josie king case analyse

HCMN 435â?? Patient Safety Case Analysis Paper – Instructions Instructions: First read the case you have chosen from the case repository on blackboard thoroughly AND review the â??Learning from Defectsâ? tool provided. This tool was developed and adapted by the Quality and Safety Research Group led by Professor Pronovost et al to help health care providers identify and learn from defects utilizing a systems approach. The contributory factors framework helps providers gain a deeper appreciation of harm as it occurs usually due to breakdown of systems (multiple factors).It steers clear of blame and punitive behavior and encourages teams to focus on learning. Attempt ALL four questions in response to the case provided below as though you are part of the team investigating.What happened, why (contributory factors), key contributory factors that led to the event. Be sure to categorize your contributory factors into patient factors, caregiver factors, task, teamwork and communication etc.Please use QI tools such as flow chart, cause and effect/fishbone and pareto charts to justify your interventions.These charts should be part of your appendices.Suggest interventions so that such events will not occur in the future (be sure that the interventions you suggest address the key contributory factors).Then provide measures that you will assess to know if your suggested interventions are working.Assume that you have implemented your recommendations. How will you know that these worked to reduce/eliminate risk? What measures would help confirm improvements.Please include an abstract as your first page and include titles and sub-titles (e.g. what happened, why (contributory factors), key contributory factors etc. Try to be objective and use facts from the case. It is recommended that you take time reading the case and ascertain key contributory factors prior to suggesting any intervention. You may use additional sheets of paper to make rough notes, provide your rationale for choices/additional descriptions, flow chart etc. You should prepare an outline first for your case analysis.Feel free to visit your instructor during office hours for any questions that you may have concerning this assignment. Format and page length: APA 6.0 format, and between 6-8 pages excluding appendices and cover pageâ?? see syllabus for other details. Grading Rubric:Your responses will be graded on the basis of clarity of thought, originality, accuracy and specificity of content, and the approach utilized in analyzing the defect and providing recommendations. Possible maximum points by question: Question # 1 (10 points), Question # 2 (40 points), Question # 3 (40 points), Question # 4 (10 points). Total = 100 points


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Learning from Defects
Problem Statement: Healthcare organizations could increase the extent to which they learn from defects.
We define learning as reducing the probability that a future patient will be harmed. Most often clinicians
recover from mistakes by reducing risks to the patient who suffered a defect. While we need to recover, we
also need to learn or reduce risk to future patients.
What is a Defect? A defect is any clinical or operational event or situation that you would not want to
happen again. These could include incidents that you believe caused patient harm or put patients at risk for
significant harm.
Purpose of Tool: The purpose of this tool is to provide a structured approach to help caregivers and
administrators identify the types of systems that contributed to the defect and follow-up to ensure safety
improvements are achieved.
Who Should Use this Tool:
â?ª Clinical departmental designee at Morbidity & Mortality Rounds
â?ª Patient care areas as part of the Comprehensive Unit Based Safety Program (CUSP)
All staff involved in the delivery of care related to this defect should be present when this defect is
evaluated. At a minimum, this should include the physician, nurse and administrator and other selected
professions as appropriate (e.g. medication defect include pharmacy, equipment defect should include
clinical engineering).
Investigation Process
How to Use this Tool: Complete this tool on at least one defect per month. In addition, departments
should investigate all of the following defects: liability claims, sentinel events, events for which risk
management is notified, case presented at Morbidity & Mortality rounds and healthcare acquired infections.
Investigation Process
I. Provide a clear, thorough and objective explanation of what happened.
II. Review the list of factors that contributed to the incident and check off those that negatively
contributed and positively contributed to the impact of the incident. Negative contributing factors are
those that harmed or increased risk of harm for the patient; positive contributing factors limited the impact
of harm. Rate the most important contributing factors that relate to the incident.
III. Describe how you will reduce the likelihood of this defect happening again by completing the tables.
Develop interventions for each important contributing factor and rate each intervention for its ability to
mitigate the defect and ability to be implemented. Identify 2-5 interventions that you will implement.
List what you will do, who will lead the intervention, and when you will follow-up on the interventionâ??s
IV. Describe how you know you have reduced the risk. Survey frontline staff involved in the incident to
determine if the intervention has been implemented effectively and risk has been reduced.
V. Summarize your findings using the one page Case Summary tool (Appendix F).
I. What happened? (Reconstruct the timeline and explain what happened. For this
investigation, put yourself in the place of those involved, in the middle of the event as
it was unfolding, to understand what they were thinking and the reasoning behind
their actions/decisions. Try to view the world as they did when the event occurred.)
II. Why did it happen? Below is a framework to help you review and evaluate
your case. Please read each contributing factor and evaluate whether it was involved.
If so, did it negatively contribute (increase harm) or positively contributed (reduce
impact of harm) to the incident. Rate the most important contributing factors that
relate to this event.
Contributing Factors (Example)
Patient Factors:
Patient was acutely ill or agitated (Elderly patient in renal failure, secondary to congestive heart
There was a language barrier (Patient did not speak English)
There were personal or social issues (Patient declined therapy)
Task Factors:
Was there a protocol available to guide therapy? (Protocol for mixing medication
concentrations is posted above the medication bin.)
Were test results available to help make care decision? (Stat blood glucose results were sent
in 20 minutes.)
Were tests results accurate? (Four diagnostic tests done; only MRI results needed quicklyâ??results
Contributing Factors (Example)
Caregiver Factors
Was the caregiver fatigued? (Tired at the end of a double shift, nurse forgot to take a blood
pressure reading.)
Did the caregiverâ??s outlook/perception of own professional role impact on this event?
(Doctor followed up to make sure cardiac consult was done expeditiously.)
Was the physical or mental health of the provider a factor? (Provider having personal issues
and missed hearing a verbal order.)
Team Factors
Was verbal or written communication during hand offs clear, accurate, clinically
relevant and goal directed? (Oncoming care team was debriefed by out-going staff regarding
patientâ??s condition.)
Was verbal or written communication during care clear, accurate, clinically relevant
and goal directed? (Staff was comfortable expressing his/her concern regarding high medication
Was verbal or written communication during crisis clear, accurate, clinically relevant
and goal directed? (Team leader quickly explained and direct his/her team regarding the plan of
Was there a cohesive team structure with an identified and communicative leader?
(Attending physician gave clear instructions to the team.)
Training & Education Factors
Was provider knowledgeable, skilled & competent? (Nurse knew dose ordered was not
standard for that medication.)
Did provider follow the established protocol? (Provider pulled protocol to ensure steps were
Did the provider seek supervision or help? (New nurse asked preceptor to help her/him mix
medication concentration)
Information Technology/CPOE Factors
Did the computer/software program generate an error? (Heparin was chosen, but Digoxin
printed on the order sheet.)
Did the computer/software malfunction? (Computer shut down in the middle of providerâ??s order
Did the user check what he/she entered to make sure it was correct? (Provider initially
chose .25mg, but caught his/her error and changed it to .025mg.)
Local Environment
Was there adequate equipment available and was the equipment working properly?
(There were 2 extra ventilators stocked & recently serviced by clinical engineering.)
Was there adequate operational (administrative and managerial) support? (Unit clerk out
sick, but extra clerk sent to cover from another unit.)
Was the physical environment conducive to enhancing patient care? (All beds were visible
from the nurseâ??s station.)
Was there enough staff on the unit to care for patient volume? (Nurse ratio was 1:1.)
Was there a good mix of skilled with new staff? (There was a nurse orientee shadowing a
senior nurse and an extra nurse on to cover senior nurseâ??s responsibilities.)
Did workload impact the provision of good care? (Nurse caring for 3 patients because nurse
went home sick.)
Institutional Environment
Were adequate financial resources available? (Unit requested experienced patient transport
team for critically patients and one was made available the next day.)
Were laboratory technicians adequately in-serviced/ educated? (Lab tech was fully aware of
complications related to thallium injection.)
Contributing Factors (Example)
Was there adequate staffing in the laboratory to run results? (There were 3 dedicated
laboratory technicians to run stat results.)
Were pharmacists adequately in-service/educated? (Pharmacists knew and followed the
protocol for stat medication orders.)
Did pharmacy have a good infrastructure (policy, procedures)? (It was standard policy to
have a second pharmacist do an independent check before dispensing medications.)
Was there adequate pharmacy staffing? (There was a pharmacist dedicated to the ICU.)
Does hospital administration work with the units regarding what and how to support
their needs? (Guidelines established to hold new ICU admissions in the ER when beds not available
in the ICU.)
Review the above list of contributing factors and identify the most important factors
related to this event. Rate each contributing factor on its importance to this event and
future events.
to current
event, 1 (low)
to 5 (high)
Contributing Factors
to future
events, 1
(low) to 5
III. How will you reduce the likelihood of this defect happening again? Develop
an intervention for each of the important contributing factors identified above.
Develop interventions to defend against the 2 to 5 most important contributing
factors. Refer to the Strength of Interventions* chart below for examples of strong
and weak interventions. Then, rate each intervention on its ability to mitigate the
contributing factor and on the teamâ??s belief that the intervention will be implemented
and executed. Make an action plan for 2-5 of the highest scoring interventions.
Interventions to reduce the risk of the defect
Ability to
mitigate the
factor, 1 (low
to 5 (high)
Teams belief
that the
will be
and executed,
1 (low) to 5
Select 2-5 of the highest scoring interventions and develop an action plan for
Specific interventions you will do to reduce the risk of the defect?
Strength of Interventions *
Intermediate Actions
Double Check Checklists/ Cognitive Aid
Warnings and
Increased Staffing/Reduce
Who will
lead this
Stronger Actions
plant changes
Tangible involvement
and action by
Follow up
or policy
Training and/or Enhance Communication
(read-back, SBAR etc.)
leadership in support
of patient safety
Simplify the
unnecessary steps
equipment and/ or
process of care map
New device usability
Study/analysis enhancement/modifications testing before
Eliminate look alike and
Engineering Control
sound- a-likes
of interlock (forcing
â?¢ Adapted from John Gosbee, MD, MS Human Factors Engineering
â?¢ Remember sometimes a weaker action is your only option.
IV. How will you know the risk is reduced? Ask frontline staff who were involved
in the defect if the interventions reduced the likelihood of recurrence of the defect.
After the interventions are implemented complete the â??Describe Defectâ? and
â??Interventionsâ? sections and have staff complete this survey by rating the
Describe Defect:
1 (low) to 5
reduced the
likelihood of
recurrence, 1
(low) to 5

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