lakota and other Plains tribes had first encountered American
settlers as they pushed west in wagons on overland trails, but after the Civil War a rapid boom
in railroad construction accelerated the process that exchanged Native American villages and
hunting grounds for American farms, ranches, and towns.
The rapid western population growth that filled in the frontier could not have happened
without the railroad. Only about 50,000 Americans migrated to the Southwest after westward
trails were opened in the 1840s, but the floodgates opened when a westward railroad connection was completed in 1869 and migrants could ride the railroad westward (Hine & Faragher,
2007). In the 19th century the railroad symbolized American commercial and technological
development. It was an icon of a new way of life and became a focus of some of the most
eloquent writers of the day. In 1855 Walt Whitman, in Leaves of Grass, made this observation
about the railroad in America:
I see over my own continent the Pacific railroad surmounting every barrier.
I see continual trains of cars winding along the Platte carrying freight and
passengers. I hear locomotives rushing and roaring, the shrill steam-whistle.
I hear the echoes reverberate through the grandest scenery in the world.
The railroad also symbolized the new connectedness in America, since it united various parts
of the nation like never before. The Transcontinental Railroad, constructed between 1863
and 1869, linked two major railroad construction projects, finally connecting the nation from
east to west. Newly arrived immigrants, Chinese workers moving out of the mining fields, and
large numbers of Mormons provided the bulk of the arduous labor required to clear land, lay
track, and tunnel through mountains. By 1900 there were 200,000 miles of railroad track in
the United States (White, 2012).
12/15/14 8:22 AM
Railroad construction was difficult
and exhausting, but many immigrant workers found it provided an
opportunity to earn enough money
to return to their homeland and live
richly. Chinese railroad laborer We
Wen Tan helped construct the railroad that moved eastward from
California to Utah. He was present
at the symbolic moment on May 10,
1869, when the Union Pacific and
the Central Pacific Railroads met at
Promontory Point in Utah. Upon its
completion, he returned to his home
village in China with the equivalent
of $10,000, considered a fortune at
the time. He built a large home and
eventually sent his son to the United
States (Chinese Railroad Workers in
North America Project, 2014).
Coal-fired steam engines powered late 19th-century
railroads across America.
Homesteaders and Immigrant Farmers on the Great Plains
Another factor contributing to westward expansion was the Homestead Act. Passed by Congress in 1862 in the midst of the Civil War, the Homestead Act granted 160 acres of land in
the public domain to any settler who lived on it for 5 years and improved it by building a
house and plowing. The law reinforced the 19th-century belief in free labor (the notion that
one could make free employment choice), and that the ownership of land defined American
success. Proponents of the free labor ideology linked property ownership and hard work to
independence and the rights of citizenship, and the terms of the Homestead Act enabled thousands of Americans to pursue these values.
The first settlers to take advantage of the Homestead Act had settled in the central and upper
Midwest, where soil was rich and farming relatively easy. But by the late 1870s and 1880s,
those seeking land were forced to look to the Great Plains, where arid soil, native grasses,
and a harsh climate made earning a living off the land more difficult. In the short term the
struggles of homesteading the Plains were eased by a multiyear wet cycle in the climate during these years. Above-average rainfall attracted thousands of farmers to settle in the region
that had been called â??The Great American Desertâ? just a generation before. In 1886, though,
the cycle suddenly reversed. Drought lasted through the mid-1890s, driving half the populations of western Kansas and Nebraska to abandon their farms and move back east (Hine &
12/15/14 8:22 AM
Some homesteaders did succeed on the Plains, however. John Bakken, the son of Norwegian
immigrants, moved with his family to Milton, North Dakota, to claim a plot of land. There he
met and married Marget Axvig, a Norwegian immigrant, who helped him settle a homestead
in Silvesta Township, North Dakota. Indeed, although western settlement and farming is often
described as a male activity, women were essential to the success of homesteads and ranches.
In addition to domestic work, western women often became entrepreneurs or worked for
wages, providing capital needed for their own and their familiesâ?? survival. Women also played
key roles in community building in the West, founding schools and other public institutions
(Moynihan, Armitage, & Dichamp, 1998). John and Marget constructed a sod house, where
they raised their two children, Tilda and Eddie. A colorized photograph of the family later
became the basis of a postage stamp commemorating the Homestead Act.
Although taking advantage of the government land program was one way to populate the frontier, it was the railroads that were most active in the settlement of the Great Plains. Thanks to
government grants issued to encourage their growth, western railroad lines controlled large
tracts of land. Some settlers purchased land from the railroad in addition to claiming land
under the federal homestead program. Railroad executives were eager to build settlement
along their lines, and in doing so they increased the diversity of the regionâ??s population.
Agents for some of the railroads enticed easterners and even European immigrants with
offers of cheap land on credit and free transportation on the railroad line. Other railroads
sponsored or organized settlements. One railroad company sent agents to Germany, where
they recruited as many as 60,000 people to settle along the Santa Fe Railway line. Another
railroad organized a company that established 16 settlements in Kansas and Colorado. The
largest numbers of immigrants were of German extraction, but significant populations also
came from Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Denmark. Other immigrants came on their own or
in patterns of chain migration following family or other contacts. More than 2 million European immigrants located in the Great Plains between 1870 and 1900 (Hudson, 1985).
Farming on the Great Plains was hard work and required the cooperative effort of all family members. Fathers and sons did the heavy fieldwork of plowing, planting, and harvesting.
Women grew vegetables, tended chickens, made butter and cheese, and preserved food for
the winter months. Children were also expected to contribute to the household economy by
participating in farming chores such as milking the cows or baling hay. As the farming economy grew more competitive, and farm size reduced due to repeated division among heirs,
older children often left the farm to seek wage labor in urban areas, with the expectation that
part of their wages would be used to help with family expenses. By the late 1880s American farmers had to respond to a multitude of changes in order to compete in the emerging
national and global marketplace for agricultural products.
The Southwestern Frontier
The southwestern frontier encompassed the states and territories that stretched along the
1,500-mile border with Mexico, including California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, as well
as Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, and Colorado (see Figure 1.1). Much of the territory had once
been part of Spainâ??s colonial empire. Texas became part of the United States in 1845, and the
United States annexed the rest of the region as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo,
which ended the Mexican War of 1846 to 1848.
12/15/14 8:22 AM
Figure 1.1: Map of the Southwest
American settlement encroached on the lands of the Native Americans of the Great Plains, Southwest,
and Far West. Once the American frontier was officially closed in 1890, these native peoples lost their
lands and strove to preserve their cultural traditions.
12/15/14 8:22 AM
American expansionism encountered a mix of existing Latino and Native American cultures
and societies in the Southwest. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo had transferred more than
half of Mexico to the United States, and the Southwest remained a region that connected people and communities; migrants and trade moved fluidly between the two nations, establishing a pattern that persists well into the 21st century.
In Texas, ranching and staple crops such as cotton formed the economic base, and like residents of other former slave states, Texans struggled with the economic and social problems
of the Reconstruction era. A highly stratified society elevated Americans and descendants of
Spaniards, especially those with large landholdings, above the bulk of farm laborers, cowboys, and craft workers.
New Mexicoâ??s inhabitants were more
likely to be mestizo, a mix of Native
American and Latino descent, who
spoke Spanish and worshipped in the
Roman Catholic Church. New Mexico, and to a certain degree Arizona,
represented an area of the frontier
where American and Native American cultures faced less direct conflict,
and Native Americans there were not
subjected to the federal land allotment policies that severely reduced
the landholdings of Native Americans
elsewhere in the West. Although the
Underwood Photo Archives/SuperStock
Pueblo tribes persisted in the SouthMining in the Far West drew a diverse population.
west, surviving as craft workers and
Russian, Chinese, Native American, and African
sheep herders, in the spring of 1864
American residents often lived and worked side by
bands of the Navajo people endured
side, as pictured here.
what became known as the Long Walk,
a forced deportation from their reservati …
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